Table of contents for Information representation and retrieval in the digital age / Heting Chu.


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Contents
Preface
Chapter 1: Information Representation and Retrieval: An Overview
1.1 History and Development of Information Representation and Retrieval
1.1.1 Major Stages
1.1.1.1 Increased Demand (1940s-early 1950s)
1.1.1.2 Rapid Growth (1950s-1980s)
1.1.1.3 Demystified Phase (1980s-1990s)
1.1.1.4 The Networked Era (1990s-present)
1.1.2 Pioneers of the Field
1.1.2.1 Mortimer Taube (1910-1965)
1.1.2.2 Hans Peter Luhn (1896-1964)
1.1.2.3 Calvin N. Mooers (1919-1994)
1.1.2.4 Gerard Salton (1927-1995)
1.2 Elaboration on Key Concepts
1.2.1 Information
1.2.2. Information Representation
1.2.3 Information Retrieval
1.2.4 Digital Age
1.3 Major Components
1.3.1 The Database
1.3.2 The Search Mechanism
1.3.3 The Language
1.3.4 The Interface
1.4 The Essential Problem in Information Representation and Retrieval
1.4.1 The Process of Information Representation and Retrieval
1.4.2 The Limits of Information Representation and Retrieval
References
Chapter 2: Information Representation I: Basic Approaches
2.1 Indexing
2.1.1 Types of Indexing
2.1.2 Automated and Automatic Indexing
2.1.3 Indexing in the Hyperstructure Environment
2.2 Categorization
2.2.1 Types of Categorization
2.2.2 Principles of Categorization
2.2.3 The Convergence of the Two Categorization Approaches
2.3 Summarization
2.3.1 Types of Summarization
2.3.1.1 Abstracts
2.3.1.2 Summaries
2.3.1.3 Extracts
2.3.2 The Issue of Representativeness
2.4 Other Methods of Information Representation
2.4.1 Citations
2.4.2 Strings
2.5 A Review of Basic Approaches to Information Representation
References
Chapter 3: Information Representation II: Other Related Topics
3.1 Metadata
3.1.1 What Is Metadata?
3.1.2 Characteristic of Digital Information on the Net
3.1.3 Examples of Metadata Standards
3.1.3.1 Dublin Core (DC)
3.1.3.2 Resource Description Framework (RDF)
3.1.4 Some Questions and Concerns about Metadata
3.2 Full-Text
3.2.1 Representation of Full-Text Information
3.2.2 Difficulties in Representing Full-Text
3.3 Representation of Multimedia Information
3.3.1. Types of Multimedia Information
3.3.2 Two Major Representation Approaches
3.3.3 Challenges in Representing Multimedia
3.4 Further Elaboration on Information Representation
References
Chapter 4: Language in Information Representation and Retrieval
4.1 Natural Language
4.2 Controlled Vocabulary
4.2.1. Thesauri
4.2.2. Subject Heading Lists
4.2.3 Classification Schemes
4.2.4 A comparison of Thesauri, Subject Heading Lists, and Classification Schemes
4.3 Natural Language vs. Controlled Vocabulary
4.3.1 Different Eras of IRR Languages
4.3.2 Why Natural Language or Why Controlled Vocabulary?
4.3.2.1 The Synonym Issue
4.3.2.2 The Homograph Issue
4.3.2.3 The Syntax Issue
4.3.2.4 The Accuracy Issue
4.3.2.5 The Updating Issue
4.3.2.6 The Cost Issue
4.3.2.7 The Compatibility Issue
4.4. Language for IRR in the Digital Age
References
Chapter 5: Retrieval Techniques and Query Representation
5.1 Retrieval Techniques
5.1.1 Basic Retrieval Techniques
5.1.1.1 Boolean Searching
5.1.1.2 Case Sensitive Searching
5.1.1.3 Truncation
5.1.1.4 Proximity Searching
5.1.1.5 Field Searching
5.1.2 Advanced Retrieval Techniques
5.1.2.1 Fuzzy Searching
5.1.2.2 Weighted Searching
5.1.2.3 Query Expansion
5.1.2.4 Multiple Database Searching
5.2 Selection of Retrieval Techniques
5.2.1 Functions of Retrieval Techniques
5.2.2 Retrieval Performance
5.2.2.1 Retrieval Techniques for Improving Precision
5.2.2.2 Retrieval Techniques for Improving Recall
5.3 Query Representation
5.3.1 General Steps
5.3.1.1 Concept Analysis
5.3.1.2 Term Variations
5.3.1.3 Term Conversion
5.3.1.4 Application of Boolean Operators
5.3.1.5 Use of Other Retrieval Techniques
5.3.2 Difficulties with Query Representation
5.3.3 The Automatic Approach
References
Chapter 6: Retrieval Approaches
6.1 Retrieval by Searching
6.1.1 Characteristics of Searching
6.1.2 Types of Searching
6.1.3 Search Strategies
6.1.3.1 The Building Block Approach
6.1.3.2 The Snowballing Approach
6.1.3.3 The Successive Fraction Approach
6.1.3.4 The Most Specific Facet First Approach
6.1.3.5 Toward a "Quick/Convenient" Approach
6.2 Retrieval by Browsing
6.2.1 What Is Browsing?
6.2.2 Types of Browsing
6.2.3 Browsing Strategies
6.3 Searching and Browsing Integrated in Retrieval
6.3.1 Comparison of the Two Retrieval Approaches
6.3.1.1 Information Need
6.3.1.2 Efficiency and Potential for Improvement
6.3.1.3 Cognitive Load
6.3.1.4 Serendipity
6.3.1.5 Efforts
6.3.2 The Integrated Approach
References
Chapter 7: Information Retrieval Models
7.1 Foundation of All IR Models: Matching
7.1.1 Term Matching
7.1.2 Similarity Measurement Matching
7.2 The Boolean Logic Model
7.2.1 Strengths of the Boolean Logic Model
7.2.2 Limitations of the Boolean Logic Model
7.3 Vector Space Model
7.3.1 Strengths of the Vector Space Model
7.3.2 Limitations of the Vector Space Model
7.4 Probability Model
7.4.1 Strengths of the Probability Model
7.4.2 Limitations of the Probability Model
7.5 Extensions of Major IR Models
7.5.1 Extended Boolean Logic Model
7.5.2 Fuzzy Set Model
7.6 IR Models: A Further Look
7.6.1 A Review of the Major IR Models
7.6.2 IR Models vs. Retrieval Techniques
7.6.3 Toward Multimodel IR Systems
References
Chapter 8: Information Retrieval Systems
8.1 Online Systems - Pioneer IR Systems
8.1.1 Features of Online IR Systems
8.1.2 Online Systems and Information Retrieval
8.2 CD-ROM Systems - A New Medium for IR Systems
8.2.1 Features of CD-ROM Systems
8.2.2 CD-ROM Systems and Information Retrieval
8.3 OPACs - Computerized Library Catalogs as IR Systems
8.3.1 Features of OPACs
8.3.2 OPACs and Information Retrieval
8.4 Internet Retrieval Systems - The Newest Member in the Family of IR Systems
8.4.1 Taxonomy of Internet Retrieval Systems
8.4.1.1 By Retrieval Approach
8.4.1.2 By Application
8.4.1.3 By Content
8.4.2 Features of Internet Retrieval Systems
8.4.2.1 Coverage and Source Information
8.4.2.2 Indexing Mechanism
8.4.2.3 Searching Facilities
8.4.2.4 Ranking Techniques
8.4.2.5 Search Modification
8.4.2.6 Interface
8.4.3 Generations of Internet Retrieval Systems
8.4.4 Internet Retrieval Systems and Information Retrieval
8.5 Convergence of Various IR Systems
References
Chapter 9: Retrieval of Information Unique in Content or Format
9.1 Multilingual Information
9.1.1 Multilingual Information Retrieval in the Past
9.1.2 Multilingual Information Retrieval on the Internet
9.1.3 Research on Multilingual Information Retrieval
9.2 Multimedia Information
9.2.1 Still Image Retrieval
9.2.1.1 Description-Based Retrieval of Still Images
9.2.1.2 Content-Based Retrieval of Still Images
9.2.1.3 Integration of the Two Image Retrieval Approaches
9.2.2 Sound Retrieval
9.2.2.1 Description-Based Retrieval of Sound Information
9.2.2.2 Content-Based Retrieval of Sound Information
9.2.3 Moving Image Retrieval
9.2.4 Multimedia Retrieval on the Internet
9.3 Hypertext and Hypermedia Information
References
Chapter 10: The User Dimension in Information Representation and Retrieval
10.1 Users and Their Information Needs
10.2 The Cognitive Model
10.2.1 Strengths of the Cognitive Model
10.2.2 Limitations of the Cognitive Model
10.3 User and System Interaction
10.3.1 Modes of User-System Interaction
10.3.1.1. Command Language
10.3.1.2 Menu Selection
10.3.1.3 Graphical Mode of Interaction
10.3.1.4 Other Modes of User-System Interaction
10.3.1.5 The Hybrid Mode of Interaction
10.3.2 Other Dimensions of User-System Interaction
10.3.2.1 Display Features
10.3.2.2 Output Options
10.3.2.3 Help Facilities
10.3.3 Evaluation of User-System Interaction
10.3.3.1 Time Needed for the User to Learn Specific IR Functions
10.3.3.2 Speed of Interaction
10.3.3.3 Rate of Errors by the User
10.3.3.4 Retention Over Time
10.3.3.5 The User's Satisfaction
10.4 The User and Information Retrieval in the Digital Age
References
Chapter 11 Evaluation of Information Representation and Retrieval
11.1 Evaluation Measures for Information Representation and Retrieval
11.1.1 Evaluation Measures for Information Representation
11.1.1.1 Accuracy
11.1.1.2 Brevity
11.1.1.3 Consistency
11.1.1.4 Objectivity
11.1.1.5 Clarity, Readability, and Usability
11.1.2 Evaluation Measures for Information Retrieval
11.1.2.1 Recall and Precision
11.1.2.1.1 The Notion of Relevance
11.1.2.1.2 Determination of All the Relevant Documents in a System
11.1.2.1.3 Other Criticisms of Recall and Precision
11.1.2.1.4 Variations of Recall and Precision Measures
11.1.2.2 Fallout
11.1.2.3 Generality
11.1.2.4 Single Measures for IR Evaluation
11.1.2.5 Other Evaluation Measures for Information Retrieval
11.2 Evaluation Criteria for IR Systems
11.2.1 Evaluation Criteria for Online Systems
11.2.2. Evaluation Criteria for CD-ROM Systems
11.2.3 Evaluation Criteria for OPACs
11.2.4 Evaluation Criteria for Internet Retrieval Systems
11.3 Major Evaluation Projects for Information Representation and Retrieval
11.3.1 The Cranfield Tests
11.3.1.1 Cranfield I
11.3.1.1.1 Test Design
11.3.1.1.2 Test Findings
11.3.1.2 Cranfield II
11.3.1.2.1 Test Design
11.3.1.2.2 Test Findings
11.3.1.3 Problems with the Cranfield Tests
11.3.1.4 Significance of the Cranfield Tests
11.3.2 The TREC Series
11.3.2.1 The Design of the TREC Series
11.3.2.1.1 Participant Teams
11.3.2.1.2 Test Documents
11.3.2.1.3 Topics and Queries
11.3.2.1.4 Retrieval Tasks
11.3.2.1.5 Evaluation and Relevance Judgments
11.3.2.2 Findings of TREC
11.3.2.3 Problems with TREC
11.3.2.4 Significance of TREC
11.4 A Final Word on IRR Evaluation
References
Chapter 12: Artificial Intelligence in Information Representation and Retrieval
12.1 Overview of AI Research
12.2 Natural Language Processing
12.2.1 The Role of Natural Language Processing IRR
12.2.2 The Natural Language Model
12.3 Intelligent Agents
12.4 AI and Information Representation and Retrieval
References
 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Information organization, Information retrieval, Information storage and retrieval systems