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1 introduction: the scientific study of life_1 Life in the Trees The Scope of Biology 1.1 Life_s levels of organization define the scope of biology_2 The Process of Science 1.2 Scientists use two main approaches to learn about nature_3 1.3 With the scientific method, we pose and test hypotheses_4 Evolution, Unity, and Diversity 1.4 The diversity of life can be arranged into three domains_6 1.5 Unity in diversity: All forms of life have common features_8 1.6 Evolution explains the unity and diversity of life_8 1.7 Living organisms and their environments form interconnecting webs_10 Biology and Everyday Life 1.8 Biology is connected to our lives in many ways_12 Chapter Review_13 unit i The Life of the Cell 2 the chemical basis of life_16 Thomas Eisner and the Chemical Language of Nature Atoms and Molecules 2.1 The emergence of biological function starts at the chemical level_18 2.2 Life requires about 25 chemical elements_19 2.3 Elements can combine to form compounds_19 2.4 Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons_20 2.5 Radioactive isotopes can help or harm us_21 2.6 Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom_22 2.7 Ionic bonds are attractions between ions of opposite charge_22 2.8 Covalent bonds, the sharing of electrons, join atoms into molecules_23 The Properties of Water 2.9 Water is a polar molecule_24 2.10 Overview: Water_s polarity leads to hydrogen bonding and other unusual properties _24 2.11 Hydrogen bonds make liquid water cohesive_25 2.12 Water_s hydrogen bonds moderate temperature_25 2.13 Ice is less dense than liquid water_26 2.14 Water is a versatile solvent_26 2.15 The chemistry of life is sensitive to acidic and basic conditions_27 2.16 Acid precipitation threatens the environment_28 Rearrangements of Atoms 2.17 Chemical reactions rearrange matter_29 Chapter Review_30 3 the molecules of cells_32 Spider Silk: Stronger Than Steel Introduction to Organic Compounds and Their Polymers 3.1 Life_s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon_34 3.2 Functional groups help determine the properties of organic compounds_35 3.3 Cells make a huge number of large molecules from a small set of small molecules_36 Carbohydrates 3.4 Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates_37 3.5 Cells link single sugars to form disaccharides_38 3.6 How sweet is sweet?_38 3.7 Polysaccharides are long chains of sugar units_39 Lipids 3.8 Lipids include fats, which are mostly energy-storage molecules_40 3.9 Phospholipids, waxes, and steroids are lipids with a variety of functions_41 3.10 Anabolic steroids and related substances pose health risks_41 Proteins 3.11 Proteins are essential to the structures and activities of life_42 3.12 Proteins are made from just 20 kinds of amino acids_42 3.13 Amino acids can be linked by peptide bonds_43 3.14 Overview: A protein_s specific shape determines its function_43 3.15 A protein_s primary structure is its amino acid sequence_44 3.16 Secondary structure is polypeptide coiling or folding produced by hydrogen bonding_44 3.17 Tertiary structure is the overall shape of a polypeptide_44 3.18 Quaternary structure is the relationship among multiple polypeptides of a protein_44 3.19 Talking About Science: Linus Pauling contributed to our understanding of the chemistry of life_46 Nucleic Acids 3.20 Nucleic acids are information-rich polymers of nucleotides_47 Chapter Review_48 4 a tour of the cell_50 The Art of Looking at Cells Introduction to the World of the Cell 4.1 Microscopes provide windows to the world of the cell_52 4.2 Cell sizes vary with their function_54 4.3 Natural laws limit cell size_54 4.4 Prokaryotic cells are small and structurally simple_55 4.5 Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into functional compartments_56 Organelles of the Endomembrane System 4.6 The nucleus is the cell_s genetic control center_58 4.7 Overview: Many cell organelles are related through the endomembrane system_58 4.8 Rough endoplasmic reticulum makes membrane and proteins_58 4.9 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum has a variety of functions_59 4.10 The Golgi apparatus finishes, sorts, and ships cell products_60 4.11 Lysosomes digest the cell_s food and wastes_60 4.12 Abnormal lysosomes can cause fatal diseases_61 4.13 Vacuoles function in the general maintenance of the cell_62 4.14 A review of the endomembrane system_62 Energy-Converting Organelles 4.15 Chloroplasts convert solar energy to chemical energy_63 4.16 Mitochondria harvest chemical energy from food_63 The Cytoskeleton and Related Structures 4.17 The cell_s internal skeleton helps organize its structure and activities_64 4.18 Cilia and flagella move when microtubules bend_65 Eukaryotic Cell Surfaces and Junctions 4.19 Cell surfaces protect, support, and join cells_66 Functional Categories of Organelles 4.20 Eukaryotic organelles comprise four functional categories_67 4.21 Extraterrestrial life-forms may share features with life on Earth_68 Chapter Review_68 5 the working cell_70 Cool _Fires_ Attract Mates and Meals Energy and the Cell 5.1 Energy is the capacity to perform work_72 5.2 Two laws govern energy conversion_72 5.3 Chemical reactions either store or release energy_74 5.4 ATP shuttles chemical energy within the cell_75 How Enzymes Work 5.5 Enzymes speed up the cell_s chemical reactions by lowering energy barriers_76 5.6 A specific enzyme catalyzes each cellular reaction_77 5.7 The cellular environment affects enzyme activity_77 5.8 Enzyme inhibitors block enzyme action_78 5.9 Some pesticides and antibiotics inhibit enzymes_78 Membrane Structure and Function 5.10 Membranes organize the chemical activities of cells_79 5.11 Membrane phospholipids form a bilayer _79 5.12 The membrane is a fluid mosaic of phospholipids and proteins_80 5.13 Proteins make the membrane a mosaic of function_80 5.14 Passive transport is diffusion across a membrane_81 5.15 Osmosis is the passive transport of water_82 5.16 Water balance between cells and their surroundings is crucial to organisms_82 5.17 Transport proteins facilitate diffusion across membranes_83 5.18 Cells expend energy for active transport_84 5.19 Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules_84 5.20 Faulty membranes can overload the blood with cholesterol_85 5.21 Chloroplasts and mitochondria make energy available for cellular work_86 Chapter Review_86 6 how cells harvest chemical energy_88 How Is a Marathoner Different from a Sprinter? Introduction to Cellular Respiration 6.1 Breathing supplies oxygen to our cells and removes carbon dioxide_90 6.2 Cellular respiration banks energy in ATP molecules_90 6.3 The human body uses energy from ATP for all its activities_91 Basic Mechanisms of Energy Release and Storage 6.4 Cells tap energy from electrons transferred from organic fuels to oxygen_92 6.5 Hydrogen carriers such as NAD1 shuttle electrons in redox reactions_92 6.6 Redox reactions release energy when electrons _fall_ from a hydrogen carrier to oxygen_93 6.7 Two mechanisms generate ATP_94 Stages of Cellular Respiration and Fermentation 6.8 Overview: Respiration occurs in three main stages_95 6.9 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvic acid_96 6.10 Pyruvic acid is chemically groomed for the Krebs cycle_98 6.11 The Krebs cycle completes the oxidation of organic fuel, generating many NADH and FADH2 molecules_98 6.12 Chemiosmosis powers most ATP production_100 6.13 Certain poisons interrupt critical events in cellular respiration_101 6.14 Review: Each molecule of glucose yields many molecules of ATP_102 6.15 Fermentation is an anaerobic alternative to aerobic respiration_103 Interconnections Between Molecular Breakdown and Synthesis 6.16 Cells use many kinds of organic molecules as fuel for cellular respiration_104 6.17 Food molecules provide raw materials for biosynthesis_105 6.18 The fuel for respiration ultimately comes from photosynthesis_106 Chapter Review_106 7 photosynthesis: using light to make food_108 Life in the Sun An Overview of Photosynthesis 7.1 Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere_110 7.2 Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts_111 7.3 Plants produce O2 gas by splitting water_112 7.4 Photosynthesis is a redox process, as is cellular respiration_112 7.5 Overview: Photosynthesis occurs in two stages linked by ATP and NADPH_113 The Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy 7.6 Visible radiation drives the light reactions_114 7.7 Photosystems capture solar power_114 7.8 In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP, NADPH, and O2_116 7.9 Chemiosmosis powers ATP synthesis in the light reactions_117 The Calvin Cycle: Converting CO2 to Sugars 7.10 ATP and NADPH power sugar synthesis in the Calvin cycle_118 Photosynthesis Reviewed and Extended 7.11 Review: Photosynthesis uses light energy to make food molecules_119 7.12 C4 and CAM plants have special adaptations that save water_120 Photosynthesis, Solar Radiation, and Earth_s Atmosphere 7.13 Human activity is causing global warming; photosynthesis moderates it_121 7.14 Talking About Science: Mario Molina talks about Earth_s protective ozone layer_122 Chapter Review_123 unit ii Cellular Reproduction and Genetics 8 the cellular basis of reproduction and inheritance_126 How to Make a Sea Star_With and Without Sex Connections Between Cell Division and Reproduction 8.1 Like begets like, more or less_128 8.2 Cells arise only from preexisting cells_129 8.3 Prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission_129 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle and Mitosis 8.4 The large, complex chromosomes of eukaryotes duplicate with each cell division_130 8.5 The cell cycle multiplies cells_131 8.6 Cell division is a continuum of dynamic changes_132 8.7 Cytokinesis differs for plant and animal cells_134 8.8 Anchorage, cell density, and chemical growth factors affect cell division_135 8.9 Growth factors signal the cell cycle control system_136 8.10 Growing out of control, cancer cells produce malignant tumors_137 8.11 Review of the functions of mitosis: Growth, cell replacement, and asexual reproduction_138 Meiosis and Crossing Over 8.12 Chromosomes are matched in homologous pairs_138 8.13 Gametes have a single set of chromosomes_139 8.14 Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid_140 8.15 Review: A comparison of mitosis and meiosis_142 8.16 Independent orientation of chromosomes in meiosis and random fertilization lead to varied offspring_143 8.17 Homologous chromosomes carry different versions of genes_144 8.18 Crossing over further increases genetic variability_144 Alterations of Chromosome Number and Structure 8.19 A karyotype is a photographic inventory of an individual_s chromosomes_146 8.20 An extra copy of chromosome 21 causes Down syndrome_147 8.21 Accidents during meiosis can alter chromosome number_148 8.22 Abnormal numbers of sex chromosomes do not usually affect survival_149 8.23 Alterations of chromosome structure can cause birth defects and cancer_150 Chapter Review_151 9 patterns of inheritance_154 Purebreds and Mutts_A Difference of Heredity Mendel_s Principles 9.1 The science of genetics has ancient roots_156 9.2 Experimental genetics began in an abbey garden_156 9.3 Mendel_s principle of segregation describes the inheritance of a single characteristic_158 9.4 Homologous chromosomes bear the two alleles for each characteristic_159 9.5 The principle of independent assortment is revealed by tracking two characteristics at once_160 9.6 Geneticists use the testcross to determine unknown genotypes_161 9.7 Mendel_s principles reflect the rules of probability_162 9.8 Genetic traits in humans can be tracked through family pedigrees_163 9.9 Many inherited disorders in humans are controlled by a single gene_164 9.10 Fetal testing can spot many inherited disorders early in pregnancy_166 Variations on Mendel_s Principles 9.11 The relationship of genotype to phenotype is rarely simple_168 9.12 Incomplete dominance results in intermediate phenotypes_168 9.13 Many genes have more than two alleles in the population_169 9.14 A single gene may affect many phenotypic characteristics_170 9.15 Genetic testing can detect disease-causing alleles_171 9.16 A single characteristic may be influenced by many genes_172 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance 9.17 Chromosome behavior accounts for Mendel_s principles_173 9.18 Genes on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together_174 9.19 Crossing over produces new combinations of alleles_174 9.20 Geneticists use crossover data to map genes_176 Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Genes 9.21 Chromosomes determine sex in many species_177 9.22 Sex-linked genes exhibit a unique pattern of inheritance_178 9.23 Sex-linked disorders affect mostly males_179 Chapter Review_180 10 molecular biology of the gene_182 Saboteurs Inside Our Cells The Structure of the Genetic Material 10.1 Experiments showed that DNA is the genetic material_184 10.2 DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides_186 10.3 DNA is a double-stranded helix_188 DNA Replication 10.4 DNA replication depends on specific base pairing_190 10.5 DNA replication: A closer look_191 The Flow of Genetic Information from DNA to RNA to Protein 10.6 The DNA genotype is expressed as proteins, which provide the molecular basis for phenotypic traits_192 10.7 Genetic information written in codons is translated into amino acid sequences_193 10.8 The genetic code is the Rosetta stone of life_194 10.9 Transcription produces genetic messages in the form of RNA_195 10.10 Eukaryotic RNA is processed before leaving the nucleus_196 10.11 Transfer RNA molecules serve as interpreters during translation_196 10.12 Ribosomes build polypeptides_198 10.13 An initiation codon marks the start of an mRNA message_198 10.14 Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until a stop codon terminates translation_199 10.15 Review: The flow of genetic information in the cell is DNA Æ RNA Æ protein_200 10.16 Mutations can change the meaning of genes_201 Viruses: Genes in Packages 10.17 Viral DNA may become part of the host chromosome_202 10.18 Many viruses cause disease in animals_203 10.19 Plant viruses are serious agricultural pests_204 10.20 Emerging viruses threaten human health_204 10.21 The AIDS virus makes DNA on an RNA template_205 10.22 Virus research and molecular genetics are intertwined_206 Chapter Review_206 11 the control of gene expression_208 Human Cloning? Gene Regulation in Prokaryotes 11.1 Proteins interacting with DNA turn prokaryotic genes on or off in response to environmental changes_210 Cellular Differentiation and the Cloning of Eukaryotes 11.2 Differentiation yields a variety of cell types, each expressing a different combination of genes_212 11.3 Differentiated cells may retain all of their genetic potential_212 11.4 Reproductive cloning of nonhuman mammals has applications in basic research, agriculture, and medicine_214 11.5 Because stem cells can both perpetuate themselves and give rise to differentiated cells, they have great therapeutic potential_214 Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes 11.6 DNA packing in eukaryotic chromosomes helps regulate gene expression_215 11.7 In female mammals, one X chromosome is inactive in each cell_216 11.8 Complex assemblies of proteins control eukaryotic transcription_216 11.9 Eukaryotic RNA may be spliced in more than one way_217 11.10 Translation and later stages of gene expression are also subject to regulation_218 11.11 Review: Multiple mechanisms regulate gene expression in eukaryotes_219 The Genetic Control of Embryonic Development 11.12 Cascades of gene expression and cell-to-cell signaling direct the development of an animal_220 11.13 Signal-transduction pathways convert messages received at the cell surface into responses within the cell_221 11.14 Key developmental genes are very ancient_222 The Genetic Basis of Cancer 11.15 Cancer results from mutations in genes that control cell division_222 11.16 Oncogene proteins and faulty tumor-suppressor proteins can interfere with normal signal-transduction pathways_224 11.17 Multiple genetic changes underlie the development of cancer_225 11.18 Talking About Science: Mary-Claire King discusses mutations that cause breast cancer_226 11.19 Avoiding carcinogens can reduce the risk of cancer_227 Chapter Review_228 12 dna technology and the human genome_230 From E. Coli to a Map of Our Genes Bacteria as Tools for Manipulating DNA 12.1 In nature, bacteria can transfer DNA in three ways_232 12.2 Bacterial plasmids can serve as carriers for gene transfer_233 12.3 Plasmids are used to customize bacteria: An overview_234 12.4 Enzymes are used to _cut and paste_ DNA_235 12.5 Genes can be cloned in recombinant plasmids: A closer look_236 12.6 Cloned genes can be stored in genomic libraries_237 Other Tools of DNA Technology 12.7 Reverse transcriptase helps make genes for cloning_237 12.8 Nucleic acid probes identify clones carrying specific genes_238 12.9 DNA microarrays test for the expression of many genes at once_239 12.10 Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules by size_239 12.11 Restriction fragment analysis is a powerful method that detects differences in DNA sequences_240 12.12 The PCR method is used to amplify DNA sequences_242 The Challenge of the Human Genome 12.13 Most of the human genome does not consist of genes_242 12.14 The Human Genome Project is unlocking the secrets of our genes_244 Other Applications of DNA Technology 12.15 DNA technology is used in courts of law_245 12.16 Recombinant cells and organisms can mass-produce gene products_246 12.17 DNA technology is changing the pharmaceutical industry and medicine_247 12.18 Genetically modified organisms are transforming agriculture_248 12.19 Gene therapy may someday help treat a variety of diseases_249 Risks and Ethical Questions 12.20 Could GM organisms harm human health or the environment?_250 12.21 DNA technology raises important ethical questions_251 Chapter Review_252 unit iii Concepts of Evolution 13 how populations evolve_256 Clown, Fool, or Simply Well Adapted? Evidence of Evolution 13.1 A sea voyage helped Darwin frame his theory of evolution_258 13.2 The study of fossils provides strong evidence for evolution_260 13.3 A mass of evidence validates the evolutionary view of life_262 Darwin_s Theory and the Modern Synthesis 13.4 Darwin proposed natural selection as the mechanism of evolution_264 13.5 Scientists can observe natural selection in action_266 13.6 Populations are the units of evolution_267 13.7 Microevolution is change in a population_s gene pool over time_268 13.8 The gene pool of an idealized nonevolving population remains constant over the generations_268 13.9 The Hardy-Weinberg equation is useful in public health science_269 13.10 Five conditions are required for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium_270 13.11 There are several potential causes for microevolution_270 13.12 Adaptive change results when natural selection upsets genetic equilibrium_272 Variation and Natural Selection 13.13 Variation is extensive in most populations_272 13.14 Mutation and sexual recombination generate variation_273 13.15 Overview: How natural selection affects variation_274 13.16 Not all genetic variation may be subject to natural selection_274 13.17 Endangered species often have reduced variation_275 13.18 The perpetuation of genes defines evolutionary fitness_275 13.19 There are three general outcomes of natural selection_276 13.20 Sexual selection may produce sexual dimorphism_277 13.21 Natural selection cannot fashion perfect organisms_277 13.22 The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a serious public health concern_278 Chapter Review_278 14 the origin of species_280 Evolution Underground Concepts of Species 14.1 What is a species?_282 14.2 Reproductive barriers keep species separate_284 Mechanisms of Speciation 14.3 Geographic isolation can lead to speciation_286 14.4 Islands are living laboratories of speciation_287 14.5 New species can also arise within the same geographic area as the parent species_288 14.6 Polyploid plants clothe and feed us_289 14.7 Reproductive barriers may evolve as populations diverge 290 14.8 The tempo of speciation can appear steady or jumpy_291 14.9 Talking About Science: Peter and Rosemary Grant study the evolution of Darwin_s finches_292 Chapter Review_292 15 tracing evolutionary history_294 Are Birds Really Dinosaurs with Feathers? Earth History and Macroevolution 15.1 The fossil record chronicles macroevolution_296 15.2 The actual ages of rocks and fossils mark geologic time_297 15.3 Continental drift has played a major role in macroevolution_298 15.4 Tectonic trauma imperils local life_300 15.5 Mass extinctions were followed by diversification of life-forms_300 15.6 Key adaptations may enable species to proliferate after mass extinctions_302 15.7 _Evo-devo_: Genes that control development play a major role in evolution_303 15.8 Evolutionary trends do not mean that evolution is directed toward a goal_304 15.9 Phylogenetic trees strive to represent evolutionary history_305 Systematics and Phylogenetic Biology 15.10 Systematists classify organisms by phylogeny_306 15.11 Homology indicates common ancestry, but analogy does not_307 15.12 Molecular biology is a powerful tool in systematics_308 15.13 Systematists attempt to make classification consistent with phylogeny_310 The Domains of Life 15.14 Arranging life into kingdoms is a work in progress_312 Chapter Review_313 unit iv The Evolution of Biological Diversity 16 the origin and evolution of microbial life: prokaryotes and protists_316 How Ancient Bacteria Changed the World Early Earth and the Origin of Life 16.1 Life began on a young Earth_318 16.2 How did life originate?_320 16.3 Talking About Science: Stanley Miller_s experiments showed that organic molecules could have arisen on a lifeless Earth_320 16.4 The first polymers may have formed on hot rocks or clay_322 16.5 The first genetic material and enzymes may both have been RNA_322 16.6 Molecular cooperatives enclosed by membranes probably preceded the first real cells_323 Prokaryotes 16.7 Prokaryotes have inhabited Earth for billions of years_324 16.8 Archaea and bacteria are the two main branches of prokaryotic evolution_324 16.9 Prokaryotes come in a variety of shapes_325 16.10 Prokaryotes obtain nourishment in a variety of ways_326 16.11 Archaea thrive in extreme environments_ and in the ocean_327 16.12 Diverse structural features help prokaryotes thrive almost everywhere_328 16.13 Cyanobacteria sometimes _bloom_ in aquatic environments_329 16.14 Some bacteria cause disease_330 16.15 Koch_s postulates are used to identify disease-causing bacteria_331 16.16 Bacteria can be used as biological weapons_332 16.17 Prokaryotes help recycle chemicals and clean up the environment_332 Protists 16.18 The eukaryotic cell probably originated as a community of prokaryotes_334 16.19 Protists_unicellular eukaryotes and their close multicellular relatives_probably represent multiple kingdoms_335 16.20 Protozoans are protists that ingest their food_336 16.21 Cellular slime molds have both unicellular and multicellular stages_337 16.22 Plasmodial slime molds are brightly colored _supercells_ with many nuclei_338 16.23 Photosynthetic protists are called algae_338 16.24 Seaweeds are multicellular marine algae_340 16.25 Multicellular life may have evolved from colonial protists_341 16.26 Multicellular life has diversified over hundreds of millions of years_342 Chapter Review_342 17 plants, fungi, and the colonization of land_344 Plants and Fungi_A Beneficial Partnership 17.1 What is a plant?_346 Plant Evolution and Diversity 17.2 Plants evolved from green algae called charophyceans_347 17.3 Plant diversity provides clues to the evolutionary history of the plant kingdom_348 Alternation of Generations and Plant Life Cycles 17.4 Haploid and diploid generations alternate in plant life cycles_350 17.5 Mosses have a dominant gametophyte_350 17.6 Ferns, like most plants, have a dominant sporophyte_351 17.7 Seedless plants formed vast _coral forests__352 17.8 A pine tree is a sporophyte with tiny gametophytes in its cones_352 17.9 The flower is the centerpiece of angiosperm reproduction_354 17.10 The angiosperm plant is a sporophyte with gametophytes in its flowers_354 17.11 The structure of a fruit reflects its function in seed dispersal_356 17.12 Agriculture is based almost entirely on angiosperms_356 17.13 Interactions with animals have profoundly influenced angiosperm evolution_357 17.14 Plant diversity is a nonrenewable resource_358 Fungi 17.15 Fungi and plants moved onto land together_359 17.16 Fungi absorb food after digesting it outside their bodies_360 17.17 Many fungi have three distinct phases in their life cycle_361 17.18 Lichens consist of fungi living mutualistically with photosynthetic organisms_362 17.19 Parasitic fungi harm plants and animals_363 17.20 Fungi have enormous ecological and practical impacts_364 Chapter Review_364 18 the evolution of animal diversity_366 What Am I? Animal Evolution and Diversity 18.1 What is an animal?_368 18.2 The animal kingdom probably originated from colonial protists_369 Invertebrates 18.3 Sponges have a relatively simple, porous body_370 18.4 Cnidarians are radial animals with stinging threads_371 18.5 Most animals are bilaterally symmetrical_372 18.6 Flatworms are the simplest bilateral animals_372 18.7 Most animals have a body cavity_374 18.8 Roundworms have a pseudocoelom and a complete digestive tract_375 18.9 Diverse mollusks are variations on a common body plan_376 18.10 Many animals have a segmented body_378 18.11 Earthworms and other annelids are segmented worms_379 18.12 Arthropods are the most numerous and widespread of all animals_380 18.13 Insects are the most diverse group of organisms_382 18.14 Echinoderms have spiny skin, an endoskeleton, and a water vascular system for movement_384 18.15 Our own phylum, Chordata, is distinguished by four features_385 Vertebrates 18.16 A skull and a backbone are hallmarks of vertebrates_386 18.17 Most vertebrates have hinged jaws_386 18.18 Fishes are jawed vertebrates with gills and paired fins_387 18.19 Amphibians were the first land vertebrates_388 18.20 Reptiles have more terrestrial adaptations than amphibians_389 18.21 Birds share many features with their reptilian ancestors_390 18.22 Mammals also evolved from reptiles_391 Phylogeny of the Animal Kingdom 18.23 A phylogenetic tree gives animal diversity an evolutionary perspective_392 18.24 Humans threaten animal diversity by introducing non-native species_394 Chapter Review_395 19 human evolution_398 Are We Related to the Neantherthals? Primate Diversity 19.1 The human story begins with our primate heritage_400 19.2 Apes are our closest relatives_402 Hominid Evolution 19.3 The human branch of the primate tree is only a few million years old_403 19.4 Upright posture evolved well before our enlarged brain_404 19.5 Homo and the evolution of larger brains_404 19.6 When and where did modern humans arise?_405 Our Cultural History and Its Consequences 19.7 Culture gives us enormous power to change our environment_406 19.8 Scavenging-gathering-hunting was the first major stage of culture_406 19.9 Agriculture was a second major stage of culture_407 19.10 The machine age is the third major stage of culture_407 Chapter Review_408 unit v Animals: Form and Function 20 unifying concepts of animal structure and function_412 Climbing the Walls The Hierarchy of Structural Organization in an Animal 20.1 Structure fits function in the animal body_414 20.2 Animal structure has a hierarchy_415 20.3 Tissues are groups of cells with a common structure and function_415 20.4 Epithelial tissue covers and lines the body and its parts_416 20.5 Connective tissue binds and supports other tissues 417 20.6 Muscle tissue functions in movement_418 20.7 Nervous tissue forms a communication network_418 20.8 Several tissues are organized to form an organ_419 20.9 The body is a cooperative of organ systems_420 20.10 New imaging technology reveals the inner body_422 Exchanges with the External Environment 20.11 Structural adaptations enhance exchange between animals and their environment_424 20.12 Animals regulate their internal environment_425 20.13 Homeostasis depends on negative feedback_426 Chapter Review_427 21 nutrition and digestion_428 Getting Their Fill of Krill Obtaining and Processing Food 21.1 Animals ingest their food in a variety of ways_430 21.2 Overview: Food processing occurs in four stages_431 21.3 Digestion occurs in specialized compartments_432 Human Digestive System 21.4 The human digestive system consists of an alimentary canal and accessory glands_434 21.5 Digestion begins in the oral cavity_435 21.6 The food and breathing passages both open into the pharynx_435 21.7 The esophagus squeezes food along to the stomach_436 21.8 The stomach stores food and breaks it down with acid and enzymes_436 21.9 Bacterial infections can cause ulcers_437 21.10 The small intestine is the major organ of chemical digestion and nutrient absorption_438 21.11 The large intestine reclaims water_440 Diets and Digestive Adaptations 21.12 Adaptations of vertebrate digestive systems reflect diet_440 Nutrition 21.13 Overview: A healthful diet satisfies three needs_442 21.14 Chemical energy powers the body_442 21.15 Body fat and fad diets_443 21.16 Vegetarian must be sure to obtain all eight essential amino acids_444 21.17 A healthful diet includes 13 vitamins_444 21.18 Essential minerals are required for many body functions_446 21.19 What do food labels tell us?_447 21.20 Diet can influence cardiovascular disease and cancer_448 Chapter Review_448 22 respiration: the exchange of gases_450 Surviving in Thin Air Mechanisms of Gas Exchange 22.1 Overview: Gas exchange involves breathing, the transport of gases, and the servicing of tissue cells_452 22.2 Animals exchange O2 and CO2 through moist body surfaces_452 22.3 Gills are adapted for gas exchange in aquatic environments_454 22.4 Countercurrent flow in the gills enhances O2 transfer_455 22.5 The tracheal system of insects provides direct exchange between the air and body cells_455 22.6 Terrestrial vertebrates have lungs_456 22.7 Smoking is one of the deadliest assaults on our respiratory system_457 22.8 Breathing ventilates the lungs_458 22.9 Breathing is automatically controlled_459 Transport of Gases in the Body 22.10 Blood transports the respiratory gases, with hemoglobin carrying the oxygen_460 22.11 Hemoglobin helps transport CO2 and buffer the blood_461 22.12 The human fetus exchanges gases with the mother_s bloodstream_462 Chapter Review_462 23 circulation_464 How Does Gravity Affect Blood Circulation? 23.1 The circulatory system associates intimately with all body tissues_466 Mechanisms of Internal Transport 23.2 Several types of internal transport have evolved in animals_466 23.3 Vertebrate cardiovascular systems reflect evolution_468 The Mammalian Cardiovascular System 23.4 The human heart and cardiovascular system typify those of mammals_469 23.5 The structure of blood vessels fits their functions_470 23.6 The heart contracts and relaxes rhythmically_470 23.7 The pacemaker sets the tempo of the heartbeat_471 23.8 What is a heart attack?_472 23.9 Blood exerts pressure on vessel walls_473 23.10 Measuring blood pressure can reveal cardiovascular problems_474 23.11 Smooth muscle controls the distribution of blood_475 23.12 Capillaries allow the transfer of substances through their walls_476 Structure and Function of Blood 23.13 Blood consists of cells suspended in plasma_477 23.14 Red blood cells transport oxygen_478 23.15 White blood cells help defend the body_478 23.16 Blood clots plug leaks when blood vessels are injured_479 23.17 Stem cells offer a potential cure for leukemia and other blood cell diseases_480 Chapter Review_480 24 the immune system_482 The Continuing Problem of HIV Nonspecific Defenses Against Infection 24.1 Nonspecific defenses against infection include the skin and mucous membranes, phagocytic cells, and antimicrobial proteins_484 24.2 The inflammatory response mobilizes nonspecific defense forces_485 24.3 The lymphatic system becomes a crucial battleground during infection_486 Specific Immunity 24.4 The immune response counters specific invaders_487 24.5 Lymphocytes mount a dual defense_488 24.6 Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them_489 24.7 Clonal selection musters defensive forces against specific antigens_490 24.8 The initial immune response results in a type of _memory__491 24.9 Overview: B cells are the warriors of humoral immunity_492 24.10 Antibodies are the weapons of humoral immunity_493 24.11 Antibodies mark antigens for elimination_494 24.12 Monoclonal antibodies are powerful tools in the lab and clinic_495 24.13 T cells mount the cell-mediated defense and aid humoral immunity_496 24.14 Cytotoxic T cells may help prevent cancer_497 24.15 The immune system depends on our molecular fingerprints_498 Disorders of the Immune System 24.16 Malfunction or failure of the immune system causes disease_498 24.17 Allergies are overreactions to certain environmental antigens_499 24.18 AIDS leaves the body defenseless_500 Chapter Review_500 25 control of the internal environment_502 Let Sleeping Bears Lie Thermoregulation 25.1 Heat is gained or lost in four ways_504 25.2 Thermoregulation depends on both heat production and heat gain or loss_504 25.3 Behavior often affects body temperature_505 25.4 Reducing the metabolic rate saves energy_506 Osmoregulation and Excretion 25.5 Osmoregulation: All animals balance the gain and loss of water and dissolved solutes_506 25.6 Sweating can produce serious water loss_508 25.7 Some animals face seasonal dehydration_508 25.8 Animals must dispose of nitrogenous wastes_509 25.9 The excretory system plays several major roles in homeostasis_510 25.10 Overview: The key functions of the excretory system are filtration, reabsorption, secretion, and excretion_511 25.11 From blood filtrate to urine: A closer look_512 25.12 Kidney dialysis can be a lifesaver_513 Homeostatic Functions of the Liver 25.13 The liver is vital in homeostasis_514 Chapter Review_514 26 chemical regulation_516 Testosterone and Male Aggression The Nature of Chemical Regulation 26.1 Chemical signals coordinate body functions_518 26.2 Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms_519 The Vertebrate Endocrine System 26.3 Overview: The vertebrate endocrine system_520 26.4 The hypothalamus, closely tied to the pituitary, connects the nervous and endocrine systems_522 26.5 The hypothalamus and pituitary have multiple endocrine functions_522 Hormones and Homeostasis 26.6 The thyroid regulates development and metabolism_524 26.7 Hormones from the thyroid and the parathyroids maintain calcium homeostasis_524 26.8 Pancreatic hormones manage cellular fuel_526 26.9 Diabetes is a common endocrine disorder_527 26.10 The adrenal glands mobilize responses to stress_528 26.11 Glucocorticoids offer relief from pain, but not without serious risks_529 26.12 The gonads secrete sex hormones_530 Chapter Review_530 27 reproduction and embryonic development_532 Mating Without Males Asexual and Sexual Reproduction 27.1 Sexual and asexual reproduction are both common among animals_534 Human Reproduction 27.2 Reproductive anatomy of the human female_536 27.3 Reproductive anatomy of the human male_538 27.4 The formation of sperm and ova requires meiosis_540 27.5 Hormones synchronize cyclical changes in the ovary and uterus_542 27.6 The human sexual response occurs in four phases_544 27.7 Sexual activity can transmit disease_544 27.8 Contraception prevents unwanted pregnancy_545 Principles of Embryonic Development 27.9 Fertilization results in a zygote and triggers embryonic development_546 27.10 Cleavage produces a ball of cells from the zygote_548 27.11 Gastrulation produces a three-layered embryo_548 27.12 Organs start to form after gastrulation_550 27.13 Changes in cell shape, cell migration, and programmed cell death give form to the developing animal_552 27.14 Embryonic induction initiates organ formation_552 27.15 Pattern formation organizes the animal body_553 Human Development 27.16 The embryo and placenta take shape during the first month of pregnancy_554 27.17 Human development from conception to birth is divided into three trimesters_556 27.18 Childbirth is hormonally induced and occurs in three stages_558 27.19 Reproductive technology increases our reproductive options_559 Chapter Review_560 28 nervous systems_562 Can an Injured Spinal Cord Be Fixed? Nervous System Structure and Function 28.1 Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate commands_564 28.2 Neurons are the functional units of nervous systems_565 Nerve Signals and Their Transmission 28.3 A neuron maintains a membrane potential across its membrane_566 28.4 A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential_566 28.5 The action potential regenerates itself along the neuron_568 28.6 Neurons communicate at synapses_569 28.7 Chemical synapses make complex information processing possible_570 28.8 A variety of small molecules function as neurotransmitters_570 28.9 Many drugs act at chemical synapses_571 Nervous Systems 28.10 Nervous system organization usually correlates with body symmetry_572 28.11 Vertebrate nervous systems are highly centralized and cephalized_573 28.12 The peripheral nervous system of vertebrates is a functional hierarchy_574 28.13 Opposing actions of sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons regulate the internal environment_574 28.14 The vertebrate brain develops from three anterior bulges of the neural tube_576 The Human Brain 28.15 The structure of a living supercomputer: The human brain_576 28.16 The cerebral cortex is a mosaic of specialized, interactive regions_578 28.17 Injuries and brain operations have provided insight into brain function_579 28.18 Several parts of the brain regulate sleep and arousal_58028.19 The limbic system is involved in emotions, memory, and learning_581 28.20 The cellular changes underlying memory and learning probably occur at synapses_582 Chapter Review_582 29 the senses_584 An Animal_s Senses Guide Its Movements 29.1 Sensory inputs become sensations and perceptions in the brain_586 Sensory Reception 29.2 Sensory receptor cells convert stimuli into electrical energy_586 29.3 Specialized sensory receptors detect five categories of stimuli_588 Vision 29.4 Three different types of eyes have evolved among invertebrates_590 29.5 Vertebrates have single-lens eyes_590 29.6 To focus, a lens changes position or shape_591 29.7 Artificial lenses or surgery can correct focusing problems_592 29.8 Our photoreceptor cells are rods and cones_593 Hearing and Balance 29.9 The ear converts air pressure waves into action potentials that are perceived as sound_594 29.10 The inner ear houses our organ of balance_596 29.11 What causes motion sickness?_596 Taste and Smell 29.12 Odor and taste receptors detect categories of chemicals_597 29.13 Review: The central nervous system couples stimulus with response_598 Chapter Review_598 30 how animals move_600 How Do Ants Move Forests? Movement and Locomotion 30.1 Diverse means of animal locomotion have evolved_602 Skeletal Support 30.2 Skeletons function in support, movement, and protection_604 30.3 The human skeleton is a unique variation on an ancient theme_606 30.4 Skeletal disorders afflict millions_607 30.5 Bones are complex living organs_608 30.6 Broken bones can heal themselves_608 Muscle Contraction and Movement 30.7 The skeleton and muscles interact in movement_609 30.8 Each muscle cell has its own contractile apparatus_610 30.9 A muscle contracts when thin filaments slide across thick filaments_610 30.10 Motor neurons stimulate muscle contraction_612 30.11 Athletic training increases strength and endurance_613 30.12 The structure-function theme underlies all the parts and activities of an animal_614 Chapter Review_615 unit vi Plants: Form and Function 31 plant structure, reproduction, and development_618 A Gentle Giant 31.1 Talking About Science: Plant scientist Katherine Esau was a preeminent student of plant structure and function_620 Plant Structure and Function 31.2 The two main groups of angiosperms are the monocots and the dicots_621 31.3 The plant body consists of roots and shoots_622 31.4 Many plants have modified roots and shoots_623 31.5 Plant cells and tissues are diverse in structure and function_624 31.6 Three tissue systems make up the plant body_626 Plant Growth 31.7 Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots_628 31.8 Secondary growth increases the girth of woody plants_630 Plant Reproduction 31.9 Overview: The sexual life cycle of a flowering plant_632 31.10 The development of pollen and ovules culminates in fertilization_632 31.11 The ovule develops into a seed_634 31.12 The ovary develops into a fruit_635 31.13 Seed germination continues the life cycle_636 31.14 Asexual reproduction produces plant clones_637 31.15 Vegetative reproduction is a mainstay of modern agriculture_638 Chapter Review_638 32 plant nutrition and transport_640 Plants That Clean Up Poisons The Uptake and Transport of Plant Nutrients 32.1 Plants acquire their nutrients from soil and air_642 32.2 The plasma membranes of root cells control solute uptake_643 32.3 Transpiration pulls water up xylem vessels_644 32.4 Guard cells control transpiration_645 32.5 Phloem transports sugars_646 Plant Nutrients and the Soil 32.6 Plant health depends on a complete diet of essential inorganic nutrients_648 32.7 You can diagnose some nutrient deficiencies in your own plants_649 32.8 Soil contains rock particles, humus, organisms, water, and crucial solutes_650 32.9 Soil conservation is essential to human life_651 32.10 Organic farmers avoid the use of commercial chemicals_652 32.11 Fungi help most plants absorb nutrients from the soil_652 32.12 The plant kingdom includes parasites and carnivores_653 32.13 Most plants depend on bacteria to supply nitrogen_654 32.14 Legumes and certain other plants house nitrogen-fixing bacteria_654 Plant Nutrients and Agriculture 32.15 A major goal of agricultural research is to improve the protein content of crops_655 32.16 Genetic engineering is increasing crop yields_656 Chapter Review_656 33 control systems in plants_658 The Benefits of Soy Plant Hormones 33.1 Experiments on how plants turn toward light led to the discovery of a plant hormone_660 33.2 Five major types of hormones regulate plant growth and development_662 33.3 Auxin stimulates the elongation of cells in young shoots_662 33.4 Cytokinins stimulate cell division_664 33.5 Gibberellins affect stem elongation and have numerous other effects_664 33.6 Abscisic acid inhibits many plant processes_665 33.7 Ethylene triggers fruit ripening and other aging processes_666 33.8 Plant hormones have many agricultural uses_667 Growth Responses and Biological Rhythms in Plants 33.9 Tropisms orient plant growth toward or away from environmental stimuli_668 33.10 Plants have internal clocks_669 33.11 Plants mark the seasons by measuring photoperiod_670 33.12 Phytochrome is a light detector that may help set the biological clock_671 33.13 Talking About Science: Joanne Chory studies the effects of light and hormones in the model plant Arabidopsis_672 Plant Defenses 33.14 Defenses against herbivores and infectious microbes have evolved in plants_672 33.15 Talking About Science: Plant biochemist Eloy Rodriguez studies how animals use defensive chemicals made by plants_674 Chapter Review_675 unit vii Ecology 34 the biosphere: an introduction to earth_s diverse environments_678 A Mysterious Giant of the Deep 34.1 Ecologists study how organisms interact with their environment at several levels_680 The Biosphere 34.2 The biosphere is the total of all of Earth_s ecosystems_680 34.3 Environmental problems reveal the limits of the biosphere_681 34.4 Physical and chemical factors influence life in the biosphere_682 34.5 Organisms are adapted to abiotic and biotic factors by natural selection_683 34.6 Regional climate influences the distribution of biological communities_684 Aquatic Biomes 34.7 Oceans occupy most of Earth_s surface_686 34.8 Freshwater biomes include lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, and wetlands_688 Terrestrial Biomes 34.9 Terrestrial biomes reflect regional variations in climate_689 34.10 Tropical forests cluster near the equator_690 34.11 Talking About Science: Ecologist Ariel Lugo studies tropical forests in Puerto Rico_691 34.12 Savannas are grasslands with scattered trees_692 34.13 Deserts are defined by their dryness_692 34.14 Spiny shrubs dominate the chaparral_693 34.15 Temperate grasslands include the North American prairie_694 34.16 Deciduous trees dominate temperate forests_694 34.17 Coniferous forests are often dominated by a few species of trees_695 34.18 Long, bitter-cold winters characterize the tundra_696 Chapter Review_696 35 population dynamics_698 The Spread of Shakespeare_s Starlings 35.1 Populations are defined in several ways_700 Population Structure and Dynamics 35.2 Density and dispersion patterns are important population variables_700 35.3 Idealized models help us understand population growth_702 35.4 Multiple factors may limit population growth_704 35.5 Some populations have _boom-and-bust_ cycles_705 Life Histories and Their Evolution 35.6 Life tables track mortality and survivorship in populations_706 35.7 Evolution shapes life histories_706 The Human Population 35.8 The human population has been growing exponentially for centuries_708 35.9 Birth and death rates and age structure affect population growth_710 35.10 Principles of population ecology have practical applications_712 Chapter Review_712 36 communities and ecosystems_714 Dining In 36.1 A community is all the organisms inhabiting a particular area_716 Structural Features of Communities 36.2 Competition may occur when a shared resource is limited_717 36.3 Predation leads to diverse adaptations in both predator and prey_718 36.4 Predation can maintain diversity in a community_720 36.5 Symbiotic relationships help structure communities_720 36.6 Disturbance is a prominent feature of most communities_722 36.7 Talking About Science: Ecologist Frank Gilliam discusses the role of fire in ecosystems_723 Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics 36.8 Energy flow and chemical cycling are the two fundamental processes in ecosystems_724 36.9 Trophic structure is a key factor in ecosystem dynamics_724 36.10 Food chains interconnect, forming food webs_726 36.11 Energy supply limits the length of food chains_727 36.12 A production pyramid explains why meat is a luxury for humans_728 36.13 Chemicals are recycled between organic matter and abiotic reservoirs_728 36.14 Water moves through the biosphere in a global cycle_729 36.15 The carbon cycle depends on photosynthesis and respiration_730 36.16 The nitrogen cycle relies heavily on bacteria_730 36.17 The phosphorus cycle depends on the weathering of rock_731 Ecosystem Alteration 36.18 Ecosystem alteration can upset chemical cycling_732 36.19 Talking About Science: David Schindler talks about the effects of nutrients on freshwater ecosystems_733 36.20 Zoned reserves are an attempt to reverse ecosystem disruption_734 Chapter Review_734 37 behavioral adaptations to the environment_736 Tracking Jaguars Classic Concepts in Behavior 37.1 Behavioral biologists study the actions of animals in their natural environments_738 37.2 Behavior results from both genes and environmental factors_739 37.3 Innate behavior often appears as fixed action patterns_740 37.4 Learning ranges from simple behavioral changes to complex problem solving_742 37.5 Imprinting is learning that involves both innate behavior and experience_742 37.6 Many animals learn by association and imitation_744 37.7 Animal cognition includes problem-solving behavior_745 Ecological Roles of Behavior 37.8 An animal_s behavior reflects its evolution_746 37.9 Biological rhythms synchronize behavior with the environment_746 37.10 Animal movement may be oriented to stimuli or landmarks_748 37.11 Movement from place to place often depends on internal maps_748 37.12 Behavioral ecologists use cost/benefit analysis in studying feeding behavior_750 Social Behavior and Sociobiology 37.13 Sociobiology places social behavior in an evolutionary context_751 37.14 Rituals involving agonistic behavior often resolve confrontations between competitors_752 37.15 Dominance hierarchies are maintained by agonistic behavior_752 37.16 Talking About Science: Behavioral biologist Jane Goodall discusses dominance hierarchies and reconciliation behavior in chimpanzees_753 37.17 Territorial behavior parcels space and resources_754 37.18 Mating behavior often involves elaborate courtship rituals_754 37.19 Complex social organization hinges on complex signaling_756 37.20 Altruistic acts can be explained by evolution_758 37.21 Talking About Science: Edward O. Wilson promoted the field of sociobiology and is a leading conservation activist_759 37.22 Both genes and culture contribute to human social behavior_760 Chapter Review_760 38 conservation biology_762 Saving the Key Deer The Biodiversity Crisis: An Overview 38.1 Habitat destruction, introduced species, and overexploitation are the major threats to biodiversity_764 38.2 Biodiversity is vital to human welfare_765 38.3 Technology and the population explosion compound our impact on habitats and other species_766 38.4 Rapid global warming could alter the entire biosphere_768 The Geographic Distribution of Biodiversity 38.5 Some locations in the biosphere are especially rich in biodiversity_770 Conservation of Populations Species 38.6 There are two approaches to studying endangered populations_772 38.7 Identifying critical habitat factors is a central goal in conservation research_773 38.8 Increased fragmentation threatens many populations: A case study_774 Managing and Sustaining Ecosystems 38.9 Sustaining ecosystems and landscapes is a conservation priority_776 38.10 Edges and corridors can strongly influence landscape biodiversity_777 38.11 Restoring degraded habitats is a developing science_778 38.12 Sustainable development is an ultimate goal_779 Chapter Review_780 appendix 1 Metric Conversion Table appendix 2 The Amino Acids of Proteins appendix 3 Chapter Review Answers appendix 4 Credits_ glossary index
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