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CONTENTS Preface iii Figures vii Tables ix Summary xi Cost Analysis Tools xi Acquisition Cost Savings xii Support Cost Savings xii Personnel Cost savings xiii Acknowledgments xix Glossary, List of Symbols, etc. xxi 1. Introduction 1 2. Cost Analysis Tools 5 Whole-life Cost Model for Cost-Benefit Analysis 6 Calculating Cost per Day of Carrier Operations 11 Comparing Acquisition Costs with Annual Operating Costs 13 Comparing Acquisition Costs with Annual Personnel Costs 14 3. Acquisition Cost Savings 20 Reducing Construction Labour Costs 20 Reducing Construction Material Costs 26 Other Possible Ways of Reducing Acquisition Costs 28 Summary 30 4. Minimising Annual Support Costs 32 Maintenance of CVS Carriers 32 Maintenance of CVF carriers 34 Cost Drivers 36 Cruise Ship Insights 38 Paint Issues 45 Summary 48 5. Contractor Logistics Support 49 Current CLS Arrangements 50 Implications for the CVF 52 SUMMARY 59 6. Estimating the CVF Complement 61 Is Thales's CVF Complement Estimate Optimistic? 61 Other Considerations In Reducing the CVF Complement 64 Comparing Complementing Practices 65 How Complementing Systems Vary 71 Towards More Effective Complementing 75 Summary 84 7. Complement-Reducing Initiatives on Other Platforms 87 Transfer of U.S. Ships to the Military Sealift Command 89 U.S. Carriers 94 The U.S. Navy's Smart Ship 98 The U.S. Navy's Optimal Manning Experiment 100 LPD-17 and Other Amphibious Ships 102 The Royal Netherlands Navy (RNN) 106 DD(X) 110 Summary 112 8. Identifying and Evaluating Complement Reduction Options 115 Damage Control Options 118 Marine Engineering Options 122 Medical/Dental Options 126 Supply Department Options 126 Warfare Department Options 130 Deck/Air/Weapons Engineering Departments 133 Shipwide Options 134 Synthesis 144 Summary 153 Appendix A. Evaluation of Candidate Options, by Department 157 This ¶ is a kludge to fix a bug in MS Word. Don't delete it! FIGURES Figure 1.1 - Most Whole-Life CVF Costs Are Expected to Accrue After the Ships Are Acquired 3 Figure 2.1 / High-Level Architecture or WLC Model for the CVF Programme 9 Figure 2.2 / Production Cost Influence Diagram 10 Figure 2.3 / Cumulative Probability Plots for Baseline and Option A Cases 11 Figure 2.4 - Whole Life Cost Ratio for Selected Ranks, Trades 17 Figure 2.5 - Whole-Life Costs for Enlisted Ratings, by Discount Rate 18 Figure 2.6 - Whole Life Costs for Officer Ranks, by Discount Rate 19 Figure 3.1 / Notional Breakout of Carrier Construction Costs 20 Figure 3.2 / Potential Workforce Demands for two CVF Ships 24 Figure 3.3 / Cost Impact of Varying Start Date of CVF Ship 2 25 Figure 3.4 / Percentage of Total Cost Due to Change: Military versus Commercial 29 Figure 3.5 / Timing of Change Orders for Military and Commercial Programmes 30 Figure 4.1 - The Timing and Intensity of CVS Refits 33 Figure 4.2 - Removing a Gearbox from the HMS Invincible 35 Figure 4.3 - Largest Categories of USS Constellation Lifetime Maintenance 38 Figure 5.1 - A C-21A 51 Figure 5.2 - A CVF Carrier Compared to VT CLS Vessels 53 Figure 6.1 - The CVF Complement Is Below Historical and Recent Trends 63 Figure 6.2 - U.K. and U.S. Complements Differ in the Percentage of Officers Assigned 81 Figure 6.3 - Up-Front Funds for Technology Investment Are "Costly" 83 Figure 7.1 - Complement Reductions of Selected Case Studies 89 Figure 8.1 - Integrated Bridge 132 This ¶ is a kludge to fix a bug in MS Word. Don't delete it! TABLES Table 4.1 Thales' CVF Acquisition and In-service Cost Drivers 37 Table 4.2 Costs of Trash Handling, Current U.S. Navy Carrier vs. Commercial Cruise Ship 42 Table 4.3 Heating and Ventilating Costs and Manpower, U.S. Navy Carrier vs. Commercial Cruise Ship 43 Table 4.4 Net Savings from Employing Cruise-Ship-Like Practices for Hotel Func- tions on CVN 77, Relative to Prevailing U.S. Navy Practices 45 Table 4.4 U.S. Navy List of Products Qualified Under Military Specification MIL- PRF-24647/Paint System, Anticorrosive and Antifouling, Ship Hull 47 Table 6.1 Complementing Is Approached in Multiple Ways 72 Table 6.2 Carrier Manpower Drivers Listed by Different Organisations 76 Table 6.3 Some Departments Might Be Targeted for Change 78 Table 6.4 Selected Shipboard Functions, by Future Disposition 81 Table 7.1 Complement Reduction, by Department, in U.S. Navy-MSC AOE Transfers 91 Table 7.2 U.S. Navy Carrier Technology Development, by Time Frame 96 Table 7.3 Measures to Enhance Operations and Reduce Workload and Costs on LPD-17 106 Table 8.1 NASA Technical Levels of Readiness 117 Table 8.2 RAND Technical Levels of Readiness for CVF Evaluation 117 Table 8.3 Damage Control Options 119 Table 8.4 Marine Engineering Options 123 Table 8.5 Supply Department Options 127 Table 8.6 Warfare Department Options 131 Table 8.7 Ship-wide Options (Part 1) 135 Table 8.8 Ship-wide Options (Part 2) 140 Table 8.9 Many Reduction Options Have Low Cost 145 This ¶ is a kludge to fix a bug in MS Word. Don't delete it!
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Aircraft carriers -- Great Britain -- Design and onstruction.
Aircraft carriers -- Great Britain -- Costs.