Table of contents for Biology : concepts and connections / Neil A. Campbell ... [et al.].

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1	introduction: 
the scientific study of life_1
Life in the Trees
The Scope of Biology
1.1	Life_s levels of organization define the scope of biology_2
The Process of Science
1.2	Scientists use two main approaches to learn about nature_3
1.3	With the scientific method, we pose and test hypotheses_4
Evolution, Unity, and Diversity
1.4	The diversity of life can be arranged into three domains_6
1.5	Unity in diversity: All forms of life have common features_8
1.6	Evolution explains the unity and diversity of life_8
1.7	Living organisms and their environments form interconnecting webs_10
Biology and Everyday Life
1.8	Biology is connected to our lives in many ways_12
Chapter Review_13
unit i
The Life of the Cell
2	the chemical basis of life_16
Thomas Eisner and the Chemical Language of Nature
Atoms and Molecules
2.1	The emergence of biological function starts at the chemical level_18
2.2	Life requires about 25 chemical elements_19
2.3	Elements can combine to form compounds_19
2.4	Atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons_20
2.5	Radioactive isotopes can help or harm us_21
2.6	Electron arrangement determines the chemical properties of an atom_22
2.7	Ionic bonds are attractions between ions of opposite charge_22
2.8	Covalent bonds, the sharing of electrons, join atoms into molecules_23
The Properties of Water
2.9	Water is a polar molecule_24
2.10	Overview: Water_s polarity leads to hydrogen bonding and other unusual 
properties _24
2.11	Hydrogen bonds make liquid water cohesive_25
2.12	Water_s hydrogen bonds moderate 
2.13	Ice is less dense than liquid water_26
2.14	Water is a versatile solvent_26
2.15	The chemistry of life is sensitive to acidic and 
basic conditions_27
2.16	Acid precipitation threatens the environment_28
Rearrangements of Atoms
2.17	Chemical reactions rearrange matter_29
Chapter Review_30
3	the molecules of cells_32
Spider Silk: Stronger Than Steel
Introduction to Organic Compounds and 
Their Polymers
3.1	Life_s molecular diversity is based on the properties of carbon_34
3.2	Functional groups help determine the properties of organic compounds_35
3.3	Cells make a huge number of large molecules from a small set of small 
3.4	Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates_37
3.5	Cells link single sugars to form disaccharides_38
3.6	How sweet is sweet?_38
3.7	Polysaccharides are long chains of sugar units_39
3.8	Lipids include fats, which are mostly energy-storage
3.9	Phospholipids, waxes, and steroids are lipids with a variety of functions_41
3.10	Anabolic steroids and related substances pose health risks_41
3.11	Proteins are essential to the structures and activities of life_42
3.12	Proteins are made from just 20 kinds of amino acids_42
3.13	Amino acids can be linked by peptide bonds_43
3.14	Overview: A protein_s specific shape determines its function_43
3.15	A protein_s primary structure is its amino acid sequence_44
3.16	Secondary structure is polypeptide coiling or folding produced by hydrogen 
3.17	Tertiary structure is the overall shape of a 
3.18	Quaternary structure is the relationship among multiple polypeptides of a 
3.19	Talking About Science: Linus Pauling contributed to our understanding of the 
chemistry of life_46
Nucleic Acids
3.20	Nucleic acids are information-rich polymers of nucleotides_47
Chapter Review_48
4	a tour of the cell_50
The Art of Looking at Cells
Introduction to the World of the Cell
4.1	Microscopes provide windows to the world 
of the cell_52
4.2	Cell sizes vary with their function_54
4.3	Natural laws limit cell size_54
4.4	Prokaryotic cells are small and structurally simple_55
4.5	Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into functional compartments_56
Organelles of the Endomembrane System
4.6	The nucleus is the cell_s genetic control center_58
4.7	Overview: Many cell organelles are related through the endomembrane system_58
4.8	Rough endoplasmic reticulum makes membrane and proteins_58
4.9	Smooth endoplasmic reticulum has a variety of functions_59
4.10	The Golgi apparatus finishes, sorts, and ships cell products_60
4.11	Lysosomes digest the cell_s food and wastes_60
4.12	Abnormal lysosomes can cause fatal diseases_61
4.13	Vacuoles function in the general maintenance 
of the cell_62
4.14	A review of the endomembrane system_62
Energy-Converting Organelles
4.15	Chloroplasts convert solar energy to chemical 
4.16	Mitochondria harvest chemical energy from food_63
The Cytoskeleton and Related Structures
4.17	The cell_s internal skeleton helps organize its structure and activities_64
4.18	Cilia and flagella move when microtubules bend_65
Eukaryotic Cell Surfaces and Junctions
4.19	Cell surfaces protect, support, and join cells_66
Functional Categories of Organelles
4.20	Eukaryotic organelles comprise four functional categories_67
4.21	Extraterrestrial life-forms may share features with life on Earth_68
Chapter Review_68
5	the working cell_70
Cool _Fires_ Attract Mates and Meals
Energy and the Cell
5.1	Energy is the capacity to perform work_72
5.2	Two laws govern energy conversion_72
5.3	Chemical reactions either store or release energy_74
5.4	ATP shuttles chemical energy within the cell_75
How Enzymes Work
5.5	Enzymes speed up the cell_s chemical reactions by lowering energy barriers_76
5.6	A specific enzyme catalyzes each cellular reaction_77
5.7	The cellular environment affects enzyme activity_77
5.8	Enzyme inhibitors block enzyme action_78
5.9	Some pesticides and antibiotics inhibit enzymes_78
Membrane Structure and Function
5.10	Membranes organize the chemical activities of cells_79
5.11	Membrane phospholipids form a bilayer _79
5.12	The membrane is a fluid mosaic of phospholipids and proteins_80
5.13	Proteins make the membrane a mosaic of function_80
5.14	Passive transport is diffusion across a membrane_81
5.15	Osmosis is the passive transport of water_82
5.16	Water balance between cells and their surroundings 
is crucial to organisms_82
5.17	Transport proteins facilitate diffusion across membranes_83
5.18	Cells expend energy for active transport_84
5.19	Exocytosis and endocytosis transport large molecules_84
5.20	Faulty membranes can overload the blood with cholesterol_85
5.21	Chloroplasts and mitochondria make energy available for cellular work_86
Chapter Review_86
6	how cells harvest chemical 
How Is a Marathoner Different from a Sprinter?
Introduction to Cellular Respiration
6.1	Breathing supplies oxygen to our cells and removes carbon dioxide_90
6.2	Cellular respiration banks energy in ATP molecules_90
6.3	The human body uses energy from ATP for all its activities_91
Basic Mechanisms of Energy Release and Storage
6.4	Cells tap energy from electrons transferred from organic fuels to oxygen_92
6.5	Hydrogen carriers such as NAD1 shuttle electrons in redox reactions_92
6.6	Redox reactions release energy when electrons _fall_ from a hydrogen carrier 
to oxygen_93
6.7	Two mechanisms generate ATP_94
Stages of Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
6.8	Overview: Respiration occurs in three main stages_95
6.9	Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvic acid_96
6.10	Pyruvic acid is chemically groomed for the Krebs cycle_98
6.11	The Krebs cycle completes the oxidation of 
organic fuel, generating many NADH and FADH2 molecules_98
6.12	Chemiosmosis powers most ATP production_100
6.13	Certain poisons interrupt critical events in cellular respiration_101
6.14	Review: Each molecule of glucose yields many molecules of ATP_102
6.15	Fermentation is an anaerobic alternative to aerobic respiration_103
Interconnections Between Molecular Breakdown 
and Synthesis
6.16	Cells use many kinds of organic molecules as fuel for cellular 
6.17	Food molecules provide raw materials for biosynthesis_105
6.18	The fuel for respiration ultimately comes from photosynthesis_106
Chapter Review_106
7	photosynthesis: 
using light to make food_108
Life in the Sun
An Overview of Photosynthesis
7.1	Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere_110
7.2	Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts_111
7.3	Plants produce O2 gas by splitting water_112
7.4	Photosynthesis is a redox process, as is cellular respiration_112
7.5	Overview: Photosynthesis occurs in two stages linked by ATP and NADPH_113
The Light Reactions: Converting Solar Energy to Chemical Energy
7.6	Visible radiation drives the light 
7.7	Photosystems capture solar power_114
7.8	In the light reactions, electron transport chains generate ATP, NADPH, and 
7.9	Chemiosmosis powers ATP synthesis in the light reactions_117
The Calvin Cycle: Converting CO2 to Sugars
7.10	ATP and NADPH power sugar synthesis in the Calvin cycle_118
Photosynthesis Reviewed and Extended
7.11	Review: Photosynthesis uses light energy to make food molecules_119
7.12	C4 and CAM plants have special adaptations that save water_120
Photosynthesis, Solar Radiation, and Earth_s Atmosphere
7.13	Human activity is causing global warming; photosynthesis moderates it_121
7.14	Talking About Science: Mario Molina talks about Earth_s protective ozone 
Chapter Review_123
unit ii
Cellular Reproduction
and Genetics
8	the cellular basis 
of reproduction and 
How to Make a Sea Star_With and Without Sex
Connections Between Cell Division 
and Reproduction
8.1	Like begets like, more or less_128
8.2	Cells arise only from preexisting cells_129
8.3	Prokaryotes reproduce by binary fission_129
The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle and Mitosis
8.4	The large, complex chromosomes of eukaryotes duplicate with each cell 
8.5	The cell cycle multiplies cells_131
8.6	Cell division is a continuum of dynamic 
8.7	Cytokinesis differs for plant and animal cells_134
8.8	Anchorage, cell density, and chemical growth factors affect cell division_135
8.9	Growth factors signal the cell cycle control 
8.10	Growing out of control, cancer cells produce malignant tumors_137
8.11	Review of the functions of mitosis: Growth, cell replacement, and asexual 
Meiosis and Crossing Over
8.12	Chromosomes are matched in homologous 
8.13	Gametes have a single set of chromosomes_139
8.14	Meiosis reduces the chromosome number from diploid to haploid_140
8.15	Review: A comparison of mitosis and meiosis_142
8.16	Independent orientation of chromosomes in 
meiosis and random fertilization lead to varied offspring_143
8.17	Homologous chromosomes carry different versions 
of genes_144
8.18	Crossing over further increases genetic 
Alterations of Chromosome Number and Structure
8.19	A karyotype is a photographic inventory of an individual_s chromosomes_146
8.20	An extra copy of chromosome 21 causes Down syndrome_147
8.21	Accidents during meiosis can alter chromosome number_148
8.22	Abnormal numbers of sex chromosomes do not usually affect survival_149
8.23	Alterations of chromosome structure can cause birth defects and cancer_150
Chapter Review_151
9	patterns of inheritance_154
Purebreds and Mutts_A Difference of Heredity
Mendel_s Principles
9.1	The science of genetics has ancient roots_156
9.2	Experimental genetics began in an abbey garden_156
9.3	Mendel_s principle of segregation describes the inheritance of a single 
9.4	Homologous chromosomes bear the two alleles for each characteristic_159
9.5	The principle of independent assortment is revealed by tracking two 
characteristics at once_160
9.6	Geneticists use the testcross to determine unknown genotypes_161
9.7	Mendel_s principles reflect the rules of probability_162
9.8	Genetic traits in humans can be tracked through family pedigrees_163
9.9	Many inherited disorders in humans are controlled by a single gene_164
9.10	Fetal testing can spot many inherited disorders early in pregnancy_166
Variations on Mendel_s Principles
9.11	The relationship of genotype to phenotype is rarely simple_168
9.12	Incomplete dominance results in intermediate phenotypes_168
9.13	Many genes have more than two alleles in the population_169
9.14	A single gene may affect many phenotypic characteristics_170
9.15	Genetic testing can detect disease-causing alleles_171
9.16	A single characteristic may be influenced by many genes_172
The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
9.17	Chromosome behavior accounts for Mendel_s principles_173
9.18	Genes on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together_174
9.19	Crossing over produces new combinations 
of alleles_174
9.20	Geneticists use crossover data to map genes_176
Sex Chromosomes and Sex-Linked Genes
9.21	Chromosomes determine sex in many 
9.22	Sex-linked genes exhibit a unique pattern of inheritance_178
9.23	Sex-linked disorders affect mostly males_179
Chapter Review_180
10	molecular biology 
of the gene_182
Saboteurs Inside Our Cells
The Structure of the Genetic Material
10.1	Experiments showed that DNA is the genetic material_184
10.2	DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotides_186
10.3	DNA is a double-stranded helix_188
DNA Replication
10.4	DNA replication depends on specific base pairing_190
10.5	DNA replication: A closer look_191
The Flow of Genetic Information from DNA to RNA to Protein
10.6	The DNA genotype is expressed as proteins, 
which provide the molecular basis for phenotypic traits_192
10.7	Genetic information written in codons is translated into amino acid 
10.8	The genetic code is the Rosetta stone of life_194
10.9	Transcription produces genetic messages in the 
form of RNA_195
10.10	Eukaryotic RNA is processed before leaving the nucleus_196
10.11	Transfer RNA molecules serve as interpreters during translation_196
10.12	Ribosomes build polypeptides_198
10.13	An initiation codon marks the start of an mRNA message_198
10.14	Elongation adds amino acids to the polypeptide chain until a stop codon 
terminates translation_199
10.15	Review: The flow of genetic information in the cell is DNA Æ RNA Æ 
10.16	Mutations can change the meaning of genes_201
Viruses: Genes in Packages
10.17	Viral DNA may become part of the host chromosome_202
10.18	Many viruses cause disease in animals_203
10.19	Plant viruses are serious agricultural pests_204
10.20	Emerging viruses threaten human health_204
10.21	The AIDS virus makes DNA on an RNA 
10.22	Virus research and molecular genetics are intertwined_206
Chapter Review_206
11	the control of gene 
Human Cloning?
Gene Regulation in Prokaryotes
11.1	Proteins interacting with DNA turn prokaryotic genes on or off in response to 
environmental changes_210
Cellular Differentiation and the Cloning of Eukaryotes
11.2	Differentiation yields a variety of cell types, each expressing a different 
combination of genes_212
11.3	Differentiated cells may retain all of their genetic potential_212
11.4	Reproductive cloning of nonhuman mammals has applications in basic research, 
agriculture, and medicine_214
11.5	Because stem cells can both perpetuate themselves and give rise to 
differentiated cells, they have great therapeutic potential_214
Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes
11.6	DNA packing in eukaryotic chromosomes helps regulate gene expression_215
11.7	In female mammals, one X chromosome is inactive in each cell_216
11.8	Complex assemblies of proteins control eukaryotic transcription_216
11.9	Eukaryotic RNA may be spliced in more than one way_217
11.10	Translation and later stages of gene expression are also subject to 
11.11	Review: Multiple mechanisms regulate gene expression in eukaryotes_219
The Genetic Control of Embryonic Development
11.12	Cascades of gene expression and cell-to-cell signaling direct the development 
of an 
11.13	Signal-transduction pathways convert messages received at the cell surface 
into responses within 
the cell_221
11.14	Key developmental genes are very ancient_222
The Genetic Basis of Cancer
11.15	Cancer results from mutations in genes that control cell division_222
11.16	Oncogene proteins and faulty tumor-suppressor proteins can interfere with 
normal signal-transduction pathways_224
11.17	Multiple genetic changes underlie the development of cancer_225
11.18	Talking About Science: Mary-Claire King discusses mutations that cause breast 
11.19	Avoiding carcinogens can reduce the risk of 
Chapter Review_228
12	dna technology and 
the human genome_230
From E. Coli to a Map of Our Genes
Bacteria as Tools for Manipulating DNA
12.1	In nature, bacteria can transfer DNA in three 
12.2	Bacterial plasmids can serve as carriers for gene transfer_233
12.3	Plasmids are used to customize bacteria: 
An overview_234
12.4	Enzymes are used to _cut and paste_ DNA_235
12.5	Genes can be cloned in recombinant plasmids: 
A closer look_236
12.6	Cloned genes can be stored in genomic libraries_237
Other Tools of DNA Technology
12.7	Reverse transcriptase helps make genes for 
12.8	Nucleic acid probes identify clones carrying specific genes_238
12.9	DNA microarrays test for the expression of many genes at once_239
12.10	Gel electrophoresis sorts DNA molecules by size_239
12.11	Restriction fragment analysis is a powerful method that detects differences 
in DNA sequences_240
12.12	The PCR method is used to amplify DNA 
The Challenge of the Human Genome
12.13	Most of the human genome does not consist of genes_242
12.14	The Human Genome Project is unlocking the secrets of our genes_244
Other Applications of DNA Technology
12.15	DNA technology is used in courts of law_245
12.16	Recombinant cells and organisms can mass-produce gene products_246
12.17	DNA technology is changing the pharmaceutical industry and medicine_247
12.18	Genetically modified organisms are transforming agriculture_248
12.19	Gene therapy may someday help treat a variety 
of diseases_249
Risks and Ethical Questions
12.20	Could GM organisms harm human health or the environment?_250
12.21	DNA technology raises important ethical 
Chapter Review_252
unit iii
Concepts of Evolution
13	how populations evolve_256
Clown, Fool, or Simply Well Adapted?
Evidence of Evolution
13.1	A sea voyage helped Darwin frame his theory of evolution_258
13.2	The study of fossils provides strong evidence for evolution_260
13.3	A mass of evidence validates the evolutionary view of life_262
Darwin_s Theory and the Modern Synthesis
13.4	Darwin proposed natural selection as the mechanism of evolution_264
13.5	Scientists can observe natural selection in action_266
13.6	Populations are the units of evolution_267
13.7	Microevolution is change in a population_s gene pool over time_268
13.8	The gene pool of an idealized nonevolving population remains constant over 
the generations_268
13.9	The Hardy-Weinberg equation is useful in public health science_269
13.10	Five conditions are required for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium_270
13.11	There are several potential causes for microevolution_270
13.12	Adaptive change results when natural selection upsets genetic equilibrium_272
Variation and Natural Selection
13.13	Variation is extensive in most populations_272
13.14	Mutation and sexual recombination generate variation_273
13.15	Overview: How natural selection affects variation_274
13.16	Not all genetic variation may be subject to natural selection_274
13.17	Endangered species often have reduced 
13.18	The perpetuation of genes defines evolutionary fitness_275
13.19	There are three general outcomes of natural selection_276
13.20	Sexual selection may produce sexual dimorphism_277
13.21	Natural selection cannot fashion perfect 
13.22	The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a 
serious public health concern_278
Chapter Review_278
14	the origin of species_280
Evolution Underground
Concepts of Species
14.1	What is a species?_282
14.2	Reproductive barriers keep species separate_284
Mechanisms of Speciation
14.3	Geographic isolation can lead to speciation_286
14.4	Islands are living laboratories of speciation_287
14.5	New species can also arise within the same geographic area as the parent 
14.6	Polyploid plants clothe and feed us_289
14.7	Reproductive barriers may evolve as populations diverge 290
14.8	The tempo of speciation can appear steady or 
14.9	Talking About Science: Peter and Rosemary Grant study the evolution of 
Darwin_s finches_292
Chapter Review_292
15	tracing evolutionary 
Are Birds Really Dinosaurs with Feathers?
Earth History and Macroevolution
15.1	The fossil record chronicles macroevolution_296
15.2	The actual ages of rocks and fossils mark geologic time_297
15.3	Continental drift has played a major role in macroevolution_298
15.4	Tectonic trauma imperils local life_300
15.5	Mass extinctions were followed by diversification of life-forms_300
15.6	Key adaptations may enable species to proliferate after mass extinctions_302
15.7	_Evo-devo_: Genes that control development play a major role in evolution_303
15.8	Evolutionary trends do not mean that evolution is directed toward a goal_304
15.9	Phylogenetic trees strive to represent evolutionary 
Systematics and Phylogenetic Biology
15.10	Systematists classify organisms by phylogeny_306
15.11	Homology indicates common ancestry, but analogy does not_307
15.12	Molecular biology is a powerful tool in systematics_308
15.13	Systematists attempt to make classification consistent with phylogeny_310
The Domains of Life
15.14	Arranging life into kingdoms is a work in 
Chapter Review_313
unit iv
The Evolution of Biological Diversity
16	the origin and evolution of microbial life: prokaryotes and protists_316
How Ancient Bacteria Changed the World
Early Earth and the Origin of Life
16.1	Life began on a young Earth_318
16.2	How did life originate?_320
16.3	Talking About Science: Stanley Miller_s experiments showed that organic 
molecules could have arisen on a lifeless Earth_320
16.4	The first polymers may have formed on hot rocks or clay_322
16.5	The first genetic material and enzymes may both have been RNA_322
16.6	Molecular cooperatives enclosed by membranes probably preceded the first real 
16.7	Prokaryotes have inhabited Earth for billions of years_324
16.8	Archaea and bacteria are the two main branches of prokaryotic evolution_324
16.9	Prokaryotes come in a variety of shapes_325
16.10	Prokaryotes obtain nourishment in a variety 
of ways_326
16.11	Archaea thrive in extreme environments_
and in the ocean_327
16.12	Diverse structural features help prokaryotes thrive almost everywhere_328
16.13	Cyanobacteria sometimes _bloom_ in aquatic environments_329
16.14	Some bacteria cause disease_330
16.15	Koch_s postulates are used to identify disease-causing bacteria_331
16.16	Bacteria can be used as biological weapons_332
16.17	Prokaryotes help recycle chemicals and clean up the environment_332
16.18	The eukaryotic cell probably originated as a community of prokaryotes_334
16.19	Protists_unicellular eukaryotes and their close multicellular 
relatives_probably represent multiple kingdoms_335
16.20	Protozoans are protists that ingest their food_336
16.21	Cellular slime molds have both unicellular and multicellular stages_337
16.22	Plasmodial slime molds are brightly colored _supercells_ with many nuclei_338
16.23	Photosynthetic protists are called algae_338
16.24	Seaweeds are multicellular marine algae_340
16.25	Multicellular life may have evolved from colonial protists_341
16.26	Multicellular life has diversified over hundreds of millions of years_342
Chapter Review_342
17	plants, fungi, and the colonization of land_344
Plants and Fungi_A Beneficial Partnership
17.1	What is a plant?_346
Plant Evolution and Diversity
17.2	Plants evolved from green algae called charophyceans_347
17.3	Plant diversity provides clues to the evolutionary history of the plant 
Alternation of Generations and Plant Life Cycles
17.4	Haploid and diploid generations alternate in plant life cycles_350
17.5	Mosses have a dominant gametophyte_350
17.6	Ferns, like most plants, have a dominant 
17.7	Seedless plants formed vast _coral forests__352
17.8	A pine tree is a sporophyte with tiny gametophytes in its cones_352
17.9	The flower is the centerpiece of angiosperm reproduction_354
17.10	The angiosperm plant is a sporophyte with gametophytes in its flowers_354
17.11	The structure of a fruit reflects its function in seed dispersal_356
17.12	Agriculture is based almost entirely on 
17.13	Interactions with animals have profoundly influenced angiosperm evolution_357
17.14	Plant diversity is a nonrenewable resource_358
17.15	Fungi and plants moved onto land together_359
17.16	Fungi absorb food after digesting it outside their bodies_360
17.17	Many fungi have three distinct phases in their life cycle_361
17.18	Lichens consist of fungi living mutualistically with photosynthetic 
17.19	Parasitic fungi harm plants and animals_363
17.20	Fungi have enormous ecological and practical impacts_364
Chapter Review_364
18	the evolution of animal diversity_366
What Am I?
Animal Evolution and Diversity
18.1	What is an animal?_368
18.2	The animal kingdom probably originated from colonial protists_369
18.3	Sponges have a relatively simple, porous body_370
18.4	Cnidarians are radial animals with stinging 
18.5	Most animals are bilaterally symmetrical_372
18.6	Flatworms are the simplest bilateral animals_372
18.7	Most animals have a body cavity_374
18.8	Roundworms have a pseudocoelom and a complete digestive tract_375
18.9	Diverse mollusks are variations on a common body plan_376
18.10	Many animals have a segmented body_378
18.11	Earthworms and other annelids are segmented worms_379
18.12	Arthropods are the most numerous and widespread of all animals_380
18.13	Insects are the most diverse group of organisms_382
18.14	Echinoderms have spiny skin, an endoskeleton, and a water vascular system for 
18.15	Our own phylum, Chordata, is distinguished by four features_385
18.16	A skull and a backbone are hallmarks of 
18.17	Most vertebrates have hinged jaws_386
18.18	Fishes are jawed vertebrates with gills and paired fins_387
18.19	Amphibians were the first land vertebrates_388
18.20	Reptiles have more terrestrial adaptations than amphibians_389
18.21	Birds share many features with their reptilian ancestors_390
18.22	Mammals also evolved from reptiles_391
Phylogeny of the Animal Kingdom
18.23	A phylogenetic tree gives animal diversity an evolutionary perspective_392
18.24	Humans threaten animal diversity by introducing non-native species_394
Chapter Review_395
19	human evolution_398
Are We Related to the Neantherthals?
Primate Diversity
19.1	The human story begins with our primate 
19.2	Apes are our closest relatives_402
Hominid Evolution
19.3	The human branch of the primate tree is only a few million years old_403
19.4	Upright posture evolved well before our enlarged brain_404
19.5	Homo and the evolution of larger brains_404
19.6	When and where did modern humans 
Our Cultural History and Its Consequences
19.7	Culture gives us enormous power to change our environment_406
19.8	Scavenging-gathering-hunting was the first major stage of culture_406
19.9	Agriculture was a second major stage of culture_407
19.10	The machine age is the third major stage of 
Chapter Review_408
unit v
Animals: Form and Function
20	unifying concepts of animal structure and function_412
Climbing the Walls
The Hierarchy of Structural Organization 
in an Animal
20.1	Structure fits function in the animal body_414
20.2	Animal structure has a hierarchy_415
20.3	Tissues are groups of cells with a common structure and function_415
20.4	Epithelial tissue covers and lines the body and its parts_416
20.5	Connective tissue binds and supports other 
tissues 417
20.6	Muscle tissue functions in movement_418
20.7	Nervous tissue forms a communication 
20.8	Several tissues are organized to form an organ_419
20.9	The body is a cooperative of organ systems_420
20.10	New imaging technology reveals the inner body_422
Exchanges with the External Environment
20.11	Structural adaptations enhance exchange between animals and their 
20.12	Animals regulate their internal environment_425
20.13	Homeostasis depends on negative feedback_426
Chapter Review_427
21	nutrition and digestion_428
Getting Their Fill of Krill
Obtaining and Processing Food
21.1	Animals ingest their food in a variety of ways_430
21.2	Overview: Food processing occurs in four stages_431
21.3	Digestion occurs in specialized compartments_432
Human Digestive System
21.4	The human digestive system consists of an alimentary canal and accessory 
21.5	Digestion begins in the oral cavity_435
21.6	The food and breathing passages both open into 
the pharynx_435
21.7	The esophagus squeezes food along to the 
21.8	The stomach stores food and breaks it down with acid and enzymes_436
21.9	Bacterial infections can cause ulcers_437
21.10	The small intestine is the major organ of chemical digestion and nutrient 
21.11	The large intestine reclaims water_440
Diets and Digestive Adaptations
21.12	Adaptations of vertebrate digestive systems reflect diet_440
21.13	Overview: A healthful diet satisfies three needs_442
21.14	Chemical energy powers the body_442
21.15	Body fat and fad diets_443
21.16	Vegetarian must be sure to obtain all eight essential amino acids_444
21.17	A healthful diet includes 13 vitamins_444
21.18	Essential minerals are required for many body functions_446
21.19	What do food labels tell us?_447
21.20	Diet can influence cardiovascular disease and 
Chapter Review_448
22	respiration: 
the exchange of gases_450
Surviving in Thin Air
Mechanisms of Gas Exchange
22.1	Overview: Gas exchange involves breathing, the transport of gases, and the 
servicing of tissue cells_452
22.2	Animals exchange O2 and CO2 through moist body surfaces_452
22.3	Gills are adapted for gas exchange in aquatic environments_454
22.4	Countercurrent flow in the gills enhances O2 transfer_455
22.5	The tracheal system of insects provides direct exchange between the air and 
body cells_455
22.6	Terrestrial vertebrates have lungs_456
22.7	Smoking is one of the deadliest assaults on our respiratory system_457
22.8	Breathing ventilates the lungs_458
22.9	Breathing is automatically controlled_459
Transport of Gases in the Body
22.10	Blood transports the respiratory gases, with hemoglobin carrying the 
22.11	Hemoglobin helps transport CO2 and buffer the blood_461
22.12	The human fetus exchanges gases with the mother_s bloodstream_462
Chapter Review_462
23	circulation_464
How Does Gravity Affect Blood Circulation?
23.1	The circulatory system associates intimately with all body tissues_466
Mechanisms of Internal Transport
23.2	Several types of internal transport have evolved in animals_466
23.3	Vertebrate cardiovascular systems reflect 
The Mammalian Cardiovascular System
23.4	The human heart and cardiovascular system typify those of mammals_469
23.5	The structure of blood vessels fits their functions_470
23.6	The heart contracts and relaxes rhythmically_470
23.7	The pacemaker sets the tempo of the heartbeat_471
23.8	What is a heart attack?_472
23.9	Blood exerts pressure on vessel walls_473
23.10	Measuring blood pressure can reveal cardiovascular problems_474
23.11	Smooth muscle controls the distribution of 
23.12	Capillaries allow the transfer of substances through their walls_476
Structure and Function of Blood
23.13	Blood consists of cells suspended in plasma_477
23.14	Red blood cells transport oxygen_478
23.15	White blood cells help defend the body_478
23.16	Blood clots plug leaks when blood vessels are injured_479
23.17	Stem cells offer a potential cure for leukemia and other blood cell 
Chapter Review_480
24	the immune system_482
The Continuing Problem of HIV
Nonspecific Defenses Against Infection
24.1	Nonspecific defenses against infection include the skin and mucous membranes, 
phagocytic cells, and antimicrobial proteins_484
24.2	The inflammatory response mobilizes nonspecific defense forces_485
24.3	The lymphatic system becomes a crucial battleground during infection_486
Specific Immunity
24.4	The immune response counters specific invaders_487
24.5	Lymphocytes mount a dual defense_488
24.6	Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them_489
24.7	Clonal selection musters defensive forces against specific antigens_490
24.8	The initial immune response results in a type of _memory__491
24.9	Overview: B cells are the warriors of humoral immunity_492
24.10	Antibodies are the weapons of humoral immunity_493
24.11	Antibodies mark antigens for elimination_494
24.12	Monoclonal antibodies are powerful tools in the lab and clinic_495
24.13	T cells mount the cell-mediated defense and aid humoral immunity_496
24.14	Cytotoxic T cells may help prevent cancer_497
24.15	The immune system depends on our molecular fingerprints_498
Disorders of the Immune System
24.16	Malfunction or failure of the immune system causes disease_498
24.17	Allergies are overreactions to certain environmental antigens_499
24.18	AIDS leaves the body defenseless_500
Chapter Review_500
25	control of the internal environment_502
Let Sleeping Bears Lie
25.1	Heat is gained or lost in four ways_504
25.2	Thermoregulation depends on both heat production and heat gain or loss_504
25.3	Behavior often affects body temperature_505
25.4	Reducing the metabolic rate saves energy_506
Osmoregulation and Excretion
25.5	Osmoregulation: All animals balance the gain and loss of water and dissolved 
25.6	Sweating can produce serious water loss_508
25.7	Some animals face seasonal dehydration_508
25.8	Animals must dispose of nitrogenous wastes_509
25.9	The excretory system plays several major roles in homeostasis_510
25.10	Overview: The key functions of the excretory system are filtration, 
reabsorption, secretion, and excretion_511
25.11	From blood filtrate to urine: A closer look_512
25.12	Kidney dialysis can be a lifesaver_513
Homeostatic Functions of the Liver
25.13	The liver is vital in homeostasis_514
Chapter Review_514
26	chemical regulation_516
Testosterone and Male Aggression
The Nature of Chemical Regulation
26.1	Chemical signals coordinate body functions_518
26.2	Hormones affect target cells by two main signaling mechanisms_519
The Vertebrate Endocrine System
26.3	Overview: The vertebrate endocrine system_520
26.4	The hypothalamus, closely tied to the pituitary, connects the nervous and 
26.5	The hypothalamus and pituitary have multiple endocrine functions_522
Hormones and Homeostasis
26.6	The thyroid regulates development and 
26.7	Hormones from the thyroid and the parathyroids maintain calcium 
26.8	Pancreatic hormones manage cellular fuel_526
26.9	Diabetes is a common endocrine disorder_527
26.10	The adrenal glands mobilize responses to stress_528
26.11	Glucocorticoids offer relief from pain, but not without serious risks_529
26.12	The gonads secrete sex hormones_530
Chapter Review_530
27	reproduction and embryonic development_532
Mating Without Males
Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
27.1	Sexual and asexual reproduction are both common among animals_534
Human Reproduction
27.2	Reproductive anatomy of the human female_536
27.3	Reproductive anatomy of the human male_538
27.4	The formation of sperm and ova requires meiosis_540
27.5	Hormones synchronize cyclical changes in the ovary and uterus_542
27.6	The human sexual response occurs in four phases_544
27.7	Sexual activity can transmit disease_544
27.8	Contraception prevents unwanted pregnancy_545
Principles of Embryonic Development
27.9	Fertilization results in a zygote and triggers embryonic development_546
27.10	Cleavage produces a ball of cells from the zygote_548
27.11	Gastrulation produces a three-layered embryo_548
27.12	Organs start to form after gastrulation_550
27.13	Changes in cell shape, cell migration, and programmed cell death give form to 
the developing animal_552
27.14	Embryonic induction initiates organ formation_552
27.15	Pattern formation organizes the animal body_553
Human Development
27.16	The embryo and placenta take shape during the first month of pregnancy_554
27.17	Human development from conception to birth is divided into three 
27.18	Childbirth is hormonally induced and occurs in three stages_558
27.19	Reproductive technology increases our reproductive options_559
Chapter Review_560
28	nervous systems_562
Can an Injured Spinal Cord Be Fixed?
Nervous System Structure and Function
28.1	Nervous systems receive sensory input, interpret it, and send out appropriate 
28.2	Neurons are the functional units of nervous 
Nerve Signals and Their Transmission
28.3	A neuron maintains a membrane potential across its membrane_566
28.4	A nerve signal begins as a change in the membrane potential_566
28.5	The action potential regenerates itself along the neuron_568
28.6	Neurons communicate at synapses_569
28.7	Chemical synapses make complex information processing possible_570
28.8	A variety of small molecules function as neurotransmitters_570
28.9	Many drugs act at chemical synapses_571
Nervous Systems
28.10	Nervous system organization usually correlates with body symmetry_572
28.11	Vertebrate nervous systems are highly centralized and cephalized_573
28.12	The peripheral nervous system of vertebrates is a functional hierarchy_574
28.13	Opposing actions of sympathetic and 
parasympathetic neurons regulate the internal environment_574
28.14	The vertebrate brain develops from three anterior bulges of the neural 
The Human Brain
28.15	The structure of a living supercomputer: 
The human brain_576
28.16	The cerebral cortex is a mosaic of specialized, interactive regions_578
28.17	Injuries and brain operations have provided insight into brain function_579
28.18	Several parts of the brain regulate sleep and 
arousal_58028.19	The limbic system is involved in emotions, memory, and 
28.20	The cellular changes underlying memory and learning probably occur at 
Chapter Review_582
29	the senses_584
An Animal_s Senses Guide Its Movements
29.1	Sensory inputs become sensations and perceptions in the brain_586
Sensory Reception
29.2	Sensory receptor cells convert stimuli into electrical energy_586
29.3	Specialized sensory receptors detect five categories of stimuli_588
29.4	Three different types of eyes have evolved among invertebrates_590
29.5	Vertebrates have single-lens eyes_590
29.6	To focus, a lens changes position or shape_591
29.7	Artificial lenses or surgery can correct focusing problems_592
29.8	Our photoreceptor cells are rods and cones_593
Hearing and Balance
29.9	The ear converts air pressure waves into action potentials that are perceived 
as sound_594
29.10	The inner ear houses our organ of balance_596
29.11	What causes motion sickness?_596
Taste and Smell
29.12	Odor and taste receptors detect categories of chemicals_597
29.13	Review: The central nervous system couples stimulus with response_598
Chapter Review_598
30	how animals move_600
How Do Ants Move Forests?
Movement and Locomotion
30.1	Diverse means of animal locomotion have evolved_602
Skeletal Support
30.2	Skeletons function in support, movement, and protection_604
30.3	The human skeleton is a unique variation on an ancient theme_606
30.4	Skeletal disorders afflict millions_607
30.5	Bones are complex living organs_608
30.6	Broken bones can heal themselves_608
Muscle Contraction and Movement
30.7	The skeleton and muscles interact in 
30.8	Each muscle cell has its own contractile 
30.9	A muscle contracts when thin filaments slide across thick filaments_610
30.10	Motor neurons stimulate muscle contraction_612
30.11	Athletic training increases strength and 
30.12	The structure-function theme underlies all the parts and activities of an 
Chapter Review_615
unit vi
Plants: Form and Function
31	plant structure, reproduction, and development_618
A Gentle Giant
31.1	Talking About Science: Plant scientist Katherine Esau was a preeminent 
student of plant structure and function_620
Plant Structure and Function
31.2	The two main groups of angiosperms are the monocots and the dicots_621
31.3	The plant body consists of roots and shoots_622
31.4	Many plants have modified roots and 
31.5	Plant cells and tissues are diverse in structure 
and function_624
31.6	Three tissue systems make up the plant 
Plant Growth
31.7	Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots_628
31.8	Secondary growth increases the girth of woody plants_630
Plant Reproduction
31.9	Overview: The sexual life cycle of a flowering 
31.10	The development of pollen and ovules culminates 
in fertilization_632
31.11	The ovule develops into a seed_634
31.12	The ovary develops into a fruit_635
31.13	Seed germination continues the life cycle_636
31.14	Asexual reproduction produces plant 
31.15	Vegetative reproduction is a mainstay of modern agriculture_638
Chapter Review_638
32	plant nutrition 
and transport_640
Plants That Clean Up Poisons
The Uptake and Transport of Plant Nutrients
32.1	Plants acquire their nutrients from soil and air_642
32.2	The plasma membranes of root cells control solute uptake_643
32.3	Transpiration pulls water up xylem vessels_644
32.4	Guard cells control transpiration_645
32.5	Phloem transports sugars_646
Plant Nutrients and the Soil
32.6	Plant health depends on a complete diet of essential inorganic nutrients_648
32.7	You can diagnose some nutrient deficiencies in your own plants_649
32.8	Soil contains rock particles, humus, organisms, water, and crucial 
32.9	Soil conservation is essential to human life_651
32.10	Organic farmers avoid the use of commercial chemicals_652
32.11	Fungi help most plants absorb nutrients from the soil_652
32.12	The plant kingdom includes parasites and 
32.13	Most plants depend on bacteria to supply nitrogen_654
32.14	Legumes and certain other plants house nitrogen-fixing bacteria_654
Plant Nutrients and Agriculture
32.15	A major goal of agricultural research is to improve the protein content of 
32.16	Genetic engineering is increasing crop yields_656
Chapter Review_656
33	control systems in plants_658
The Benefits of Soy
Plant Hormones
33.1	Experiments on how plants turn toward light led to the discovery of a plant 
33.2	Five major types of hormones regulate plant growth and development_662
33.3	Auxin stimulates the elongation of cells in young shoots_662
33.4	Cytokinins stimulate cell division_664
33.5	Gibberellins affect stem elongation and have numerous other effects_664
33.6	Abscisic acid inhibits many plant processes_665
33.7	Ethylene triggers fruit ripening and other aging processes_666
33.8	Plant hormones have many agricultural uses_667
Growth Responses and Biological Rhythms in Plants
33.9	Tropisms orient plant growth toward or away from environmental stimuli_668
33.10	Plants have internal clocks_669
33.11	Plants mark the seasons by measuring 
33.12	Phytochrome is a light detector that may help set the biological clock_671
33.13	Talking About Science: Joanne Chory studies the effects of light and hormones 
in the model plant Arabidopsis_672
Plant Defenses
33.14	Defenses against herbivores and infectious microbes have evolved in 
33.15	Talking About Science: Plant biochemist Eloy Rodriguez studies how animals 
use defensive chemicals made by plants_674
Chapter Review_675
unit vii
34	the biosphere: 
an introduction to earth_s diverse environments_678
A Mysterious Giant of the Deep
34.1	Ecologists study how organisms interact with their environment at several 
The Biosphere
34.2	The biosphere is the total of all of Earth_s ecosystems_680
34.3	Environmental problems reveal the limits of the biosphere_681
34.4	Physical and chemical factors influence life in the biosphere_682
34.5	Organisms are adapted to abiotic and biotic factors by natural selection_683
34.6	Regional climate influences the distribution of biological communities_684
Aquatic Biomes
34.7	Oceans occupy most of Earth_s surface_686
34.8	Freshwater biomes include lakes, ponds, rivers, streams, and wetlands_688
Terrestrial Biomes
34.9	Terrestrial biomes reflect regional variations in climate_689
34.10	Tropical forests cluster near the equator_690
34.11	Talking About Science: Ecologist Ariel Lugo studies tropical forests in 
Puerto Rico_691
34.12	Savannas are grasslands with scattered trees_692
34.13	Deserts are defined by their dryness_692
34.14	Spiny shrubs dominate the chaparral_693
34.15	Temperate grasslands include the North American prairie_694
34.16	Deciduous trees dominate temperate forests_694
34.17	Coniferous forests are often dominated by a few species of trees_695
34.18	Long, bitter-cold winters characterize the 
Chapter Review_696
35	population dynamics_698
The Spread of Shakespeare_s Starlings
35.1	Populations are defined in several ways_700
Population Structure and Dynamics
35.2	Density and dispersion patterns are important population variables_700
35.3	Idealized models help us understand population growth_702
35.4	Multiple factors may limit population growth_704
35.5	Some populations have _boom-and-bust_ cycles_705
Life Histories and Their Evolution
35.6	Life tables track mortality and survivorship in populations_706
35.7	Evolution shapes life histories_706
The Human Population
35.8	The human population has been growing exponentially for centuries_708
35.9	Birth and death rates and age structure affect population growth_710
35.10	Principles of population ecology have practical applications_712
Chapter Review_712
36	communities and ecosystems_714
Dining In
36.1	A community is all the organisms inhabiting a particular area_716
Structural Features of Communities
36.2	Competition may occur when a shared resource is limited_717
36.3	Predation leads to diverse adaptations in both predator and prey_718
36.4	Predation can maintain diversity in a community_720
36.5	Symbiotic relationships help structure 
36.6	Disturbance is a prominent feature of most communities_722
36.7	Talking About Science: Ecologist Frank Gilliam discusses the role of fire in 
Ecosystem Structure and Dynamics
36.8	Energy flow and chemical cycling are the two fundamental processes in 
36.9	Trophic structure is a key factor in ecosystem 
36.10	Food chains interconnect, forming food webs_726
36.11	Energy supply limits the length of food chains_727
36.12	A production pyramid explains why meat is a luxury for humans_728
36.13	Chemicals are recycled between organic matter and abiotic reservoirs_728
36.14	Water moves through the biosphere in a global 
36.15	The carbon cycle depends on photosynthesis and respiration_730
36.16	The nitrogen cycle relies heavily on bacteria_730
36.17	The phosphorus cycle depends on the weathering 
of rock_731
Ecosystem Alteration
36.18	Ecosystem alteration can upset chemical cycling_732
36.19	Talking About Science: David Schindler talks about the effects of nutrients 
on freshwater ecosystems_733
36.20	Zoned reserves are an attempt to reverse ecosystem disruption_734
Chapter Review_734
37	behavioral adaptations to the environment_736
Tracking Jaguars
Classic Concepts in Behavior
37.1	Behavioral biologists study the actions of animals in their natural 
37.2	Behavior results from both genes and environmental factors_739
37.3	Innate behavior often appears as fixed action patterns_740
37.4	Learning ranges from simple behavioral changes to complex problem solving_742
37.5	Imprinting is learning that involves both innate behavior and experience_742
37.6	Many animals learn by association and imitation_744
37.7	Animal cognition includes problem-solving 
Ecological Roles of Behavior
37.8	An animal_s behavior reflects its evolution_746
37.9	Biological rhythms synchronize behavior with the environment_746
37.10	Animal movement may be oriented to stimuli or landmarks_748
37.11	Movement from place to place often depends on internal maps_748
37.12	Behavioral ecologists use cost/benefit analysis in studying feeding 
Social Behavior and Sociobiology
37.13	Sociobiology places social behavior in an evolutionary context_751
37.14	Rituals involving agonistic behavior often resolve confrontations between 
37.15	Dominance hierarchies are maintained by agonistic behavior_752
37.16	Talking About Science: Behavioral biologist 
Jane Goodall discusses dominance hierarchies 
and reconciliation behavior in chimpanzees_753
37.17	Territorial behavior parcels space and resources_754
37.18	Mating behavior often involves elaborate courtship rituals_754
37.19	Complex social organization hinges on complex signaling_756
37.20	Altruistic acts can be explained by evolution_758
37.21	Talking About Science: Edward O. Wilson promoted the field of sociobiology 
and is a leading conservation activist_759
37.22	Both genes and culture contribute to human social 
Chapter Review_760
38	conservation biology_762
Saving the Key Deer
The Biodiversity Crisis: An Overview
38.1	Habitat destruction, introduced species, and overexploitation are the major 
threats to biodiversity_764
38.2	Biodiversity is vital to human welfare_765
38.3	Technology and the population explosion compound our impact on habitats and 
other species_766
38.4	Rapid global warming could alter the entire biosphere_768
The Geographic Distribution of Biodiversity
38.5	Some locations in the biosphere are especially rich in biodiversity_770
Conservation of Populations Species
38.6	There are two approaches to studying endangered populations_772
38.7	Identifying critical habitat factors is a central goal 
in conservation research_773
38.8	Increased fragmentation threatens many populations: A case study_774
Managing and Sustaining Ecosystems
38.9	Sustaining ecosystems and landscapes is a conservation priority_776
38.10	Edges and corridors can strongly influence landscape biodiversity_777
38.11	Restoring degraded habitats is a developing 
38.12	Sustainable development is an ultimate goal_779
Chapter Review_780
appendix 1	Metric Conversion Table
appendix 2	The Amino Acids of Proteins
appendix 3	Chapter Review Answers
appendix 4	Credits_

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