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Contents Preface Learning Features Web Ancillaries 1 The Science of Psychology Learning Objectives Introduction Pinning down Psychology Psychology and Common Sense: The Grandmother Challenge Putting common sense to the test Explaining human behaviour The Beginnings of Modern Psychology Philosophical influences Physiological influences Psychology Today Structuralism: mental chemistry Functionalism: mental accomplishment Behaviourism: a totally objective psychology Gestalt psychology: making connections Out of school: the independents The cognitive revolution Final Thoughts Summary Revision Questions Further Reading 2 Methodology Learning Objectives Introduction Some Fundamentals Research methods and statistics Carrying out quality research The role of theory in psychology Designing Experiments in Psychology What can we measure? A rundown on research methods Experiment vs. survey Which is the best method to use? Deciding what to manipulate Deciding what to measure Different ways of measuring Producing reliable results Statistics in Psychology Samples and populations ? sorting out the jargon How can we confidently generalize our results? Finding out if our results are remarkable Judging whether two variables are related Describing numerical results Understanding correlation Final Thoughts Summary Revision Questions Further Reading 3 The Nervous System Learning Objectives Introduction How Your Brain Plays Tennis Deceptively simple ? ? immensely complex Components of the Nervous System The support and structure of neurons The peripheral nervous system The central nervous system Regions within the brain The structure of the human brain Neural Interaction What do neurons look like? Electrical activity Neurotransmission Neurons as integrators Disrupting the system Inhibitory neurotransmission Further intricacies Experience as a modifier The Growth of the Central Nervous System Neonatal brain development Can we repair damaged brains? Modular processing Final Thoughts Summary Further Reading 4 Learning Learning Objectives Introduction Classical Conditioning Pavlov?s dogs Other examples of conditioned responses Associative analysis The importance of classical conditioning Instrumental Learning Thorndike?s cats The Skinner box The law of effect Control of performance The importance of instrumental learning The Principles of Association Formation Contiguity and predictiveness Selective association formation Non-associative Learning Responding to a single stimulus Spatial learning Discrimination learning Final Thoughts Summary Revision Questions Further Reading 5 Motivation Learning Objectives Introduction Hunger and the Control of Food Intake Peripheral factors Control signals How the brain controls eating A matter of taste Taste + smell = flavour Functions involved in eating Obesity ? possible factors Thirst and the Control of Drinking Cellular dehydration Extracellular thirst stimuli Control of normal drinking Sexual Behaviour Sociobiological explanations for adultery How the brain controls sexual behaviour Final Thoughts Summary Revision Questions Further Reading 6 Emotion Learning Objectives Introduction Five Perspectives on Emotion Emotion as feeling Emotion as behaviour Emotion as arousal The cognitive approach to emotion Social approaches to emotion Specific Emotions Five fundamental emotions Other discrete emotions The Development of Emotion Early theories Recent theories Attachment Emotional intelligence Can Emotions Malfunction? Psychosomatic disorders and panic attacks Theories of neurotic anxiety Final Thoughts Summary Revision Questions Further Reading 7 Sensory Processes Learning Objectives Introduction Sources of Information Light Sound The chemical senses The somatosenses Sense Organs How do we see? How do we hear? Tasting and smelling Invisible forces and phantom limbs Final Thoughts Summary Revision Questions Further Reading 8 Perception Learning Objectives Introduction Perception and Illusion When seeing goes wrong Theories of perception Spotting the cat in the grass Explaining after-effects Making Sense of the World Grouping and segmentation Visual search ? or finding the car How do we know what we see? Seeing without knowing Seeing What We Know Perception or hallucination? Resolving visual ambiguity Tricks of the light Non-visual knowledge and perceptual set Perceptual Learning How training influences performance Top-down mechanisms Final Thoughts Summary Revision Questions Further Reading 9 Infancy and Childhood Learning Objectives Introduction Infancy Physical and sensory development Cognitive development The beginnings of language and communication Social and emotional development The Preschool Years Perceptual and motor development Cognitive development Language and communication Social and emotional development The School Years Perceptual and motor development Cognitive development Social and emotional development Final Thoughts Summary Revision Questions Further Reading 10 Adolescence and Adulthood Learning Objectives Introduction Adolescence Physical development Cognitive development Social development Early Adulthood Physical development Cognitive development Social and emotional development Middle Adulthood Physical development Cognitive development Social and emotional development Late Adulthood Physical development Cognitive development Social and emotional developments Final Thoughts Summary Further Reading 11 Memory Learning Objectives Introduction What is Memory? Much more than conscious remembering Inferring memory from behaviour Constructing the past How We Study Memory Observation vs. inference Overcoming the problem Memory Models Kinds of remembering Explicit and implicit memory The information-processing metaphor Baddeley?s working memory model Levels of processing Encoding specificity and transfer appropriate processing What Do We Know about Memory? Memory and the brain The importance of meaning The effects of previous knowledge Real vs. imagined memories Learning strategies Final Thoughts Summary Revision Questions Further Reading 12 Language and Thought Learning Objectives Introduction Language Syntax, semantics and pragmatics Understanding language Discourse, and a return to understanding Tracking the reading process Language disorders The power of metaphor Thought Problem Solving Logical and conditional reasoning Heuristic reasoning ? or taking a short cut Intuition Are humans poor at reasoning? Final Thoughts Summary Revision Questions Further Reading 13 Intelligence Learning Objectives Introduction Setting the Scene Questions of intelligence Galton and individual differences Binet and developmental changes Back to the future: the intelligence landscape General Intelligence ? Multiple Abilities How is the intellect structured? Speed of processing as a measure of intelligence Non-unitary theories of intelligence Integrating Current Issues Detterman ? the best of both worlds Two routes to knowledge What do we mean by ?mental retardation?? Theories of retardation Savant syndrome Enduring Issues The genetics of IQ Race, genes and intelligence Final Thoughts Summary Revision Questions Further Reading 14 Personality Learning Objectives Introduction What is Personality? Psychoanalytic Theories ? Freud and Beyond Freud?s models of the mind In the wake of Freud Humanistic Theories ? Individuality The drive to fulfil potential Understanding our own psychological world Trait Theories ? Aspects of Personality Cattell?s 16 trait dimensions Eysenck?s supertraits Trait debates Biological and Genetic Theories ? the Way We Are Made Inhibition and arousal Genetics vs. environment Social?cognitive theories ? Interpreting the World Encodings ? or how we perceive events Expectancies and the importance of self-efficacy Affects ? how we feel Goals, values and the effects of reward Competencies and self-regulatory plans Final Thoughts Summary Revision Questions Further Reading 15 Abnormal Psychology Learning Objectives Introduction What Does ?Abnormal? Mean? What Causes Abnormal Behaviour? Biology and genetics The parent?child relationship Attachment and security Learned behaviour Distorted thinking Integrative models Disorders ? Symptoms and Causes Schizophrenia ? a living nightmare Mood disorders ? depression Anxiety disorders ? when fear takes over Eating disorders ? bulimia and anorexia Substance use disorders ? abuse and dependence Personality disorders ? a way of being Final Thoughts Summary Revision Questions Further Reading 16 Therapy Learning Objectives Introduction Biological Treatments ? from Surgery to Drugs Psychosurgery and ECT Pharmacotherapy ? the role of medication Assessing the effects of psychotropic drugs Psychological Treatments Psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapy Behaviour therapy Cognitive therapy Humanistic therapy Family and couples therapy Assessing the effects of psychotherapy Biological or Psychological Treatment? Final Thoughts Summary Revision Questions Further Reading 17 Attitudes, Attributions and Social Cognition Learning Objectives Introduction Attitudes How do you measure an attitude? How do attitudes influence behaviour? Forming and changing attitudes Attributions Early theories of attribution The effects of bias Cultural differences Social Cognition Social schemas Categorization and stereotyping How do schemas work? Recent research into social processing Final Thoughts Summary Revision Questions Further Reading 18 Interpersonal Relations and Group Processes Learning Objectives Introduction Interpersonal Behaviour Being in the presence of other people The influence of authority Affiliation, attraction and close relationships Group Processes Taking our place in the group How groups influence their members How groups get things done Intergroup Relations Deindividuation, collective behaviour and the crowd Cooperation and competition between groups Social categories and social identity Prejudice and discrimination Building social harmony Final Thoughts Summary Further Reading 19 Health psychology Learning Objectives Introduction Health Beliefs and Behaviours Behaviour and mortality The role of health beliefs Integrated models Illness Beliefs The dimensions of illness beliefs A model of illness behaviour Health professionals? beliefs The Stress?Illness Link Stress models Does stress cause illness? Chronic Illness Profile of an illness Psychology?s role Final Thoughts Summary Revision Questions Further Reading 20 Organizational Psychology Learning Objectives Introduction Individuals at Work Matching the person to the job Fitting into the organization Training ? does it work? Leadership styles Job satisfaction Groups at Work More than the sum of the parts Group decision making Organizations at Work Organizational design Organizational culture Power and politics Redundancy and Unemployment Redundancy ? a kind of bereavement Psychological effects of unemployment Final Thoughts Summary Revision Questions Further Reading 21 Forensic Psychology Learning Objectives Introduction Psychology and the Law The meaning of ?forensic? The origins of legal psychology Eyewitness Memory An early model of memory The strength and validity of the evidence The Psychology of Confession Voluntary false confessions Interrogational tactics Coerced false confessions The Psychology of Investigation The cognitive interview Detecting lies and deceit Offender profiling Criminological Psychology The Cambridge Study Violent offenders Working with offenders The Meta-Analyses Offending Behaviour Programmes: The Example of ART Final Thoughts Summary Revision Questions Further Reading Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Psychology -- Textbooks.