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Acknowledgements 7 Photo Credits 7 Introduction? Preface? Overview? 7 Two Cases 9 Dr. Hahnemann and the Law of Similars 10 The Single Remedy D the Simillimum 11 Minimum Dose, Potentization, and the Importance of Succussion 11 What Kinds of Ailments Can Homeopathy Treat? 12 Homeopathy Treats the Person, Not the Disease 13 Remedy Sources 13 Sidebar: Not All Remedies Come from Herbs and Flowers 15 Remedy Preparation 17 Potencies 20 How Remedies Are Identified and Characterized¥Provings 21 Materia Medica 22 Self-Prescribing Versus Consulting a Professional Homeopath 24 Taking the Case 24 Repertory 26 Selecting the Remedy D the Simillimum 28 Follow-up 29 Theory of Human Health D The Vital Force 29 Sidebar: The Vital Force: A Controversial Concept 30 2. Types of Homeopathy D Commonalities and Contradictions 32 Major Forms of Homeopathy 33 Less Common Practices Associated with Homeopathy 34 Sidebar: The Doctrine of Signatures 35 Peripheral Techniques in Homeopathy 37 Sidebar: Combination versus Single Remedies 39 Commonalities and Discussion 40 Sidebar: Why are Controversies Within Homeopathy So Intense and Long-lived? 41 3. Remedy Potency 43 Remedies Do Not Need Their Molecules 43 Sidebar: Dilution and Basic Physics 44 How Can Remedies With No Medicinal Molecules Work? 45 Proposed Theories 45 Plausibility 47 Non-Clinical Evidence For Activity of Non-Molecular Solutions 47 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 48 Benveniste 49 Water Memory 51 Thoughts on Succussion 52 Why Dilute Past 12C and 24X? 54 Conclusion 54 4. Provings 55 Internal and External Realities 55 Is It Plausible That Provings Should Produce Symptoms? 57 Evidence On the Causes of Provings Symptoms 58 Which Symptoms Are Caused by the Remedy? 58 Examples of Symptoms Attributed to Remedies 60 Use of PatientsO and ProversO Own Words in Reporting Symptoms 60 Extraordinary Time Specificity 63 Proving Symptoms Can Come In Opposites 66 Asymmetries 67 Symptoms Do Not Come Easily 68 Remedy Mental Associations 69 Prover Sensitivity 71 Sidebar: Sensitivity and Gender Equity 72 How Provings Should Be Conducted 73 Control Group 74 Number of Provers and Statistical Significance 74 Blind and Double-Blind Procedures 76 Selecting the Provers 78 Duration of Observations 78 Dose Response 78 Summary and Conclusion 79 5. Selecting the Remedy 82 The Process 83 Consistency Testing 84 Obsession with the Simillimum 85 How Close Is Close Enough? Why IsnOt Homeopathic Effectiveness Increasing? 87 Conclusion¥Does It Matter If Homeopaths Disagree about the Remedy? 89 6. Administering the Remedy 90 Selecting the Potency 90 How Critical Is Potency? Why IsnOt Potency More Critical? 93 Dose Size D Physical Form and Amount 95 Dose Frequency and Number of Repetitions 98 Minimum Dose 98 Storing the Remedy 99 Taking the Remedy 101 Does It Matter How the Remedy Gets Into the Patient? 104 Conclusion 104 7. Following the PatientOs Progress 104 Aggravation 105 Remedy Storage and Handling 107 Antidoting Due to Patient Actions 107 Sidebar: WhoOs Right D the Americans or the Europeans? 108 Inadvertent Provings 110 HeringOs Laws 110 Sidebar: Safety and Side Effects 114 Suppression 116 Sidebar: Is suppression serious? Is it common? 117 Health-Caused Symptoms 117 Partial or Temporary Improvement 118 Minor Aggravation Simultaneous With General Cure 118 Miasms 119 Sidebar: Miasm Theory: The Core of Homeopathy or an Outdated Concept? 119 Additional Homeopathic Reasons for Lack of Patient Response 120 Conclusion 121 8. Non-Remedy Healing Mechanisms 122 Unassisted Natural Healing 123 The Spaghetti Effect D An Unrecognized Factor 123 Statistical Healing D Regression to the Mean 123 Non-Homeopathic Treatments 124 Cessation of Uncomfortable or Harmful Treatments 125 Lifestyle-Assisted Healing 126 Placebo-Assisted Healing 126 Sidebar: Measuring the placebo response 128 Psychological Healing 130 Conclusion 131 9. The Essentials of Good Theories 133 The Essentials of Good Theories 133 Explanations 133 Predictions 133 Consistency 134 Falsifiability 135 Simplicity 136 Some Additional Tools for Arriving at External Reality 137 Get Independent Confirmation of Facts 137 Do Not Trust Authority 137 Consider Multiple Hypotheses 137 Sidebar: Examples of Alternative Hypotheses Not Considered 138 Do Not Become Emotionally Attached to One Hypothesis 138 Quantify 138 Further Examples of Falsifiability Problems 139 Undetectable by definition 139 Patient Sensitivity 139 Similarity of a Remedy 140 The Deepness of a Remedy 140 Sidebar: The Law of Similars: What Is the Evidence? How Sound Is the Theory? 140 Sidebar: Was Hahnemann Scientific? 143 Conclusion 145 10. Cured Cases D Reliable Data? 145 Three Typical Homeopathic Cases 145 Reliance on Cases Is Not Unique to Homeopathy 147 Revigators 147 Therapeutic Radium Mines 148 Analysis of Two Homeopathic Cases 149 Reporting Bias and Other Shortcomings 150 Conclusion 151 11. Clinical Effectiveness Testing D The Bottom Line 152 Extraordinary Claims Require Extraordinary Proof 152 Possible Reasons for Getting Better After Treatment 152 Elements of Good Clinical Testing 153 Overview of Clinical Trials on Remedy Effectiveness 157 Meta-analyses 158 Results 158 Clinical Significance 163 Sidebar: Inappropriate Data Included in Meta-Analyses 164 ProponentsO Comments on Negative Trials 164 Sidebar: Individualization Is Not All Good 166 SkepticsO Comments on Positive Trials 167 Comments on Clinical Evidence on Remedy Effectiveness 168 Reconciling Clinical Trials with HomeopathsO Clinical Experience 170 What Should We Be Testing? 170 12. Animals, Babies, Epidemics, and Vaccinations 171 Animals and Babies 172 Sidebar: An apparent contradiction 173 Historical Epidemics 174 Sidebar: Should Homeopathic Remedies Work Because They Are Like Vaccinations? 176 Homeopathic Vaccination 176 13. The Homeopathic Fringe or Leading Edge? 177 Grafting 178 Witchcraft 178 It Does Not Matter How or Even If Remedies Are Taken 178 Provings without Taking the Remedy 182 Family Matters 184 Synchronous Phenomena 185 Paleontology 185 Music Remedies 186 Automobile First Aid 187 Some Interesting Remedies 187 Conventional Medicine and Licensing 191 Conclusion 191 14. Summary, the Mechanisms of Misperception, and Conclusions 192 Summary of Evidence that Most Homeopathic Remedies Are Inactive 193 It Can Appear That the Remedies Are Responsible Even If They Are Not 196 1. Homeopathy Often Does Help Even If the Remedies Are Not the Cause 196 2. Correlation Seems like Causation 197 3. Dosage Protocol Creates Appearance of Cause 197 4. Getting Worse Is Sometimes Counted As Getting Better 198 Misunderstanding of Science Contributes to Misperception 198 Lack of Recognition of External Reality as Separate from Internal Reality 199 Excessive Faith in Cases 199 Patient Satisfaction 199 How Is Not Needed to Determine If 199 Mistrust of Clinical Trials 200 Lack of Appreciation of Falsifiable Theories 200 What about the Miraculous Cures? 200 Quantum Mechanics, Relativity, and Chaos 201 Science Cannot Yet Explain Homeopathy 201 Homeopathy Already Is Scientific 201 ClosedDMindedness and Conspiracy Theories 202 Reliance on Authority 203 Psychological Factors in Misperception 203 Desire D Patients Want Homeopathy to Be Valid 203 The Habits of Mind of Professional Homeopaths 205 Belief Breeds More Belief 206 Misperceptions Are Common 206 If Homeopathic Remedies Do Not Work, Then Would Some Health-Care and Health- Insurance Companies Cover Homeopathy? 206 Why Would Medical Schools Teach and Do Research on Homeopathy if the Remedies Do Not Work? 207 The Future 207 Postscript 209 Appendix 1: Some Remedy Preparation Details 209 Appendix 2: Molecules Remaining in Dilute Remedies 211 Appendix 3: Water Clusters 214 Appendix 4: Purity and Contamination 216 Appendix 5: The Multitude of Procedures for Selecting the Remedy 219 Remedy Selection Based Largely on the Law of Similars and the Totality of Symptoms D Classical Homeopathy 219 Symptoms at the Exact Time of the Case Taking 219 Which Symptoms Happen to Be Mentioned During Interview 219 Selection of a Subset of Symptoms 219 Repertory Selection¥Which database? 220 Flat (or Neutral) Analysis 221 Symptom Ranking 221 Power of Remedy to Induce or Cure Each Symptom 221 Small versus Large Remedies 221 Multiple Simultaneous Approaches 222 Fitting 222 Other Remedy Selection Methods 222 Doctrine of Signatures 222 Etiology 223 Remedy Families, Classes, Kingdoms, and Other Groupings 223 Themes 224 Primary Physical Complaint 224 Constitutional Prescribing 224 The Central Delusion 225 Multiple Diseases, Layers, and Miasms 225 Unusual Remedy Selection Methods 226 Additional Remedy Selection Issues and Complications 226 Patient Compensation 226 Acute Exacerbation of a Chronic Condition 226 Cross-Cultural Errors 226 Follow-Up Remedies and Remedy Relationships 227 Conclusion 228 Glossary 231
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Homeopathy, Homeopathy methods, Holistic Health, Materia Medica therapeutic use