## Table of contents for Elementary statistics : a step by step approach / Allan G. Bluman.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.

```Preface
chapter one
The Nature of Probability and Statistics 1
Statistics Today: Are We Improving Our Diet? 2
1-1 Introduction 2
1-2 Descriptive and Inferential Statistics 3
Speaking of Statistics: The Perfect Burger 4
Speaking of Statistics: Super Snack Stats 5
Speaking of Statistics: Risks in the Home 6
1-3 Variables and Types of Data 7
Speaking of Statistics: Height Fright Not Right 8
1-4 Data Collection and Sampling Techniques 10
Random Sampling 11
Systematic Sampling 11
Speaking of Statistics: Surviving Bad Days at Work 12
Stratified Sampling 12
Cluster Sampling 12
Speaking of Statistics: How Often Does Your Family Eat Dinner at Home
Together? 13
Speaking of Statistics: Shake and Wake 14
Other Sampling Methods 14
1-5 Observational and Experimental Studies 15
1-6 Computers and Calculators 17
Technology Step by Step 18
1-7 Summary 23
chapter two
Frequency Distributions and Graphs 31
Statistics Today: Are We Flying More? 32
2-1 Introduction 33
2-2 Organizing Data 33
Categorical Frequency Distributions 34
Grouped Frequency Distributions 35
Technology Step by Step 44
2-3 Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Ogives 45
The Histogram 47
The Frequency Polygon 47
The Ogive 49
Relative Frequency Graphs 51
Technology Step by Step 56
2-4 Other Types of Graphs 60
Pareto Charts 61
The Time Series Graph 62
The Pie Graph 64
Speaking of Statistics: Pennsylvania Coal Production 65
Speaking of Statistics: Costliest Big Cities for Driving 71
Technology Step by Step 74
Speaking of Statistics: Budget Deficit Drops 75
2-5 Paired Data and Scatter Plots 77
Technology Step by Step 80
2-6 Summary 83
chapter three
Data Description 91
Statistics Today: How Long Are You Delayed by Road Congestion? 92
3-1 Introduction 92
3-2 Measures of Central Tendency 93
The Mean 94
The Median 97
Speaking of Statistics: Big Spenders 98
The Mode 100
Speaking of Statistics: Leave the Driving to . . . 102
The Midrange 102
The Weighted Mean 103
Distribution Shapes 105
3-3 Measures of Variation 110
Range 111
Variance and Standard Deviation 112
The Unbiased Estimator 115
Variance and Standard Deviation for Grouped Data 116
Coefficient of Variation 119
Chebyshev's Theorem 120
The Empirical (Normal) Rule 122
3-4 Measures of Position 126
Standard Scores 126
Percentiles 127
Quartiles and Deciles 134
Outliers 135
Technology Step by Step 138
3-5 Exploratory Data Analysis 143
Stem and Leaf Plots 144
Boxplots 147
Technology Step by Step 151
3-6 Summary 154
chapter four
Counting Techniques 163
Statistics Today: Why Are We Running Out of 800 Numbers? 164
4-1 Introduction 165
4-2 Tree Diagrams and the Multiplication Rule for Counting 165
Tree Diagrams 165
The Multiplication Rule for Counting 167
4-3 Permutations and Combinations 170
Factorial Notation 170
Permutations 170
Combinations 172
Technology Step by Step 176
4-4 Summary 177
chapter five
Probability 181
Statistics Today: Would You Bet Your Life? 182
5-1 Introduction 182
5-2 Sample Spaces and Probability 183
Basic Concepts 183
Classical Probability 186
Complementary Events 188
Empirical Probability 190
Law of Large Numbers 192
Subjective Probability 193
Probability and Risk Taking 193
5-3 The Addition Rules for Probability 196
Speaking of Statistics: CEO Profile 197
Technology Step by Step 203
5-4 The Multiplication Rules and Conditional Probability 205
The Multiplication Rules 205
Conditional Probability 210
Probabilities for "At Least" 213
5-5 Summary 216
chapter six
Discrete Probability Distributions 223
Statistics Today: Is Pooling Worthwhile? 224
6-1 Introduction 224
6-2 Probability Distributions 225
6-3 Mean, Variance, and Expectation 229
Mean 229
Variance 231
Expectation 234
6-4 The Binomial Distribution 238
Technology Step by Step 246
6-5 Summary 250
chapter seven
The Normal Distribution 255
Statistics Today: What Is Normal? 256
7-1 Introduction 256
7-2 Properties of the Normal Distribution 258
7-3 The Standard Normal Distribution 259
Finding Areas under the Standard Normal Distribution Curve 261
The Normal Distribution Curve as a Probability Distribution Curve 268
Technology Step by Step 272
7-4 Applications of the Normal Distribution 273
Finding Data Values Given Specific Probabilities 277
Technology Step by Step 282
7-5 The Central Limit Theorem 285
Distribution of Sample Means 285
Finite Population Correction Factor (Optional) 292
Contents ix
7-6 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution 295
7-7 Summary 301
chapter eight
Confidence Intervals and Sample Size 307
Statistics Today: Would You Change the Channel? 308
8-1 Introduction 309
8-2 Confidence Intervals for the Mean ( _Known or n _ 30)
and Sample Size 310
Confidence Intervals 310
Sample Size 316
Technology Step by Step 320
8-3 Confidence Intervals for the Mean ( _Unknown and n _ 30) 322
Technology Step by Step 327
8-4 Confidence Intervals and Sample Size for Proportions 329
Confidence Intervals 330
Sample Size for Proportions 331
Technology Step by Step 334
8-5 Confidence Intervals for Variances and Standard Deviations 336
8-6 Summary 340
chapter nine
Hypothesis Testing 346
Statistics Today: How Much Better Is Better? 347
9-1 Introduction 348
9-2 Steps in Hypothesis Testing-Traditional Method 348
9-3 z Test for a Mean 360
Speaking of Statistics: Stick Margarine May Boost Risk of Heart Attacks 361
P-Value Method for Hypothesis Testing 365
Technology Step by Step 372
9-4 t Test for a Mean 374
Technology Step by Step 382
9-5 z Test for a Proportion 383
Technology Step by Step 388
9-6 _2 Test for a Variance or Standard Deviation 390
Technology Step by Step 398
9-7 Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Testing 401
9-8 Summary 403
chapter ten
Testing the Difference between Two Means, Two Variances, and Two
Proportions 410
Statistics Today: To Vaccinate or Not to Vaccinate?
Small or Large? 411
10-1 Introduction 411
10-2 Testing the Difference between Two Means: Large Samples 412
Technology Step by Step 420
10-3 Testing the Difference between Two Variances 424
Technology Step by Step 432
10-4 Testing the Difference between Two Means: Small Independent Samples 436
Technology Step by Step 442
Speaking of Statistics: Public School Teachers Show Bias for Boys 446
10-5 Testing the Difference between Two Means: Small Dependent Samples 446
Speaking of Statistics: Pedaling a Solution for Couch-Potato Kids 454
Technology Step by Step 456
10-6 Testing the Difference between Proportions 458
Technology Step by Step 464
10-7 Summary 466
Hypothesis-Testing Summary 1 473
chapter eleven
Correlation and Regression 475
Statistics Today: Do Dust Storms Affect Respiratory Health? 476
11-1 Introduction 476
11-2 Correlation 477
Correlation Coefficient 479
Correlation and Causation 481
The Significance of the Correlation Coefficient 482
Speaking of Statistics: Coffee Not Disease Culprit, Study Says 487
11-3 Regression 488
Line of Best Fit 488
Determination of the Regression Line Equation 490
Technology Step by Step 495
11-4 Coefficient of Determination and Standard Error of Estimate 500
Types of Variation for the Regression Model 500
Coefficient of Determination 502
Standard Error of Estimate 503
Prediction Interval 505
11-5 Summary 507
chapter twelve
Chi-Square and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 513
Statistics Today: Statistics and Heredity 514
12-1 Introduction 514
12-2 Test for Goodness of Fit 515
Test of Normality (Optional) 520
Technology Step by Step 524
12-3 Tests Using Contingency Tables 527
Test for Independence 527
Test for Homogeneity of Proportions 533
Speaking of Statistics: Ignoring Commercials? 536
Speaking of Statistics: At Least They're Checking for Radon 537
Technology Step by Step 540
12-4 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 542
Technology Step by Step 550
12-5 Summary 554
Hypothesis-Testing Summary 2 561
appendix A
Algebra Review 562
appendix B
Writing the Research Report 567
appendix C
Tables 568
appendix D
Data Bank 586
appendix E
Glossary 594
appendix F
Bibliography 600
appendix G
Photo Credits 602
appendix H