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Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 THE NATURE OF RACIAL AND ETHNIC DIFFERENCES Racial and Ethnic Groups Definitions Disparate Treatment How Group Membership May Affect Health Differences in Mortality and Health in Late Life Mortality Causes of Death Health and Disability Diseases and Conditions Needed Research Why Health Differences Matter 2 PERSPECTIVES ON RACIAL AND ETHNIC DIFFERENCES Major Factors Nature of the Evidence Selection Processes Selection Through Accession to Social Groups Selection Through Survival Reciprocal Causation Implications Needed Research 3 GENETIC INFLUENCES Race in Genetic Perspective The Nature of Genetic Influence Gene Interactions Some Racial and Ethnic Differences Needed Research 4 SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS The Health Gradient and Reciprocal Causation Status, Race, and Ethnicity Mechanisms Needed Research 5 BEHAVIOR RISK FACTORS Behavioral Variation Reasons for Variation Effects of Variation and Trends Other Behaviors Needed Research 6 SOCIAL AND PERSONAL RESOURCES Social Resources Personal Resources Racial and Ethnic Variation Needed Research 7 PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION Correlational Studies Experimental and Physiological Studies Needed Research 8 STRESS AS A CENTRAL FACTOR Stress and Health Race, Ethnicity, and Stress Needed Research 9 BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL INTERACTIONS Physiological Reactivity Allostatic Load Psychoneuroimmunology The Metabolic Syndrome and Psychosocial Factors Neurovisceral Integration Needed Research 10 HEALTH CARE Insurance Coverage Quality of Care Geographic and Institutional Variation Stereotyping by Providers Patient Behavior Needed Research 11 THE LIFE COURSE Early Health Disadvantage Pathways to Disadvantage Needed Research 12 INTERVENTIONS Changing Individual Behavior Health Promotion at Older Ages Possible Effects on Differentials Needed Research Social Policy Effectiveness of Interventions Targeted Interventions Indirect Effects of Policy Needed Research REFERENCES APPENDIX BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES INDEX
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Minorities -- Health and hygiene -- United States.
Ethnic groups -- Health and hygiene -- United States.
Older people -- Health and hygiene -- United States.
Health services accessibility -- United States.
Discrimination in medical care -- United States.
Health status indicators -- United States.
Health and race -- United States.
Social medicine -- United States.
Continental Population Groups -- United States.
Geriatric Assessment -- United States.
Ethnic Groups -- United States.
Health Services Accessibility -- Aged -- United States.
Socioeconomic Factors -- Aged -- United States.