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Preface chapter one The Nature of Probability and Statistics 1 Statistics Today: Are We Improving Our Diet? 2 1-1 Introduction 2 1-2 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics 3 Speaking of Statistics: The Perfect Burger 4 Speaking of Statistics: Super Snack Stats 5 Speaking of Statistics: Risks in the Home 6 1-3 Variables and Types of Data 7 Speaking of Statistics: Height Fright Not Right 8 1-4 Data Collection and Sampling Techniques 10 Random Sampling 11 Systematic Sampling 11 Speaking of Statistics: Surviving Bad Days at Work 12 Stratified Sampling 12 Cluster Sampling 12 Speaking of Statistics: How Often Does Your Family Eat Dinner at Home Together? 13 Speaking of Statistics: Shake and Wake 14 Other Sampling Methods 14 1-5 Observational and Experimental Studies 15 1-6 Computers and Calculators 17 Technology Step by Step 18 1-7 Summary 23 chapter two Frequency Distributions and Graphs 31 Statistics Today: Are We Flying More? 32 2-1 Introduction 33 2-2 Organizing Data 33 Categorical Frequency Distributions 34 Grouped Frequency Distributions 35 Technology Step by Step 44 2-3 Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Ogives 45 The Histogram 47 The Frequency Polygon 47 The Ogive 49 Relative Frequency Graphs 51 Technology Step by Step 56 2-4 Other Types of Graphs 60 Pareto Charts 61 The Time Series Graph 62 The Pie Graph 64 Speaking of Statistics: Pennsylvania Coal Production 65 Misleading Graphs 67 Speaking of Statistics: Costliest Big Cities for Driving 71 Technology Step by Step 74 Speaking of Statistics: Budget Deficit Drops 75 2-5 Paired Data and Scatter Plots 77 Technology Step by Step 80 2-6 Summary 83 chapter three Data Description 91 Statistics Today: How Long Are You Delayed by Road Congestion? 92 3-1 Introduction 92 3-2 Measures of Central Tendency 93 The Mean 94 The Median 97 Speaking of Statistics: Big Spenders 98 The Mode 100 Speaking of Statistics: Leave the Driving to . . . 102 The Midrange 102 The Weighted Mean 103 Distribution Shapes 105 3-3 Measures of Variation 110 Range 111 Variance and Standard Deviation 112 The Unbiased Estimator 115 Variance and Standard Deviation for Grouped Data 116 Coefficient of Variation 119 Chebyshev's Theorem 120 The Empirical (Normal) Rule 122 3-4 Measures of Position 126 Standard Scores 126 Percentiles 127 Quartiles and Deciles 134 Outliers 135 Technology Step by Step 138 3-5 Exploratory Data Analysis 143 Stem and Leaf Plots 144 Boxplots 147 Technology Step by Step 151 3-6 Summary 154 chapter four Counting Techniques 163 Statistics Today: Why Are We Running Out of 800 Numbers? 164 4-1 Introduction 165 4-2 Tree Diagrams and the Multiplication Rule for Counting 165 Tree Diagrams 165 The Multiplication Rule for Counting 167 4-3 Permutations and Combinations 170 Factorial Notation 170 Permutations 170 Combinations 172 Technology Step by Step 176 4-4 Summary 177 chapter five Probability 181 Statistics Today: Would You Bet Your Life? 182 5-1 Introduction 182 5-2 Sample Spaces and Probability 183 Basic Concepts 183 Classical Probability 186 Complementary Events 188 Empirical Probability 190 Law of Large Numbers 192 Subjective Probability 193 Probability and Risk Taking 193 5-3 The Addition Rules for Probability 196 Speaking of Statistics: CEO Profile 197 Technology Step by Step 203 5-4 The Multiplication Rules and Conditional Probability 205 The Multiplication Rules 205 Conditional Probability 210 Probabilities for "At Least" 213 5-5 Summary 216 chapter six Discrete Probability Distributions 223 Statistics Today: Is Pooling Worthwhile? 224 6-1 Introduction 224 6-2 Probability Distributions 225 6-3 Mean, Variance, and Expectation 229 Mean 229 Variance 231 Expectation 234 6-4 The Binomial Distribution 238 Technology Step by Step 246 6-5 Summary 250 chapter seven The Normal Distribution 255 Statistics Today: What Is Normal? 256 7-1 Introduction 256 7-2 Properties of the Normal Distribution 258 7-3 The Standard Normal Distribution 259 Finding Areas under the Standard Normal Distribution Curve 261 The Normal Distribution Curve as a Probability Distribution Curve 268 Technology Step by Step 272 7-4 Applications of the Normal Distribution 273 Finding Data Values Given Specific Probabilities 277 Technology Step by Step 282 7-5 The Central Limit Theorem 285 Distribution of Sample Means 285 Finite Population Correction Factor (Optional) 292 Contents ix 7-6 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution 295 7-7 Summary 301 chapter eight Confidence Intervals and Sample Size 307 Statistics Today: Would You Change the Channel? 308 8-1 Introduction 309 8-2 Confidence Intervals for the Mean ( _Known or n _ 30) and Sample Size 310 Confidence Intervals 310 Sample Size 316 Technology Step by Step 320 8-3 Confidence Intervals for the Mean ( _Unknown and n _ 30) 322 Technology Step by Step 327 8-4 Confidence Intervals and Sample Size for Proportions 329 Confidence Intervals 330 Sample Size for Proportions 331 Technology Step by Step 334 8-5 Confidence Intervals for Variances and Standard Deviations 336 8-6 Summary 340 chapter nine Hypothesis Testing 346 Statistics Today: How Much Better Is Better? 347 9-1 Introduction 348 9-2 Steps in Hypothesis Testing-Traditional Method 348 9-3 z Test for a Mean 360 Speaking of Statistics: Stick Margarine May Boost Risk of Heart Attacks 361 P-Value Method for Hypothesis Testing 365 Technology Step by Step 372 9-4 t Test for a Mean 374 Technology Step by Step 382 9-5 z Test for a Proportion 383 Technology Step by Step 388 9-6 _2 Test for a Variance or Standard Deviation 390 Technology Step by Step 398 9-7 Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Testing 401 9-8 Summary 403 chapter ten Testing the Difference between Two Means, Two Variances, and Two Proportions 410 Statistics Today: To Vaccinate or Not to Vaccinate? Small or Large? 411 10-1 Introduction 411 10-2 Testing the Difference between Two Means: Large Samples 412 Technology Step by Step 420 10-3 Testing the Difference between Two Variances 424 Technology Step by Step 432 10-4 Testing the Difference between Two Means: Small Independent Samples 436 Technology Step by Step 442 Speaking of Statistics: Public School Teachers Show Bias for Boys 446 10-5 Testing the Difference between Two Means: Small Dependent Samples 446 Speaking of Statistics: Pedaling a Solution for Couch-Potato Kids 454 Technology Step by Step 456 10-6 Testing the Difference between Proportions 458 Technology Step by Step 464 10-7 Summary 466 Hypothesis-Testing Summary 1 473 chapter eleven Correlation and Regression 475 Statistics Today: Do Dust Storms Affect Respiratory Health? 476 11-1 Introduction 476 11-2 Correlation 477 Correlation Coefficient 479 Correlation and Causation 481 The Significance of the Correlation Coefficient 482 Speaking of Statistics: Coffee Not Disease Culprit, Study Says 487 11-3 Regression 488 Line of Best Fit 488 Determination of the Regression Line Equation 490 Technology Step by Step 495 11-4 Coefficient of Determination and Standard Error of Estimate 500 Types of Variation for the Regression Model 500 Coefficient of Determination 502 Standard Error of Estimate 503 Prediction Interval 505 11-5 Summary 507 chapter twelve Chi-Square and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 513 Statistics Today: Statistics and Heredity 514 12-1 Introduction 514 12-2 Test for Goodness of Fit 515 Test of Normality (Optional) 520 Technology Step by Step 524 12-3 Tests Using Contingency Tables 527 Test for Independence 527 Test for Homogeneity of Proportions 533 Speaking of Statistics: Ignoring Commercials? 536 Speaking of Statistics: At Least They're Checking for Radon 537 Technology Step by Step 540 12-4 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 542 Technology Step by Step 550 12-5 Summary 554 Hypothesis-Testing Summary 2 561 appendix A Algebra Review 562 appendix B Writing the Research Report 567 appendix C Tables 568 appendix D Data Bank 586 appendix E Glossary 594 appendix F Bibliography 600 appendix G Photo Credits 602 appendix H Selected Answers 603 Index 634

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Statistics -- Textbooks.