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Contents Translator's Acknowledgments Translator's Introduction First Course. The Concept of Nature, 1956 1957 Part One. Study of the Variations of the Concept of Nature 1. The "Finalist" Element in Aristotle and the Stoics 2. Nature as the Idea of an Entirely Exterior Being, Made of Exterior Parts, Exterior to Man, and to Itself, as a Pure Object A. Origin of This Conception B. The First Idea of Nature in Descartes C. The Second Cartesian Inspiration D. Conclusion 3. The Humanist Conception of Nature A. The Ideas of Kant 1. The Double Meaning of the Copernican Revolution 2. The Critique of Judgment B. The Ideas of Brunschvicg 1. The Notion of Space 2. The Notion of Time 3. The Concept of Causality 4. The Romantic Conception of Nature A. The Ideas of Schelling 1. The Notion of the Principle of the World 2. Naturata 3. The Object of Schelling's Philosophy: The Subjective-Objective 4. The Method of Philosophy: The Intuition of Intuition 5. Art and Philosophy 6. The Schellingian Circle 7. The Value of the Contribution: Schelling and Hegel B. The Ideas of Bergson 1. Schelling and Bergson 2. Nature as the Aseity of the Thing 3. Nature as Life 4. The Ontological Infrastructure of the Concept of Nature in Bergson: The Ideas of Being and Nothingness Note on Bergson and Sartre C. The Ideas of Husserl 1. The Role of the Body in the Position of Things 2. The Role of the Other 3. Originary Objects: The Experience of the Earth Part Two. Modern Science and Nature Introduction: Science and Philosophy A. Problems Posed by the Philosophical History of the Idea of Nature B. Science and Philosophy 1. Classical and Modern Physics A. The Conceptions of Laplace Au: In the text, this heading is "Laplace's Conception." Which is correct? B. Quantum Mechanics C. The Philosophical Significance of Quantum Mechanics 2. Notions of Space and Time A. The Notion of Space B. The Notion of Time 3. The Idea of Nature in Whitehead Second Course. The Concept of Nature, 1957 1958: Animality, the Human Body, and the Passage to Culture General Introduction: Notes on the Cartesian Conceptions of Nature and Their Relations to Judeo-Christian Ontology A. The Ontology of the Object B. The Ontology of the Existent Being C. Relations between These Two Modes of Thought D. How the Oscillation of Cartesian Thought Is Related to the Postulates of Judeo- Christian Thought 1. The Concept of Naturalism 2. Humanism 3. Theism 1. Animality: The Tendencies of Modern Biology A. The Notion of Behavior 1. The Perception of the Circle 2. The Perception of Movement 3. The Becoming of a Painting 4. The Perception of Causality in a Living Being B. The Notions of Information and Communication 1. Models of Living Being 2. The Problem of Language 2. Animality: The Study of Animal Behavior A. The Descriptions of J. von Uexküll 1. The Umwelt of Lower Animals: The Animal-Machines 2. Organized Lower Animals 3. The Umwelt of Higher Animals 4. Philosophical Interpretation of the Notion of Umwelt B. The "Oriented Character"of Organic Activities according to E. S. Russell C. The Behavior of the Organism as Physiology in Exterior Circuit 1. The Phenomena of Mimicry (Hardouin): Living Beings and Magic 2. Portmann's Study of Animal Appearance (Die Tiergestalt) 3. Lorenz's Study of Instinct: The Passage from Instinct to Symbolism Third Course. The Concept of Nature, 1959 1960: Nature and Logos: The Human Body Introduction: Resumption of the Studies on Nature A. Place of These Studies in Philosophy: Philosophy and Knowledge of Nature B. Place of the Human Body in Our Study of Nature First Sketch Second Sketch A. The Animal Body B. The Libidinal Body and Intercorporeity C. The Body and Symbolism D. [Ontology] Third Sketch: The Human Body A. The Body as Animal of Perceptions B. The Libidinal Body and Intercorporeity C. The Body and Symbolism Fourth Sketch: Two Preliminary Studies A. Ontogenesis: Driesch's Analysis B. Phylogenesis Fifth Sketch A. The Renaissance and Metamorphosis of Darwinism B. Idealism Sixth Sketch A. Descriptions of Morphology B. Philosophy: Dacqué's Kantian Position C. Statistical Evolution D. Discussion and Conclusion Seventh Sketch: Man and Evolution: The Human Body Eighth Sketch: The Human Body A. Esthesiology B. The Libidinal Body C. Libido Notes Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Philosophy of nature History