Table of contents for Biology : concepts and connections / Neil A. Campbell ... [et al.].

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1	introduction: 
the scientific study of life_1
Life in the Trees
The Scope of Biology
1.1	Life_s levels of organization define the scope of biology_2
The Process of Science
1.2	Scientists use two main approaches to learn about nature_3
1.3	With the scientific method, we pose and test hypotheses_4
Evolution, Unity, and Diversity
1.4	The diversity of life can be arranged into three domains_6
1.5	Unity in diversity: All forms of life have common features_8
1.6	Evolution explains the unity and diversity of life_8
1.7	Living organisms and their environments form interconnecting webs_10
Biology and Everyday Life
1.8	Biology is connected to our lives in many ways_12
Chapter Review_13
unit i
The Life of the Cell
2	the chemical basis of life_16
Thomas Eisner and the Chemical Language of Nature
Atoms and Molecules
2.1	The emergence of biological function starts at the chemical level_18
2.2	Life requires about 25 chemical elements_19
2.3	Elements can combine to form compounds_19
2.4	Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons_20
2.5	Radioactive isotopes can help or harm us_21
2.6	Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom_22
2.7	Ionic bonds are attractions between ions of opposite charge_22
2.8	Covalent bonds, the sharing of electrons, join atoms into molecules_23
The Properties of Water
2.9	Water is a polar molecule_24
2.10	Overview: Water_s polarity leads to hydrogen bonding and other unusual 
properties _24
2.11	Hydrogen bonds make liquid water cohesive_25
2.12	Water_s hydrogen bonds moderate 
temperature_25
2.13	Ice is less dense than liquid water_26
2.14	Water is a versatile solvent_26
2.15	The chemistry of life is sensitive to acidic and 
basic conditions_27
2.16	Acid precipitation threatens the environment_28
Rearrangements of Atoms
2.17	Chemical reactions rearrange matter_29
Chapter Review_30
3	the molecules of cells_32
Spider Silk: Stronger Than Steel
Introduction to Organic Compounds and 
Their Polymers
3.1	Life_s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon_34
3.2	Functional groups help determine the properties of organic compounds_35
3.3	Cells make a huge number of large molecules from a small set of small 
molecules_36
Carbohydrates
3.4	Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates_37
3.5	Cells link single sugars to form disaccharides_38
3.6	How sweet is sweet?_38
3.7	Polysaccharides are long chains of sugar units_39
Lipids
3.8	Lipids include fats, which are mostly energy-storage
	molecules_40
3.9	Phospholipids, waxes, and steroids are lipids with a variety of functions_41
3.10	Anabolic steroids and related substances pose health risks_41
Proteins
3.11	Proteins are essential to the structures and activities of life_42
3.12	Proteins are made from just 20 kinds of amino acids_42
3.13	Amino acids can be linked by peptide bonds_43
3.14	Overview: A protein_s specific shape determines its function_43
3.15	A protein_s primary structure is its amino acid sequence_44
3.16	Secondary structure is polypeptide coiling or folding produced by hydrogen 
bonding_44
3.17	Tertiary structure is the overall shape of a 
polypeptide_44
3.18	Quaternary structure is the relationship among multiple polypeptides of a 
protein_44
3.19	Talking About Science: Linus Pauling contributed to our understanding of the 
chemistry of life_46
Nucleic Acids
3.20	Nucleic acids are information-rich polymers of nucleotides_47
Chapter Review_48
4	a tour of the cell_50
The Art of Looking at Cells
Introduction to the World of the Cell
4.1	Microscopes provide windows to the world 
of the cell_52
4.2	Cell sizes vary with their function_54
4.3	Natural laws limit cell size_54
4.4	Prokaryotic cells are small and structurally simple_55
4.5	Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into functional compartments_56
Organelles of the Endomembrane System
4.6	The nucleus is the cell_s genetic control center_58
4.7	Overview: Many cell organelles are related through the endomembrane system_58
4.8	Rough endoplasmic reticulum makes membrane and proteins_58
4.9	Smooth endoplasmic reticulum has a variety of functions_59
4.10	The Golgi apparatus finishes, sorts, and ships cell products_60
4.11	Lysosomes digest the cell_s food and wastes_60
4.12	Abnormal lysosomes can cause fatal diseases_61
4.13	Vacuoles function in the general maintenance 
of the cell_62
4.14	A review of the endomembrane system_62
Energy-Converting Organelles
4.15	Chloroplasts convert solar energy to chemical 
energy_63
4.16	Mitochondria harvest chemical energy from food_63
The Cytoskeleton and Related Structures
4.17	The cell_s internal skeleton helps organize its structure and activities_64
4.18	Cilia and flagella move when microtubules bend_65
Eukaryotic Cell Surfaces and Junctions
4.19	Cell surfaces protect, support, and join cells_66
Functional Categories of Organelles
4.20	Eukaryotic organelles comprise four functional categories_67
4.21	Extraterrestrial life-forms may share features with life on Earth_68
Chapter Review_68
5	the working cell_70
Cool _Fires_ Attract Mates and Meals
Energy and the Cell
5.1	Energy is the capacity to perform work_72
5.2	Two laws govern energy conversion_72
5.3	Chemical reactions either store or release energy_74
5.4	ATP shuttles chemical energy within the cell_75
How Enzymes Work
5.5	Enzymes speed up the cell_s chemical reactions by lowering energy barriers_76
5.6	A specific enzyme catalyzes each cellular reaction_77
5.7	The cellular environment affects enzyme activity_77
5.8	Enzyme inhibitors block enzyme action_78
5.9	Some pesticides and antibiotics inhibit enzymes_78
Membrane Structure and Function
5.10	Membranes organize the chemical activities of cells_79
5.11	Membrane phospholipids form a bilayer _79
5.12	The membrane is a fluid mosaic of phospholipids and proteins_80
5.13	Proteins make the membrane a mosaic of function_80
5.14	Passive transport is diffusion across a membrane_81
5.15	Osmosis is the passive transport of water_82
5.16	Water balance between cells and their surroundings 
is crucial to organisms_82
5.17	Transport proteins facilitate diffusion across membranes_83
5.18	Cells expend energy for active transport_84
5.19	Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules_84
5.20	Faulty membranes can overload the blood with cholesterol_85
5.21	Chloroplasts and mitochondria make energy available for cellular work_86
Chapter Review_86
6	how cells harvest chemical 
energy_88
How Is a Marathoner Different from a Sprinter?
Introduction to Cellular Respiration
6.1	Breathing supplies oxygen to our cells and removes carbon dioxide_90
6.2	Cellular respiration banks energy in ATP molecules_90
6.3	The human body uses energy from ATP for all its activities_91
Basic Mechanisms of Energy Release and Storage
6.4	Cells tap energy from electrons transferred from organic fuels to oxygen_92
6.5	Hydrogen carriers such as NAD1 shuttle electrons in redox reactions_92
6.6	Redox reactions release energy when electrons _fall_ from a hydrogen carrier 
to oxygen_93
6.7	Two mechanisms generate ATP_94
Stages of Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
6.8	Overview: Respiration occurs in three main stages_95
6.9	Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvic acid_96
6.10	Pyruvic acid is chemically groomed for the Krebs cycle_98
6.11	The Krebs cycle completes the oxidation of 
organic fuel, generating many NADH and FADH2 molecules_98
6.12	Chemiosmosis powers most ATP production_100
6.13	Certain poisons interrupt critical events in cellular respiration_101
6.14	Review: Each molecule of glucose yields many molecules of ATP_102
6.15	Fermentation is an anaerobic alternative to aerobic respiration_103
Interconnections Between Molecular Breakdown 
and Synthesis
6.16	Cells use many kinds of organic molecules as fuel for cellular 
respiration_104
6.17	Food molecules provide raw materials for biosynthesis_105
6.18	The fuel for respiration ultimately comes from photosynthesis_106
Chapter Review_106
7	photosynthesis: 
using light to make food_108
Life in the Sun
An Overview of Photosynthesis
7.1	Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere_110
7.2	Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts_111
7.3	Plants produce O2 gas by splitting water_112
7.4	Photosynthesis is a redox process, as is cellular respiration_112
7.5	Overview: Photosynthesis occurs in two stages linked by ATP and NADPH_113
The Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy
7.6	Visible radiation drives the light 
reactions_114
7.7	Photosystems capture solar power_114
7.8	In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP, NADPH, and 
O2_116
7.9	Chemiosmosis powers ATP synthesis in the light reactions_117
The Calvin Cycle: Converting CO2 to Sugars
7.10	ATP and NADPH power sugar synthesis in the Calvin cycle_118
Photosynthesis Reviewed and Extended
7.11	Review: Photosynthesis uses light energy to make food molecules_119
7.12	C4 and CAM plants have special adaptations that save water_120
Photosynthesis, Solar Radiation, and Earth_s Atmosphere
7.13	Human activity is causing global warming; photosynthesis moderates it_121
7.14	Talking About Science: Mario Molina talks about Earth_s protective ozone 
layer_122
Chapter Review_123
unit ii
Cellular Reproduction
and Genetics
8	the cellular basis 
of reproduction and 
inheritance_126
How to Make a Sea Star_With and Without Sex
Connections Between Cell Division 
and Reproduction
8.1	Like begets like, more or less_128
8.2	Cells arise only from preexisting cells_129
8.3	Prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission_129
The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle and Mitosis
8.4	The large, complex chromosomes of eukaryotes duplicate with each cell 
division_130
8.5	The cell cycle multiplies cells_131
8.6	Cell division is a continuum of dynamic 
changes_132
8.7	Cytokinesis differs for plant and animal cells_134
8.8	Anchorage, cell density, and chemical growth factors affect cell division_135
8.9	Growth factors signal the cell cycle control 
system_136
8.10	Growing out of control, cancer cells produce malignant tumors_137
8.11	Review of the functions of mitosis: Growth, cell replacement, and asexual 
reproduction_138
Meiosis and Crossing Over
8.12	Chromosomes are matched in homologous 
pairs_138
8.13	Gametes have a single set of chromosomes_139
8.14	Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid_140
8.15	Review: A comparison of mitosis and meiosis_142
8.16	Independent orientation of chromosomes in 
meiosis and random fertilization lead to varied offspring_143
8.17	Homologous chromosomes carry different versions 
of genes_144
8.18	Crossing over further increases genetic 
variability_144
Alterations of Chromosome Number and Structure
8.19	A karyotype is a photographic inventory of an individual_s chromosomes_146
8.20	An extra copy of chromosome 21 causes Down syndrome_147
8.21	Accidents during meiosis can alter chromosome number_148
8.22	Abnormal numbers of sex chromosomes do not usually affect survival_149
8.23	Alterations of chromosome structure can cause birth defects and cancer_150
Chapter Review_151
9	patterns of inheritance_154
Purebreds and Mutts_A Difference of Heredity
Mendel_s Principles
9.1	The science of genetics has ancient roots_156
9.2	Experimental genetics began in an abbey garden_156
9.3	Mendel_s principle of segregation describes the inheritance of a single 
characteristic_158
9.4	Homologous chromosomes bear the two alleles for each characteristic_159
9.5	The principle of independent assortment is revealed by tracking two 
characteristics at once_160
9.6	Geneticists use the testcross to determine unknown genotypes_161
9.7	Mendel_s principles reflect the rules of probability_162
9.8	Genetic traits in humans can be tracked through family pedigrees_163
9.9	Many inherited disorders in humans are controlled by a single gene_164
9.10	Fetal testing can spot many inherited disorders early in pregnancy_166
Variations on Mendel_s Principles
9.11	The relationship of genotype to phenotype is rarely simple_168
9.12	Incomplete dominance results in intermediate phenotypes_168
9.13	Many genes have more than two alleles in the population_169
9.14	A single gene may affect many phenotypic characteristics_170
9.15	Genetic testing can detect disease-causing alleles_171
9.16	A single characteristic may be influenced by many genes_172
The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
9.17	Chromosome behavior accounts for Mendel_s principles_173
9.18	Genes on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together_174
9.19	Crossing over produces new combinations 
of alleles_174
9.20	Geneticists use crossover data to map genes_176
Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Genes
9.21	Chromosomes determine sex in many 
species_177
9.22	Sex-linked genes exhibit a unique pattern of inheritance_178
9.23	Sex-linked disorders affect mostly males_179
Chapter Review_180
10	molecular biology 
of the gene_182
Saboteurs Inside Our Cells
The Structure of the Genetic Material
10.1	Experiments showed that DNA is the genetic material_184
10.2	DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides_186
10.3	DNA is a double-stranded helix_188
DNA Replication
10.4	DNA replication depends on specific base pairing_190
10.5	DNA replication: A closer look_191
The Flow of Genetic Information from DNA to RNA to Protein
10.6	The DNA genotype is expressed as proteins, 
which provide the molecular basis for phenotypic traits_192
10.7	Genetic information written in codons is translated into amino acid 
sequences_193
10.8	The genetic code is the Rosetta stone of life_194
10.9	Transcription produces genetic messages in the 
form of RNA_195
10.10	Eukaryotic RNA is processed before leaving the nucleus_196
10.11	Transfer RNA molecules serve as interpreters during translation_196
10.12	Ribosomes build polypeptides_198
10.13	An initiation codon marks the start of an mRNA message_198
10.14	Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until a stop codon 
terminates translation_199
10.15	Review: The flow of genetic information in the cell is DNA Æ RNA Æ 
protein_200
10.16	Mutations can change the meaning of genes_201
Viruses: Genes in Packages
10.17	Viral DNA may become part of the host chromosome_202
10.18	Many viruses cause disease in animals_203
10.19	Plant viruses are serious agricultural pests_204
10.20	Emerging viruses threaten human health_204
10.21	The AIDS virus makes DNA on an RNA 
template_205
10.22	Virus research and molecular genetics are intertwined_206
Chapter Review_206
11	the control of gene 
expression_208
Human Cloning?
Gene Regulation in Prokaryotes
11.1	Proteins interacting with DNA turn prokaryotic genes on or off in response to 
environmental changes_210
Cellular Differentiation and the Cloning of Eukaryotes
11.2	Differentiation yields a variety of cell types, each expressing a different 
combination of genes_212
11.3	Differentiated cells may retain all of their genetic potential_212
11.4	Reproductive cloning of nonhuman mammals has applications in basic research, 
agriculture, and medicine_214
11.5	Because stem cells can both perpetuate themselves and give rise to 
differentiated cells, they have great therapeutic potential_214
Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes
11.6	DNA packing in eukaryotic chromosomes helps regulate gene expression_215
11.7	In female mammals, one X chromosome is inactive in each cell_216
11.8	Complex assemblies of proteins control eukaryotic transcription_216
11.9	Eukaryotic RNA may be spliced in more than one way_217
11.10	Translation and later stages of gene expression are also subject to 
regulation_218
11.11	Review: Multiple mechanisms regulate gene expression in eukaryotes_219
The Genetic Control of Embryonic Development
11.12	Cascades of gene expression and cell-to-cell signaling direct the development 
of an 
animal_220
11.13	Signal-transduction pathways convert messages received at the cell surface 
into responses within 
the cell_221
11.14	Key developmental genes are very ancient_222
The Genetic Basis of Cancer
11.15	Cancer results from mutations in genes that control cell division_222
11.16	Oncogene proteins and faulty tumor-suppressor proteins can interfere with 
normal signal-transduction pathways_224
11.17	Multiple genetic changes underlie the development of cancer_225
11.18	Talking About Science: Mary-Claire King discusses mutations that cause breast 
cancer_226
11.19	Avoiding carcinogens can reduce the risk of 
cancer_227
Chapter Review_228
12	dna technology and 
the human genome_230
From E. Coli to a Map of Our Genes
Bacteria as Tools for Manipulating DNA
12.1	In nature, bacteria can transfer DNA in three 
ways_232
12.2	Bacterial plasmids can serve as carriers for gene transfer_233
12.3	Plasmids are used to customize bacteria: 
An overview_234
12.4	Enzymes are used to _cut and paste_ DNA_235
12.5	Genes can be cloned in recombinant plasmids: 
A closer look_236
12.6	Cloned genes can be stored in genomic libraries_237
Other Tools of DNA Technology
12.7	Reverse transcriptase helps make genes for 
cloning_237
12.8	Nucleic acid probes identify clones carrying specific genes_238
12.9	DNA microarrays test for the expression of many genes at once_239
12.10	Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules by size_239
12.11	Restriction fragment analysis is a powerful method that detects differences 
in DNA sequences_240
12.12	The PCR method is used to amplify DNA 
sequences_242
The Challenge of the Human Genome
12.13	Most of the human genome does not consist of genes_242
12.14	The Human Genome Project is unlocking the secrets of our genes_244
Other Applications of DNA Technology
12.15	DNA technology is used in courts of law_245
12.16	Recombinant cells and organisms can mass-produce gene products_246
12.17	DNA technology is changing the pharmaceutical industry and medicine_247
12.18	Genetically modified organisms are transforming agriculture_248
12.19	Gene therapy may someday help treat a variety 
of diseases_249
Risks and Ethical Questions
12.20	Could GM organisms harm human health or the environment?_250
12.21	DNA technology raises important ethical 
questions_251
Chapter Review_252
unit iii
Concepts of Evolution
13	how populations evolve_256
Clown, Fool, or Simply Well Adapted?
Evidence of Evolution
13.1	A sea voyage helped Darwin frame his theory of evolution_258
13.2	The study of fossils provides strong evidence for evolution_260
13.3	A mass of evidence validates the evolutionary view of life_262
Darwin_s Theory and the Modern Synthesis
13.4	Darwin proposed natural selection as the mechanism of evolution_264
13.5	Scientists can observe natural selection in action_266
13.6	Populations are the units of evolution_267
13.7	Microevolution is change in a population_s gene pool over time_268
13.8	The gene pool of an idealized nonevolving population remains constant over 
the generations_268
13.9	The Hardy-Weinberg equation is useful in public health science_269
13.10	Five conditions are required for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium_270
13.11	There are several potential causes for microevolution_270
13.12	Adaptive change results when natural selection upsets genetic equilibrium_272
Variation and Natural Selection
13.13	Variation is extensive in most populations_272
13.14	Mutation and sexual recombination generate variation_273
13.15	Overview: How natural selection affects variation_274
13.16	Not all genetic variation may be subject to natural selection_274
13.17	Endangered species often have reduced 
variation_275
13.18	The perpetuation of genes defines evolutionary fitness_275
13.19	There are three general outcomes of natural selection_276
13.20	Sexual selection may produce sexual dimorphism_277
13.21	Natural selection cannot fashion perfect 
organisms_277
13.22	The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a 
serious public health concern_278
Chapter Review_278
14	the origin of species_280
Evolution Underground
Concepts of Species
14.1	What is a species?_282
14.2	Reproductive barriers keep species separate_284
Mechanisms of Speciation
14.3	Geographic isolation can lead to speciation_286
14.4	Islands are living laboratories of speciation_287
14.5	New species can also arise within the same geographic area as the parent 
species_288
14.6	Polyploid plants clothe and feed us_289
14.7	Reproductive barriers may evolve as populations diverge 290
14.8	The tempo of speciation can appear steady or 
jumpy_291
14.9	Talking About Science: Peter and Rosemary Grant study the evolution of 
Darwin_s finches_292
Chapter Review_292
15	tracing evolutionary 
history_294
Are Birds Really Dinosaurs with Feathers?
Earth History and Macroevolution
15.1	The fossil record chronicles macroevolution_296
15.2	The actual ages of rocks and fossils mark geologic time_297
15.3	Continental drift has played a major role in macroevolution_298
15.4	Tectonic trauma imperils local life_300
15.5	Mass extinctions were followed by diversification of life-forms_300
15.6	Key adaptations may enable species to proliferate after mass extinctions_302
15.7	_Evo-devo_: Genes that control development play a major role in evolution_303
15.8	Evolutionary trends do not mean that evolution is directed toward a goal_304
15.9	Phylogenetic trees strive to represent evolutionary 
history_305
Systematics and Phylogenetic Biology
15.10	Systematists classify organisms by phylogeny_306
15.11	Homology indicates common ancestry, but analogy does not_307
15.12	Molecular biology is a powerful tool in systematics_308
15.13	Systematists attempt to make classification consistent with phylogeny_310
The Domains of Life
15.14	Arranging life into kingdoms is a work in 
progress_312
Chapter Review_313
unit iv
The Evolution of Biological Diversity
16	the origin and evolution of microbial life: prokaryotes and protists_316
How Ancient Bacteria Changed the World
Early Earth and the Origin of Life
16.1	Life began on a young Earth_318
16.2	How did life originate?_320
16.3	Talking About Science: Stanley Miller_s experiments showed that organic 
molecules could have arisen on a lifeless Earth_320
16.4	The first polymers may have formed on hot rocks or clay_322
16.5	The first genetic material and enzymes may both have been RNA_322
16.6	Molecular cooperatives enclosed by membranes probably preceded the first real 
cells_323
Prokaryotes
16.7	Prokaryotes have inhabited Earth for billions of years_324
16.8	Archaea and bacteria are the two main branches of prokaryotic evolution_324
16.9	Prokaryotes come in a variety of shapes_325
16.10	Prokaryotes obtain nourishment in a variety 
of ways_326
16.11	Archaea thrive in extreme environments_
and in the ocean_327
16.12	Diverse structural features help prokaryotes thrive almost everywhere_328
16.13	Cyanobacteria sometimes _bloom_ in aquatic environments_329
16.14	Some bacteria cause disease_330
16.15	Koch_s postulates are used to identify disease-causing bacteria_331
16.16	Bacteria can be used as biological weapons_332
16.17	Prokaryotes help recycle chemicals and clean up the environment_332
Protists
16.18	The eukaryotic cell probably originated as a community of prokaryotes_334
16.19	Protists_unicellular eukaryotes and their close multicellular 
relatives_probably represent multiple kingdoms_335
16.20	Protozoans are protists that ingest their food_336
16.21	Cellular slime molds have both unicellular and multicellular stages_337
16.22	Plasmodial slime molds are brightly colored _supercells_ with many nuclei_338
16.23	Photosynthetic protists are called algae_338
16.24	Seaweeds are multicellular marine algae_340
16.25	Multicellular life may have evolved from colonial protists_341
16.26	Multicellular life has diversified over hundreds of millions of years_342
Chapter Review_342
17	plants, fungi, and the colonization of land_344
Plants and Fungi_A Beneficial Partnership
17.1	What is a plant?_346
Plant Evolution and Diversity
17.2	Plants evolved from green algae called charophyceans_347
17.3	Plant diversity provides clues to the evolutionary history of the plant 
kingdom_348
Alternation of Generations and Plant Life Cycles
17.4	Haploid and diploid generations alternate in plant life cycles_350
17.5	Mosses have a dominant gametophyte_350
17.6	Ferns, like most plants, have a dominant 
sporophyte_351
17.7	Seedless plants formed vast _coral forests__352
17.8	A pine tree is a sporophyte with tiny gametophytes in its cones_352
17.9	The flower is the centerpiece of angiosperm reproduction_354
17.10	The angiosperm plant is a sporophyte with gametophytes in its flowers_354
17.11	The structure of a fruit reflects its function in seed dispersal_356
17.12	Agriculture is based almost entirely on 
angiosperms_356
17.13	Interactions with animals have profoundly influenced angiosperm evolution_357
17.14	Plant diversity is a nonrenewable resource_358
Fungi
17.15	Fungi and plants moved onto land together_359
17.16	Fungi absorb food after digesting it outside their bodies_360
17.17	Many fungi have three distinct phases in their life cycle_361
17.18	Lichens consist of fungi living mutualistically with photosynthetic 
organisms_362
17.19	Parasitic fungi harm plants and animals_363
17.20	Fungi have enormous ecological and practical impacts_364
Chapter Review_364
18	the evolution of animal diversity_366
What Am I?
Animal Evolution and Diversity
18.1	What is an animal?_368
18.2	The animal kingdom probably originated from colonial protists_369
Invertebrates
18.3	Sponges have a relatively simple, porous body_370
18.4	Cnidarians are radial animals with stinging 
threads_371
18.5	Most animals are bilaterally symmetrical_372
18.6	Flatworms are the simplest bilateral animals_372
18.7	Most animals have a body cavity_374
18.8	Roundworms have a pseudocoelom and a complete digestive tract_375
18.9	Diverse mollusks are variations on a common body plan_376
18.10	Many animals have a segmented body_378
18.11	Earthworms and other annelids are segmented worms_379
18.12	Arthropods are the most numerous and widespread of all animals_380
18.13	Insects are the most diverse group of organisms_382
18.14	Echinoderms have spiny skin, an endoskeleton, and a water vascular system for 
movement_384
18.15	Our own phylum, Chordata, is distinguished by four features_385
Vertebrates
18.16	A skull and a backbone are hallmarks of 
vertebrates_386
18.17	Most vertebrates have hinged jaws_386
18.18	Fishes are jawed vertebrates with gills and paired fins_387
18.19	Amphibians were the first land vertebrates_388
18.20	Reptiles have more terrestrial adaptations than amphibians_389
18.21	Birds share many features with their reptilian ancestors_390
18.22	Mammals also evolved from reptiles_391
Phylogeny of the Animal Kingdom
18.23	A phylogenetic tree gives animal diversity an evolutionary perspective_392
18.24	Humans threaten animal diversity by introducing non-native species_394
Chapter Review_395
19	human evolution_398
Are We Related to the Neantherthals?
Primate Diversity
19.1	The human story begins with our primate 
heritage_400
19.2	Apes are our closest relatives_402
Hominid Evolution
19.3	The human branch of the primate tree is only a few million years old_403
19.4	Upright posture evolved well before our enlarged brain_404
19.5	Homo and the evolution of larger brains_404
19.6	When and where did modern humans 
arise?_405
Our Cultural History and Its Consequences
19.7	Culture gives us enormous power to change our environment_406
19.8	Scavenging-gathering-hunting was the first major stage of culture_406
19.9	Agriculture was a second major stage of culture_407
19.10	The machine age is the third major stage of 
culture_407
Chapter Review_408
unit v
Animals: Form and Function
20	unifying concepts of animal structure and function_412
Climbing the Walls
The Hierarchy of Structural Organization 
in an Animal
20.1	Structure fits function in the animal body_414
20.2	Animal structure has a hierarchy_415
20.3	Tissues are groups of cells with a common structure and function_415
20.4	Epithelial tissue covers and lines the body and its parts_416
20.5	Connective tissue binds and supports other 
tissues 417
20.6	Muscle tissue functions in movement_418
20.7	Nervous tissue forms a communication 
network_418
20.8	Several tissues are organized to form an organ_419
20.9	The body is a cooperative of organ systems_420
20.10	New imaging technology reveals the inner body_422
Exchanges with the External Environment
20.11	Structural adaptations enhance exchange between animals and their 
environment_424
20.12	Animals regulate their internal environment_425
20.13	Homeostasis depends on negative feedback_426
Chapter Review_427
21	nutrition and digestion_428
Getting Their Fill of Krill
Obtaining and Processing Food
21.1	Animals ingest their food in a variety of ways_430
21.2	Overview: Food processing occurs in four stages_431
21.3	Digestion occurs in specialized compartments_432
Human Digestive System
21.4	The human digestive system consists of an alimentary canal and accessory 
glands_434
21.5	Digestion begins in the oral cavity_435
21.6	The food and breathing passages both open into 
the pharynx_435
21.7	The esophagus squeezes food along to the 
stomach_436
21.8	The stomach stores food and breaks it down with acid and enzymes_436
21.9	Bacterial infections can cause ulcers_437
21.10	The small intestine is the major organ of chemical digestion and nutrient 
absorption_438
21.11	The large intestine reclaims water_440
Diets and Digestive Adaptations
21.12	Adaptations of vertebrate digestive systems reflect diet_440
Nutrition
21.13	Overview: A healthful diet satisfies three needs_442
21.14	Chemical energy powers the body_442
21.15	Body fat and fad diets_443
21.16	Vegetarian must be sure to obtain all eight essential amino acids_444
21.17	A healthful diet includes 13 vitamins_444
21.18	Essential minerals are required for many body functions_446
21.19	What do food labels tell us?_447
21.20	Diet can influence cardiovascular disease and 
cancer_448
Chapter Review_448
22	respiration: 
the exchange of gases_450
Surviving in Thin Air
Mechanisms of Gas Exchange
22.1	Overview: Gas exchange involves breathing, the transport of gases, and the 
servicing of tissue cells_452
22.2	Animals exchange O2 and CO2 through moist body surfaces_452
22.3	Gills are adapted for gas exchange in aquatic environments_454
22.4	Countercurrent flow in the gills enhances O2 transfer_455
22.5	The tracheal system of insects provides direct exchange between the air and 
body cells_455
22.6	Terrestrial vertebrates have lungs_456
22.7	Smoking is one of the deadliest assaults on our respiratory system_457
22.8	Breathing ventilates the lungs_458
22.9	Breathing is automatically controlled_459
Transport of Gases in the Body
22.10	Blood transports the respiratory gases, with hemoglobin carrying the 
oxygen_460
22.11	Hemoglobin helps transport CO2 and buffer the blood_461
22.12	The human fetus exchanges gases with the mother_s bloodstream_462
Chapter Review_462
23	circulation_464
How Does Gravity Affect Blood Circulation?
23.1	The circulatory system associates intimately with all body tissues_466
Mechanisms of Internal Transport
23.2	Several types of internal transport have evolved in animals_466
23.3	Vertebrate cardiovascular systems reflect 
evolution_468
The Mammalian Cardiovascular System
23.4	The human heart and cardiovascular system typify those of mammals_469
23.5	The structure of blood vessels fits their functions_470
23.6	The heart contracts and relaxes rhythmically_470
23.7	The pacemaker sets the tempo of the heartbeat_471
23.8	What is a heart attack?_472
23.9	Blood exerts pressure on vessel walls_473
23.10	Measuring blood pressure can reveal cardiovascular problems_474
23.11	Smooth muscle controls the distribution of 
blood_475
23.12	Capillaries allow the transfer of substances through their walls_476
Structure and Function of Blood
23.13	Blood consists of cells suspended in plasma_477
23.14	Red blood cells transport oxygen_478
23.15	White blood cells help defend the body_478
23.16	Blood clots plug leaks when blood vessels are injured_479
23.17	Stem cells offer a potential cure for leukemia and other blood cell 
diseases_480
Chapter Review_480
24	the immune system_482
The Continuing Problem of HIV
Nonspecific Defenses Against Infection
24.1	Nonspecific defenses against infection include the skin and mucous membranes, 
phagocytic cells, and antimicrobial proteins_484
24.2	The inflammatory response mobilizes nonspecific defense forces_485
24.3	The lymphatic system becomes a crucial battleground during infection_486
Specific Immunity
24.4	The immune response counters specific invaders_487
24.5	Lymphocytes mount a dual defense_488
24.6	Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them_489
24.7	Clonal selection musters defensive forces against specific antigens_490
24.8	The initial immune response results in a type of _memory__491
24.9	Overview: B cells are the warriors of humoral immunity_492
24.10	Antibodies are the weapons of humoral immunity_493
24.11	Antibodies mark antigens for elimination_494
24.12	Monoclonal antibodies are powerful tools in the lab and clinic_495
24.13	T cells mount the cell-mediated defense and aid humoral immunity_496
24.14	Cytotoxic T cells may help prevent cancer_497
24.15	The immune system depends on our molecular fingerprints_498
Disorders of the Immune System
24.16	Malfunction or failure of the immune system causes disease_498
24.17	Allergies are overreactions to certain environmental antigens_499
24.18	AIDS leaves the body defenseless_500
Chapter Review_500
25	control of the internal environment_502
Let Sleeping Bears Lie
Thermoregulation
25.1	Heat is gained or lost in four ways_504
25.2	Thermoregulation depends on both heat production and heat gain or loss_504
25.3	Behavior often affects body temperature_505
25.4	Reducing the metabolic rate saves energy_506
Osmoregulation and Excretion
25.5	Osmoregulation: All animals balance the gain and loss of water and dissolved 
solutes_506
25.6	Sweating can produce serious water loss_508
25.7	Some animals face seasonal dehydration_508
25.8	Animals must dispose of nitrogenous wastes_509
25.9	The excretory system plays several major roles in homeostasis_510
25.10	Overview: The key functions of the excretory system are filtration, 
reabsorption, secretion, and excretion_511
25.11	From blood filtrate to urine: A closer look_512
25.12	Kidney dialysis can be a lifesaver_513
Homeostatic Functions of the Liver
25.13	The liver is vital in homeostasis_514
Chapter Review_514
26	chemical regulation_516
Testosterone and Male Aggression
The Nature of Chemical Regulation
26.1	Chemical signals coordinate body functions_518
26.2	Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms_519
The Vertebrate Endocrine System
26.3	Overview: The vertebrate endocrine system_520
26.4	The hypothalamus, closely tied to the pituitary, connects the nervous and 
endocrine 
systems_522
26.5	The hypothalamus and pituitary have multiple endocrine functions_522
Hormones and Homeostasis
26.6	The thyroid regulates development and 
metabolism_524
26.7	Hormones from the thyroid and the parathyroids maintain calcium 
homeostasis_524
26.8	Pancreatic hormones manage cellular fuel_526
26.9	Diabetes is a common endocrine disorder_527
26.10	The adrenal glands mobilize responses to stress_528
26.11	Glucocorticoids offer relief from pain, but not without serious risks_529
26.12	The gonads secrete sex hormones_530
Chapter Review_530
27	reproduction and embryonic development_532
Mating Without Males
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
27.1	Sexual and asexual reproduction are both common among animals_534
Human Reproduction
27.2	Reproductive anatomy of the human female_536
27.3	Reproductive anatomy of the human male_538
27.4	The formation of sperm and ova requires meiosis_540
27.5	Hormones synchronize cyclical changes in the ovary and uterus_542
27.6	The human sexual response occurs in four phases_544
27.7	Sexual activity can transmit disease_544
27.8	Contraception prevents unwanted pregnancy_545
Principles of Embryonic Development
27.9	Fertilization results in a zygote and triggers embryonic development_546
27.10	Cleavage produces a ball of cells from the zygote_548
27.11	Gastrulation produces a three-layered embryo_548
27.12	Organs start to form after gastrulation_550
27.13	Changes in cell shape, cell migration, and programmed cell death give form to 
the developing animal_552
27.14	Embryonic induction initiates organ formation_552
27.15	Pattern formation organizes the animal body_553
Human Development
27.16	The embryo and placenta take shape during the first month of pregnancy_554
27.17	Human development from conception to birth is divided into three 
trimesters_556
27.18	Childbirth is hormonally induced and occurs in three stages_558
27.19	Reproductive technology increases our reproductive options_559
Chapter Review_560
28	nervous systems_562
Can an Injured Spinal Cord Be Fixed?
Nervous System Structure and Function
28.1	Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate 
commands_564
28.2	Neurons are the functional units of nervous 
systems_565
Nerve Signals and Their Transmission
28.3	A neuron maintains a membrane potential across its membrane_566
28.4	A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential_566
28.5	The action potential regenerates itself along the neuron_568
28.6	Neurons communicate at synapses_569
28.7	Chemical synapses make complex information processing possible_570
28.8	A variety of small molecules function as neurotransmitters_570
28.9	Many drugs act at chemical synapses_571
Nervous Systems
28.10	Nervous system organization usually correlates with body symmetry_572
28.11	Vertebrate nervous systems are highly centralized and cephalized_573
28.12	The peripheral nervous system of vertebrates is a functional hierarchy_574
28.13	Opposing actions of sympathetic and 
parasympathetic neurons regulate the internal environment_574
28.14	The vertebrate brain develops from three anterior bulges of the neural 
tube_576
The Human Brain
28.15	The structure of a living supercomputer: 
The human brain_576
28.16	The cerebral cortex is a mosaic of specialized, interactive regions_578
28.17	Injuries and brain operations have provided insight into brain function_579
28.18	Several parts of the brain regulate sleep and 
arousal_58028.19	The limbic system is involved in emotions, memory, and 
learning_581
28.20	The cellular changes underlying memory and learning probably occur at 
synapses_582
Chapter Review_582
29	the senses_584
An Animal_s Senses Guide Its Movements
29.1	Sensory inputs become sensations and perceptions in the brain_586
Sensory Reception
29.2	Sensory receptor cells convert stimuli into electrical energy_586
29.3	Specialized sensory receptors detect five categories of stimuli_588
Vision
29.4	Three different types of eyes have evolved among invertebrates_590
29.5	Vertebrates have single-lens eyes_590
29.6	To focus, a lens changes position or shape_591
29.7	Artificial lenses or surgery can correct focusing problems_592
29.8	Our photoreceptor cells are rods and cones_593
Hearing and Balance
29.9	The ear converts air pressure waves into action potentials that are perceived 
as sound_594
29.10	The inner ear houses our organ of balance_596
29.11	What causes motion sickness?_596
Taste and Smell
29.12	Odor and taste receptors detect categories of chemicals_597
29.13	Review: The central nervous system couples stimulus with response_598
Chapter Review_598
30	how animals move_600
How Do Ants Move Forests?
Movement and Locomotion
30.1	Diverse means of animal locomotion have evolved_602
Skeletal Support
30.2	Skeletons function in support, movement, and protection_604
30.3	The human skeleton is a unique variation on an ancient theme_606
30.4	Skeletal disorders afflict millions_607
30.5	Bones are complex living organs_608
30.6	Broken bones can heal themselves_608
Muscle Contraction and Movement
30.7	The skeleton and muscles interact in 
movement_609
30.8	Each muscle cell has its own contractile 
apparatus_610
30.9	A muscle contracts when thin filaments slide across thick filaments_610
30.10	Motor neurons stimulate muscle contraction_612
30.11	Athletic training increases strength and 
endurance_613
30.12	The structure-function theme underlies all the parts and activities of an 
animal_614
Chapter Review_615
unit vi
Plants: Form and Function
31	plant structure, reproduction, and development_618
A Gentle Giant
31.1	Talking About Science: Plant scientist Katherine Esau was a preeminent 
student of plant structure and function_620
Plant Structure and Function
31.2	The two main groups of angiosperms are the monocots and the dicots_621
31.3	The plant body consists of roots and shoots_622
31.4	Many plants have modified roots and 
shoots_623
31.5	Plant cells and tissues are diverse in structure 
and function_624
31.6	Three tissue systems make up the plant 
body_626
Plant Growth
31.7	Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots_628
31.8	Secondary growth increases the girth of woody plants_630
Plant Reproduction
31.9	Overview: The sexual life cycle of a flowering 
plant_632
31.10	The development of pollen and ovules culminates 
in fertilization_632
31.11	The ovule develops into a seed_634
31.12	The ovary develops into a fruit_635
31.13	Seed germination continues the life cycle_636
31.14	Asexual reproduction produces plant 
clones_637
31.15	Vegetative reproduction is a mainstay of modern agriculture_638
Chapter Review_638
32	plant nutrition 
and transport_640
Plants That Clean Up Poisons
The Uptake and Transport of Plant Nutrients
32.1	Plants acquire their nutrients from soil and air_642
32.2	The plasma membranes of root cells control solute uptake_643
32.3	Transpiration pulls water up xylem vessels_644
32.4	Guard cells control transpiration_645
32.5	Phloem transports sugars_646
Plant Nutrients and the Soil
32.6	Plant health depends on a complete diet of essential inorganic nutrients_648
32.7	You can diagnose some nutrient deficiencies in your own plants_649
32.8	Soil contains rock particles, humus, organisms, water, and crucial 
solutes_650
32.9	Soil conservation is essential to human life_651
32.10	Organic farmers avoid the use of commercial chemicals_652
32.11	Fungi help most plants absorb nutrients from the soil_652
32.12	The plant kingdom includes parasites and 
carnivores_653
32.13	Most plants depend on bacteria to supply nitrogen_654
32.14	Legumes and certain other plants house nitrogen-fixing bacteria_654
Plant Nutrients and Agriculture
32.15	A major goal of agricultural research is to improve the protein content of 
crops_655
32.16	Genetic engineering is increasing crop yields_656
Chapter Review_656
33	control systems in plants_658
The Benefits of Soy
Plant Hormones
33.1	Experiments on how plants turn toward light led to the discovery of a plant 
hormone_660
33.2	Five major types of hormones regulate plant growth and development_662
33.3	Auxin stimulates the elongation of cells in young shoots_662
33.4	Cytokinins stimulate cell division_664
33.5	Gibberellins affect stem elongation and have numerous other effects_664
33.6	Abscisic acid inhibits many plant processes_665
33.7	Ethylene triggers fruit ripening and other aging processes_666
33.8	Plant hormones have many agricultural uses_667
Growth Responses and Biological Rhythms in Plants
33.9	Tropisms orient plant growth toward or away from environmental stimuli_668
33.10	Plants have internal clocks_669
33.11	Plants mark the seasons by measuring 
photoperiod_670
33.12	Phytochrome is a light detector that may help set the biological clock_671
33.13	Talking About Science: Joanne Chory studies the effects of light and hormones 
in the model plant Arabidopsis_672
Plant Defenses
33.14	Defenses against herbivores and infectious microbes have evolved in 
plants_672
33.15	Talking About Science: Plant biochemist Eloy Rodriguez studies how animals 
use defensive chemicals made by plants_674
Chapter Review_675
unit vii
Ecology
34	the biosphere: 
an introduction to earth_s diverse environments_678
A Mysterious Giant of the Deep
34.1	Ecologists study how organisms interact with their environment at several 
levels_680
The Biosphere
34.2	The biosphere is the total of all of Earth_s ecosystems_680
34.3	Environmental problems reveal the limits of the biosphere_681
34.4	Physical and chemical factors influence life in the biosphere_682
34.5	Organisms are adapted to abiotic and biotic factors by natural selection_683
34.6	Regional climate influences the distribution of biological communities_684
Aquatic Biomes
34.7	Oceans occupy most of Earth_s surface_686
34.8	Freshwater biomes include lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, and wetlands_688
Terrestrial Biomes
34.9	Terrestrial biomes reflect regional variations in climate_689
34.10	Tropical forests cluster near the equator_690
34.11	Talking About Science: Ecologist Ariel Lugo studies tropical forests in 
Puerto Rico_691
34.12	Savannas are grasslands with scattered trees_692
34.13	Deserts are defined by their dryness_692
34.14	Spiny shrubs dominate the chaparral_693
34.15	Temperate grasslands include the North American prairie_694
34.16	Deciduous trees dominate temperate forests_694
34.17	Coniferous forests are often dominated by a few species of trees_695
34.18	Long, bitter-cold winters characterize the 
tundra_696
Chapter Review_696
35	population dynamics_698
The Spread of Shakespeare_s Starlings
35.1	Populations are defined in several ways_700
Population Structure and Dynamics
35.2	Density and dispersion patterns are important population variables_700
35.3	Idealized models help us understand population growth_702
35.4	Multiple factors may limit population growth_704
35.5	Some populations have _boom-and-bust_ cycles_705
Life Histories and Their Evolution
35.6	Life tables track mortality and survivorship in populations_706
35.7	Evolution shapes life histories_706
The Human Population
35.8	The human population has been growing exponentially for centuries_708
35.9	Birth and death rates and age structure affect population growth_710
35.10	Principles of population ecology have practical applications_712
Chapter Review_712
36	communities and ecosystems_714
Dining In
36.1	A community is all the organisms inhabiting a particular area_716
Structural Features of Communities
36.2	Competition may occur when a shared resource is limited_717
36.3	Predation leads to diverse adaptations in both predator and prey_718
36.4	Predation can maintain diversity in a community_720
36.5	Symbiotic relationships help structure 
communities_720
36.6	Disturbance is a prominent feature of most communities_722
36.7	Talking About Science: Ecologist Frank Gilliam discusses the role of fire in 
ecosystems_723
Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics
36.8	Energy flow and chemical cycling are the two fundamental processes in 
ecosystems_724
36.9	Trophic structure is a key factor in ecosystem 
dynamics_724
36.10	Food chains interconnect, forming food webs_726
36.11	Energy supply limits the length of food chains_727
36.12	A production pyramid explains why meat is a luxury for humans_728
36.13	Chemicals are recycled between organic matter and abiotic reservoirs_728
36.14	Water moves through the biosphere in a global 
cycle_729
36.15	The carbon cycle depends on photosynthesis and respiration_730
36.16	The nitrogen cycle relies heavily on bacteria_730
36.17	The phosphorus cycle depends on the weathering 
of rock_731
Ecosystem Alteration
36.18	Ecosystem alteration can upset chemical cycling_732
36.19	Talking About Science: David Schindler talks about the effects of nutrients 
on freshwater ecosystems_733
36.20	Zoned reserves are an attempt to reverse ecosystem disruption_734
Chapter Review_734
37	behavioral adaptations to the environment_736
Tracking Jaguars
Classic Concepts in Behavior
37.1	Behavioral biologists study the actions of animals in their natural 
environments_738
37.2	Behavior results from both genes and environmental factors_739
37.3	Innate behavior often appears as fixed action patterns_740
37.4	Learning ranges from simple behavioral changes to complex problem solving_742
37.5	Imprinting is learning that involves both innate behavior and experience_742
37.6	Many animals learn by association and imitation_744
37.7	Animal cognition includes problem-solving 
behavior_745
Ecological Roles of Behavior
37.8	An animal_s behavior reflects its evolution_746
37.9	Biological rhythms synchronize behavior with the environment_746
37.10	Animal movement may be oriented to stimuli or landmarks_748
37.11	Movement from place to place often depends on internal maps_748
37.12	Behavioral ecologists use cost/benefit analysis in studying feeding 
behavior_750
Social Behavior and Sociobiology
37.13	Sociobiology places social behavior in an evolutionary context_751
37.14	Rituals involving agonistic behavior often resolve confrontations between 
competitors_752
37.15	Dominance hierarchies are maintained by agonistic behavior_752
37.16	Talking About Science: Behavioral biologist 
Jane Goodall discusses dominance hierarchies 
and reconciliation behavior in chimpanzees_753
37.17	Territorial behavior parcels space and resources_754
37.18	Mating behavior often involves elaborate courtship rituals_754
37.19	Complex social organization hinges on complex signaling_756
37.20	Altruistic acts can be explained by evolution_758
37.21	Talking About Science: Edward O. Wilson promoted the field of sociobiology 
and is a leading conservation activist_759
37.22	Both genes and culture contribute to human social 
behavior_760
Chapter Review_760
38	conservation biology_762
Saving the Key Deer
The Biodiversity Crisis: An Overview
38.1	Habitat destruction, introduced species, and overexploitation are the major 
threats to biodiversity_764
38.2	Biodiversity is vital to human welfare_765
38.3	Technology and the population explosion compound our impact on habitats and 
other species_766
38.4	Rapid global warming could alter the entire biosphere_768
The Geographic Distribution of Biodiversity
38.5	Some locations in the biosphere are especially rich in biodiversity_770
Conservation of Populations Species
38.6	There are two approaches to studying endangered populations_772
38.7	Identifying critical habitat factors is a central goal 
in conservation research_773
38.8	Increased fragmentation threatens many populations: A case study_774
Managing and Sustaining Ecosystems
38.9	Sustaining ecosystems and landscapes is a conservation priority_776
38.10	Edges and corridors can strongly influence landscape biodiversity_777
38.11	Restoring degraded habitats is a developing 
science_778
38.12	Sustainable development is an ultimate goal_779
Chapter Review_780
appendix 1	Metric Conversion Table
appendix 2	The Amino Acids of Proteins
appendix 3	Chapter Review Answers
appendix 4	Credits_
glossary
index

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Biology.