Table of contents for Encyclopedia of African history / Kevin Shillington, editor.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.

 'Abd al-Qadir
'Abd Allah ibn Yasin: Almoravid: Sahara
'Abd al-Mu'min: Almohad Empire, 1140-1269
Abouh, Muhammad
Abu Madian, al-Shadhili and the Spread of Sufism in the Maghrib
Achebe, Chinua
Adal: Ibrahim, Ahmad ibn, Conflict with Ethiopia, 1526-1543
Addis Ababa
African Development Bank (ADB)
Africanus, Leo
Afrikaans and Afrikaner Nationalism, 19th Century
Aghlabid Amirate of Ifriqiya (800-909)
Agriculture, Cash Crops, Food Security
Ahidjo, Ahmadou
Aid, International, NGOs and the State
Air, Sultanate of
Aja-Speaking Peoples: Aja, Fon, Ewe, 17th and 18th Centuries
Aja-speaking Peoples: Dahomey, Rise of, 17th Century
Akan and Asante: Farmers, Traders, Emergence of Akan States
Akan States: Bono, Dankyira, Wassa, Akyem, Akwamu, Fante, 15th to 17th Centuries
Akan States: Ghana, 18th Century
Aksum, Kingdom of
Alcohol: Popular Culture, Colonial Control
Alexandria and Early Christianity: Egypt
Algeria, Colonial: Islamic Ideas and Movements in
Algeria: Algiers and its Capture, 1815-1830
Algeria: Conquest and Resistance, 1831-1879
Algeria: Government and Administration, 1830-1914
Algeria: Muslim Population, 1871-1954
Algeria: European Population, 1830-1954
Algeria: Arabism and Islamism
Algeria: Islamic Ideas and movements in Colonial Algeria
Algeria: Nationalism and reform, 1911-54
Algeria: War of Independence, 1954-62
Algeria: Ben Bella, Boumedienne, era of, 1960s and 1970s
Algeria: Bendjedid and Elections, 1978-1990
Algeria: International relations, 1962 to the Present
Algeria: Islamic Salvation Front, Military Rule, Civil War, 1990s
Allada and Slave Trade
All-African People's Conference, 1958
Anglo-Zulu War, 1879-1887
Angola, 18th Century
Angola: Ambaquista, Imbangala and Long-Distance trade
Angola: Chokwe, Ovimbundu, 19th Century
Angola: Slave Trade, Abolition of
Angola: Scramble
Angola: New Colonial Period: Christianity, Missionaries, Independent Churches
Angola: New Colonial Period: White Immigration, Mesticos, Assimilated Africans
Angola: Revolts, 1961
Angola: MPLA, FNLA, UNITA, War of Liberation, 1961-1974
Angola: Independence and Civil War, 1974-1976
Angola: Cold War Politics, Civil War, 1975-1994
Angola: Civil War: Impact of, Economic and Social
Angola: Peace Betrayed, 1994 to 1999
Anti-Slavery Movement
Anti-Slavery Squadron, Decline of Export Slave Trade, 19th Century
Arab and Islamic World, Africa in
Arab Bedouin: Banu Hilal, Banu Sulaym, Banu Ma'qil (11th to 15th centuries)
Armies, Colonial: Africans in
Arms, Armies: Postcolonial Africa
Art and Architecture, History of African
Art, Postcolonial
Asante Kingdom: Osei Tutu and Founding of
Asians: East Africa
Augustine, Catholic Church: North Africa
Awolowo, Obafemi
Azikiwe, Nnamdi
Bagirmi, Wadai and Darfur
Balewa, Alhaji Sir Abubakar
Banda, Dr. Hastings Kamuzu
Banking and Finance
Bantu Cultivators: Kenyan Highlands
Barbary Corsairs and the Ottoman Provinces: Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli in the 17th Century
Beira Corridor
Bello, Alhaji Sir Ahmadu
Benin, Empire: Origins and Growth of City State
Benin, Empire: Oba Ewuare, Trade with the Portuguese
Benin: 19th Century
Benin (Republic of): British Conquest
Benin (Republic of): Colonial Period
Benin (Republic of): Independence, Coup, Politics
Benin (Republic of): Kerekou, Mathieu
Benin (Republic of): Democratization: National Conference and, 1990s
Benue Valley Peoples: Jukun and Kwarafa
Berbers: Ancient North Africa
Berlin West Africa Conference, 1884-1885
Bhambatha Rebellion, 1906
Blyden, E.W.
Boer Expansion: Interior of South Africa
Boganda, Barthelemy
Borno (Bornu), Sultanate of: Origins and Rise, 15th Century
Borno (Bornu), Sultanate of: Mai Idris Aloma
Borno (Bornu), Sultanate of: Saifawa Dynasty: Horses, Slaves, Warfare
Borno (Bornu), Sultanate of, 17th and 18th Centuries
Botswana: 19th Century: Pre-Colonial
Botswana: Missionaries, 19th Century
Botswana: Bechuanaland Protectorate, Founding of: 1885-1899
Botswana: Colonial Period
Botswana: Independence: Economic Development, Politics
Boundaries, Colonial
Bourbon, Ile de France, Seychelles: 18th century
British Togoland
Brussels Conference and Act, 1890
Buganda to the 19th Century
Burkina Faso (Upper Volta): 19th Century
Burkina Faso (Upper Volta): Colonial period
Burundi: 19th Century
Burundi: Colonial Period: German and Belgian
Burundi: Independence to 1988
Burundi: 1988 to Present
Buthelezi and Inkatha Freedom Party
Byzantine Africa, 533-710
Cameroon: 19th Century
Cameroon: Colonial Period: German rule (Kamerun)
Cameroon: Colonial Period: British and French Rule
Cameroon: Rebellion, Independence, Unification, 1960-1961
Cameroon: Independence to the Present
Cape Colony: Origins, Settlement, Trade
Cape Colony: Khoi-Dutch Wars
Cape Colony: Slavery
Cape Colony: British Occupation, 1806-1872
Cape Liberalism, 19th Century
Cape Town
Cape Verde, History of
Carvajal, Luis del Marmol
Casely Hayford, J.E.
Central Africa, Northern: Slave Raiding
Central African Republic: 19th Century: Gbaya, Banda and Azande
Central African Republic: Colonial Period: Occupation, Resistance, Baya Revolt, 1928
Central African Republic: Colonial Period: Oubangui-Chari
Central African Republic: Nationalism, Independence
Central African Republic: 1980s and 1990s
Chad: Colonial Period: French Rule
Chad: Independence to the Present
Chad: Libya, Aouzou Strip, Civil War
Civil War: Postcolonial Africa
Climate and Vegetational Change
Clothing and cultural change
Cold War, Africa and the
Collaboration as Resistance
Colonial Administrations, Africans in
Colonial European Administrations: Comparative Survey
Colonial Federations: British Central Africa
Colonial Federations: French Equatorial Africa
Colonial Federations: French West Africa
Colonial Imports vs. Indigenous Crafts
Colonialism, Inheritance of: Postcolonial Africa
Colonialism, overthrow of: 30 Years War for Southern African Liberation
Colonialism, Overthrow of: Nationalism and Anti-Colonialism
Colonialism, Overthrow of: Northern Africa
Colonialism, overthrow of: Sub-Saharan Africa
Colonialism, overthrow of: Women and the Nationalist Struggle
Colonialism: Ideology of Empire: Supremacist, Paternalist
Colonialism: Impact on African societies
Commonwealth, Africa and the
Communaute Financiere Africaine (CFA)
Community in African Society
Comoros / Mayotte: 19th Century to 1975
Comoros/ Mayotte: Independence to the Present
Comoros: Before 1800
Concessionary Companies
Congo (Brazzaville), Republic of: Nineteenth Century: Pre-Colonial
Congo (Brazzaville), Republic of: De Brazza and French Colonization
Congo (Brazzaville), Republic of: Colonial Period: Moyen-Congo
Congo (Brazzaville), Republic of: Independence, Revolution, 1958-1979
Congo (Brazzaville), Republic of: Liberalization, Rebellion, 1980s and 1990s
Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of/ Zaire: 19th Century: Pre-Colonial
Congo Free State, 1885-1908
Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of/ Zaire: Belgian Congo: Administration and Society, 
Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of/ Zaire: Belgian Congo: Colonial Economy, 1908-1960
Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of/ Zaire: Evolues, Politics, Independence
Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of/ Zaire: Civil War, 1960-1965
Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of/ Zaire: Mobutu, Zaire, Mobutuism
Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of/ Zaire: Mineral Factor
Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of/ Zaire: National Conference and politics of opposition, 
Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of/ Zaire: Post-Mobutu Era
Coups d'etat and Military Rule: Postcolonial Africa
Crowther, Reverend Samuel Ajayi and the Niger Mission
Currencies and Banking
Cushites: Northeastern Africa: Stone Age Origins to Iron Age
Dahomey: 18th Century
Dar es Salaam
Debt, International, Development and Dependency
Delta States, 19th Century
Democracy: Postcolonial
Development, Postcolonial: Central Planning, Private Enterprise, Investment
Diagne, Gueye and Politics of Senegal, 1920s and 1930s
Diaspora: Colonial Era
Diaspora: Historiographical Debates
Difaqane on the Highveld
Diop, Cheikh Anta
Diouf, Abdou
Djibouti: 19th Century to the Present: survey
Domestication, Plant and Animal, History of
Donatist Church: North Africa
Drama, Film: Postcolonial
Drought, Famine, Displacement
Du Bois, W.E.B. and Pan-Africanism
Dube, John Langalibalele
East African Community, The, 1967-1977
Eastern Africa
Eastern and North-Central Africa: Arab Penetration, Rise of Cavalry States
Eastern Savannah, Political Authority in
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)
Economies, Postcolonial: Peasants, Markets and Subsistence
Education in Colonial sub-Saharan Africa
Education in Postcolonial sub-Saharan Africa
Education, Higher, in Postcolonial Africa
Education: French West Africa
Education: North Africa (Colonial and Postcolonial)
Egypt, Ancient: Chronology
Egypt, Ancient: Pre-dynastic Egypt and Nubia: Historical Outline
Egypt, Ancient: Unification of Upper and Lower: Historical Outline
Egypt, Ancient: Old Kingdom and its contacts to the south: Historical Outline
Egypt, Ancient: Middle Kingdom: Historical Outline
Egypt, Ancient: New Kingdom and the Colonization of Nubia
Egypt, Ancient: Late Dynastic, 1085-333 BCE: Historical Outline
Egypt, Ancient: Roman Conquest and occupation: Historical Outline
Egypt, Ancient, and Africa
Egypt, Ancient: Agriculture 
Egypt, Ancient: Architecture
Egypt, Ancient: Funeral practices and Mummification
Egypt, Ancient: Hieroglyphics and Origins of Alphabet
Egypt, Ancient: Literacy 
Egypt, Ancient: Religion
Egypt, Ancient: Social OrganiZation
Egypt: Arab Conquest 
Egypt: In Arab Empire 
Egypt: Tulunids and Ikhshidids 
Egypt: Fatimid Caliphate 
Egypt: Fatimids, Later: Outline
Egypt: Fatimids, Later: Army and Administration
Egypt: Fatimids, Later: World Trade
Egypt: Ayyubid Dynasty 
Egypt and Africa (1000-1500)
Egypt: Mamluk Dynasty (1250-1517): Baybars, Qalawun and the Mongols 
Egypt: Mamluk Dynasty (1250-1517): Literature 
Egypt: Mamluk Dynasty (1250-1517): Army and Iqta' System
Egypt: Mamluk Dynasty (1250-1517): Plague
Egypt: Ottoman, 1517-1798: Historical Outline
Egypt: Ottoman, 1517-1798: Mamluk Beylicate (c.1600-1798)
Egypt: Ottoman, 1517-1798: Napoleon and the French in Egypt (1798-1801)
Egypt: Ottoman, 1517-1798: Nubia and the Red Sea
Egypt: Ottoman, 1517-1798: Trade with Africa
Egypt: Muhammad Ali, 1805-1849: Imperial Expansion
Egypt: Muhammad Ali, 1805-1849: State and Economy
Egypt: Urabi Pasha and British occupation of, 1879-1882
Egypt: Cromer administration, 1883-1907: Irrigation, Agriculture and Industry
Egypt: Islamism and radicalism: Salafiyya and Muslim Brotherhood
Egypt: Nationalism, World War I and the Wafd, 1882-1922
Egypt: Monarchy and Parliament, 1922-1939
Egypt: Printing, Broadcasting
Egypt: Nasser, 1952-1970: Foreign Policy: Suez Canal Crisis to Six Day War
Egypt: Nasser, 1952-1970: High Dam and Economic Development
Egypt: Sadat, Nationalism, 1970-1981
Egyptology, from Herodotus to 20th Century
Elites and Political Patronage: Postcolonial Africa
Environment, Conservation, Development: Postcolonial Africa
Epidemics: Malaria, AIDS, other Disease: Postcolonial Africa
Equatorial Guinea: Colonial Period, 19th Century
Equatorial Guinea: Independence to the Present
Equiano, Olaudah
Eritrea: Ottoman Province to Italian Colony
Eritrea: 1941 to the present
Ethiopia: Muslim States, Awash Valley: Shoa, Ifat, Fatagar, Hadya, Dawaro, Adal, 9th to 16th 
Ethiopia: Aksumite Inheritance, c.850-1150
Ethiopia: Zagwe Dynasty, 1150-1270
Ethiopia: Solomonid Dynasty, 1270-c.1550
Ethiopia: Shoan Plateau,15th and 16th Centuries
Ethiopia, c.1550-c.1700
Ethiopia, Portuguese and, 16th-17th centuries
Ethiopia: Eighteenth Century
Ethiopia: Early Nineteenth Century
Ethiopia: Tewodros II, Era of
Ethiopia: Johannes IV, Era of
Ethiopia: Menelik II, Era of
Ethiopia: Italian Invasion and Occupation: 1935-1940
Ethiopia: Land, Agriculture, Politics 1941-1974
Ethiopia: Famine, Revolution, Mengistu Dictatorship, 1974-1991
Ethiopia: Civil war and Liberation (to 1993)
Ethiopia: 1991 to the Present
Ethiopianism and the Independent Church Movement
Ethnicity, Tribalism: Colonial Experience
Europe: Explorers, Adventurers, Traders
Europe: Industrialization and Imperialism
Fatimid Empire: Maghrib, 910-1057
Federations and Unions, Postcolonial
Fonds d'Investment pour le Developpement Economique et Social (FIDES, 1946)
Forest Peoples: Sierra Leone, Liberia and Ivory Coast: History of to 1800
Francophonie, Africa and the
Fulbe/Fulani/Peul: Origins
Fulbe/Fulani/Peul: Cattle Pastoralism, Migration, 17th and 18th Centuries
Funj Sultanate, 16th to 18th Centuries
Futa Jalon to 1800
Futa Jalon: 19th Century
Futa Toro
Gabon: 19th Century: Pre-colonial
Gabon: Colonial Period: Administration, Labor, Economy
Gabon: Colonial Period: Social Transformation
Gabon: Decolonization and the Politics of Independence, 1945-1967
Gabon: Bongo, Omar and the One-Party State, 1967 to the Present
Gambia, The: 19th Century to Independence
Gambia, The: Independence to the Present
Gambia, The: Relations with Senegal
Garamantes: Early trans-Saharan Trade
Garang, John, and the Sudan Peoples' Liberation Party (SPLA)
Gender and Migration: Southern Africa
Geography, Environment in African History
Ghana, Empire: Historiography of Origins
Ghana, Kingdom of: History of
Ghana, Republic of: 1800-74
Ghana, Republic of: Colonization, Resistance, 1875-1901
Ghana, Republic of: Colonial Period: Administration
Ghana, Republic of: Colonial Period: Economy
Ghana, Republic of: Guggisberg Administration, 1919-1927
Ghana, Republic of: Nationalism, Independence
Ghana, Republic of: Social and Economic Development: First Republic
Ghana, Republic of: Coups d'etat, Second Republic, 1966-1972
Ghana, Republic of: Achaempong regime to Third Republic, 1972-81
Ghana, Republic of: Revolution and Fourth Republic, 1981 to Present
Globalization, Africa and
Gold: Akan Goldfields: 1400 to 1800
Gold: Mining Industry of Ghana: 1800 to the Present
Gold: Production and Trade: West Africa
Gore-Browne, Stewart
Great Lakes Region: Cattle Herding
Great Lakes Region: Karagwe, Nkore and Buhaya
Great Lakes Region: Kitara and the Chwezi Dynasty
Great Lakes Region: Ntusi, Kibiro and Bigo
Great Zimbabwe: Colonial Historiography
Great Zimbabwe: Origins and Rise
Guinea: Colonial Period
Guinea: Decolonization, Independence
Guinea: Toure, Ahmed Sekou, Era of
Guinea: 1984 to the Present
Guinea-Bissau: 19th century to 1960
Guinea-Bissau: Cabral, Amilcar, PAICG, Independence, 1961-1973
Guinea-Bissau: Independence to the Present
Haile Selassie I
Hailey: An African Survey
Hamdallahi Caliphate, 1818-1862
Harris, Prophet William Wade
Hausa Polities: Origins, Rise
Hausa Polities: Urbanism, Industry and Commerce
Hausa Polities: Warfare, Nineteenth Century
Health: medicine, disease and public Health: Colonial
Health: Medicine, Disease: Postcolonial
Herding, Farming, Origins of: Sahara and Nile Valley
Historiography of Africa
Historiography of Western Africa, 1790s-1860s
History, African: Sources of
Horton, James Africanus Beale
Houphouet-Boigny, Felix
Human Rights: Postcolonial Africa
Humankind: Hominids, Early: Origins of
Hundred Years' War, 1779-1878
Hunting, Colonial Era
Hunting, Foraging
Ibn Battuta, Mali Empire and
Ibn Khaldun: Civilization of the Maghrib
Ibn Khaldun: History of the Berbers
Ibn Tumart, Almohad Community and
Identity, Political
Ife, Oyo, Yoruba, Ancient: Kingship and Art
Igbo and Igala
Igboland, 19th Century
Industrialization and Development
Ingombe Ilede
Iron Age (Early): Farming, Eastern Africa
Iron Age (Early): Farming, Equatorial Africa
Iron Age (Early): Herding, Farming, Southern Africa
Iron Age (Later): Central Africa
Iron Age (Later): Central Africa: Luangwa Tradition
Iron Age (Later): Central Africa: Peoples, Forest
Iron Age (Later): Central Africa: Upemba Basin
Iron Age (Later): East Africa: Cattle, Wealth, Power
Iron Age (Later): East Africa: Labor, Gender, Production
Iron Age (Later): East Africa: Societies, Evolution of
Iron Age (Later): East Africa: :Salt
Iron Age (Later): East Africa: Trade
Iron Age (Later): Southern Africa: Characteristics and Origins, South of Zambezi
Iron Age (Later): Southern Africa: Ethnicity, Language, Identity
Iron Age (Later): Southern Africa: Highveld, Emergence of States on
Iron Age (Later): Southern Africa: Leopard's Kopje, Bambandyanalo and Mapungubwe
Iron Age (Later): Southern Africa: Peoples
Iron Age (Later): Southern Africa: Southeastern Lowveld, Emergence of States on
Iron Age (Later): Southern Africa: Toutswemogala, Cattle and Political Power
Iron Age and Neolithic: West Africa
Islam: Eastern Africa
Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivoire): Colonization and Resistance
Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivoire): Colonial Period: Administration and Economy
Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivoire): Independence to the Present
Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivoire): PDCI (Parti Democratique de la Cote d'Ivoire)
Jabavu, John Tengo
Jameson Raid, Origins of South African War: 1895-1899
Johnston, Harry H.
Jonathan, Chief Joseph Leabua
Journalism, African: Colonial Era
Kabarega and Bunyoro
Kagwa, Apolo
Kakungulu and the Creation of Uganda
Kanem: Origins and Growth (6th to 10th centuries)
Kanem: Slavery and trans-Saharan Trade
Kanem: Decline, Merge with Borno (c.1400)
Kasai and Kuba: Chiefdoms and Kingdom
Kaunda, Kenneth
Kazembe's Eastern Lunda
Kenya: 19th Century: Pre-Colonial
Kenya: East African Protectorate and the Uganda Railway
Kenya: Mekatilele and Giriama Resistance, 1900-1920
Kenya: World War I, Carrier Corps
Kenya: Mau Mau Revolt
Kenya: Nationalism, Independence
Kenya: Kenyatta, Jomo: Life and Government of
Kenya: Independence to the Present
Kenya: Islam
Kerma and Egyptian Nubia
Khama III
Khama, Seretse
Kimbangu, Simon and Kimbanguism
Kimberley, Diamond Fields and
Kongo, Teke (Tio) and Loango: History to 1483
Kongo Kingdom: Afonso I, Christianity and Kingship
Kongo Kingdom, 1543-68
Kongo Kingdom: Jaga Invasion to 1665
Kongo Kingdom: 17th and 18th Centuries
Kouyate, Tiemoko Garan
Kruger, Paul
Labor, Migrant
Labor: Cooperative Work
Labor: Decline in Traditional Forms of Exploitation
Labotsibeni, Queen
Lagos Colony and Oil Rivers Protectorate
Lalibela and Ethiopian Christianity
Language Classification
Language, Colonial State and
Law and the Legal System: Postcolonial Africa
Law, Islamic: Postcolonial Africa
Legitimate Commerce, Export Slave Trade, 19th century
Lenshina, Alice
Lesotho: Treaties and Conflict on the Highveld, 1843-1868
Lesotho (Basutoland): Colonization and Cape rule, 1868-1884
Lesotho (Basutoland): Peasantry, rise of
Lesotho (Basutoland): Colonial Period
Lesotho: Independence to the Present
Lesotho: Nationalism and Independence
Lewanika I, the Lozi and the BSA Company
Liberia: Origins, Foundations, 19th Century
Liberia: 19th Century: Politics, Society and Economy
Liberia: Firestone
Liberia: Tubman, William V.S., Life and Era of
Liberia: Tolbert, William, Life and Era of
Liberia: Doe, Samuel K., Life and Era of
Liberia: Civil war, ECOMOG and Return to Civilian Rule
Libya: Yusuf Pasha Karamanli and the Ottoman Reoccupation, 1795-1835
Libya: Muhammad al-Sanusi and the Sanusiyya
Libya: Italian Invasion, 1911-1931
Libya: Italian Colonization and Administration
Libya: World War II and the Kingdom of Libya, 1942-69
Libya: Gaddafi (Qadhdhafi) and Jamahiriyya (Libyan Revolution)
Libya: Oil, Politics and OPEC
Libya: Foreign Policy under Gaddafi
Literacy and Indigenous Scripts: Precolonial West Africa
Literacy: Vehicle for Cultural Change
Literature, Western: Africa in
Livingstone, David
Loango: Slave Trade
Lome Conventions (Africa and the European Union)
Lozi Kingdom and the Kololo
Luba: Origins and Growth
Luba: 17th and 18th Centuries
Lumumba, Patrice
Lunda: Mwaant Yaav (Mwata Yamvo) and Origins
Lunda: Kingdoms, 17th and 18th Centuries
Lunda: Titles
Luthuli, Albert
Luwum, Janani
Macauley, Herbert
Madagascar: Prehistory and Development to c. 1500
Madagascar: Malagasy Kingdoms, Evolution of
Madagascar: Merina Kingdom, 19th Century
Madagascar: French Conquest, Colonization
Madagascar: Colonial Period: French Rule
Madagascar: Great Rebellion, 1947-1948
Madagascar: Reconciliation, Reform and Independence, 1948-1960
Madagascar: Independence to 1972
Madagascar: Reform and Revolution, 1972-1989
Madagascar: Democracy, Development, 1990s
Madikizela-Mandela, Winnie
Maghrib, Arab Conquest of, 650-715
Maghrib Unity, European Union and
Maghrib: Marinids, Ziyanids and Hafsids, 1235-1359
Maghrib, European Expansion into, 1250-1550
Maghrib: Ottoman Conquest of Algiers, Tripoli and Tunis
Maghrib: Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli under the Deys Husaynids and Karamanlis in the 18th century
Maghrib: Muslim Brotherhoods
Mai Dunama Dibalami
Makeke, Charlotte Makhanye
Makenye Kalemba
Malawi: Ngoni Incursions from the South, 19th Century
Malawi: Long-Distance Trade, 19th Century
Malawi: Missionaries and Christianity, 19th Century
Malawi: Colonization and Wars of Resistance, 1889-1904
Malawi (Nyasaland): Colonial Period: Land, Labor and Taxation
Malawi (Nyasaland): Colonial Period: Chilembwe Rising, 1915
Malawi (Nyasaland): Colonial Period: Federation
Malawi: Nationalism, Independence
Malawi: Independence to the Present
Mali Empire, Sundiata and Origins of
Mali Empire: Economy
Mali Empire: Decline, 15th Century
Mali (Republic of): Economy and Society, 19th Century
Mali (Republic of): Alliances and Wars
Mali (Republic of): Colonial Soudan Francais
Mali (Republic of): Nationalism, Federation, Independence
Mali (Republic of): Keita, Modibo, Life and Era of
Mali (Republic of): Traore, Moussa, Life and Era of
Mali: Politics, Economics: 1990s
Mandates: League of Nations and United Nations
Mandela, Nelson
Mandinka States of the Gambia
Mane: Migrations, Sixteenth Century, History of
Mansa Musa, Mali Empire and
Manyika of Eastern Zimbabwe
Maravi: Phiri Clan, Lundu and Undi Dynasties
Maravi: Zimba Invasions
Maravi: Kalonga Masula: Empire, Trade
Martial Races
Mascerene Islands Prior to the French
Massassi and the Kaarta State
Massawa, Ethiopia and the Ottoman Empire
Matthews, Z.K.
Mauritania: Colonial Period: 19th Century
Mauritania: Independence and Western Sahara, 1960-1979
Mauritania: Domestic and International Politics and Conflict, 1980s and 1990s
Mauritania: Ethnicity, Conflict, Development, 1980s and 1990s
Mauritius: Slavery and Slave Society to 1835
Mauritius: Indentured Labor and Society, 1835-1935
Mauritius: Nationalism, Communalism, Independence, 1935-1968
Mauritius: Ramgoolam, Seewoosagur, Government of
Mauritius: 1982 to the Present
Mboya, Tom J.
Media as Propaganda
Medical Factor in Christian Conversion
Meroe: Meroitic Culture and Economy
Metalworking: Origins of Iron-Working
Military: Colonialism, Conquest, Resistance
Mining, Multinationals and Development
Missionary Enterprise: Pre-Colonial
Mokhehle, Ntsu
Mondlane, Eduardo
Monophysitism, Coptic Church, 379-640
Morocco: Sa'adians
Morocco: Ahmad al-Mansur and Invasion of Songhay
Morocco: Maraboutic Crisis, Founding of the 'Alawite Dynasty
Morocco: Mawlay Isma'il and Empire of
Morocco: Sidi Muhammad and Foundations of Essawira
Morocco: Mawlay Sulayman, Life and Era of
Morocco: Mawlay 'Abd al-Rahman, Life and Era of
Morocco: Economy and Society, 19th Century
Morocco: Hay, Edward and John Drummond, British Diplomatic Protection, 1829-1903
Morocco: Mawlay Hasan and the Makhzen
Morocco: French and Spanish Protectorates, 1903-1914
Morocco: Resistance and Collaboration, Bu Hmara to Abdlekrim (Ibn 'Abd el-Krim)
Morocco: Lyautey, General Hubert, and Evolution of French Protectorate, 1912-1950
Morocco: Spain in Morocco and the Sahara, 1900-1958
Morocco: Immigration and Colonization, 1900-1950
Morocco: Nationalism, Muhammad V, Independence, 1930-1961
Morocco: Hassan II, Life and Government of
Morocco: Education since Independence
Morocco: Economics and Social Change since Independence
Morocco: International Relations since Independence
Moshoeshoe I, Founding of the Basotho kingdom
Mosque, Sub-Saharan: Art and Architecture of
Mozambique: 19th Century, Early
Mozambique: Ngoni Incursions from the South
Mozambique: Colonial Period: Labor, Migration, Administration
Mozambique: Colonial Period: Resistance and Rebellions
Mozambique: FRELIMO and War of Liberation, 1962-1975
Mozambique: Machel and FRELIMO, 1975-1986
Mozambique: Renamo, Destabilization
Mozambique: Chissano and, 1986 to the Present
Mphahlele, Ezekiel
Msiri: Yeke Kingdom
Mugabe, Robert
Multinationals and the State
Museums, History of: Postcolonial Africa
Museveni, Yoweri Kaguta
Music: Postcolonial Africa
Mutapa State, 1450-1884
Mutesa, Kabaka
Namibia: 19th Century to 1880
Namibia: German Colonization, 1883-1896
Namibia: Nama and Herero Risings
Namibia: South African Rule
Namibia: League of Nations, United Nations Mandate
Namibia: SWAPO and the Freedom Struggle
Namibia: Struggle for Independence, 1970-1990
Namibia: Independence to the Present
Napata and Meroe
Natal, 19th Century
Nationalism(s): Postcolonial Africa
Ndongo, Kingdom of
Neolithic North Africa
Neolithic, Pastoral: Eastern Africa
Neto, Agostinho
Ngugi wa Thiong'o
Niger Delta and its Hinterland: History to 16th century
Niger Delta and its Hinterland: Peoples and States to 1800
Niger: 19th Century: Survey
Niger: French Occupation and Resistance
Niger: Colonial Period to Independence
Niger: Independence to Present
Nigeria: British Colonization to 1914
Nigeria: Lugard, Administration, Indirect Rule
Nigeria: World War I
Nigeria: Colonial Period: Railways, Mining and Market Production
Nigeria: Colonial Period: Christianity and Islam
Nigeria: World War II
Nigeria: Colonial Period: Intelligentsia, Nationalism, Independence
Nigeria: Colonial Period: Federation
Nigeria: Conferences, Commissions, Nigerian Constitution: 1956-1960
Nigeria: Federalism, Corruption, Popular Discontent: 1960-1966
Nigeria: Army
Nigeria: Gowon Regime, 1966-1975
Nigeria: Biafran Secession and Civil War, 1967-1970
Nigeria: Civilian Rule, 1975-1979
Nigeria: Second Republic, 1979-1983
Nigeria: Agriculture, Irrigation, Rural Development
Nigeria: Industry, Oil, Economy
Nigeria: Military Rule, 1983-1999
Nigeria: Opposition, 1990s, to the Fourth Republic 
Nilotes, Eastern Africa: Origins, Pastoralism, Migration
Nilotes, Eastern Africa: Eastern Nilotes: Ateker (Karimojong)
Nilotes, Eastern Africa: Maasai
Nilotes, Eastern Africa: Southern Nilotes: Kalenjin, Dadog, Pokot
Nilotes, Eastern Africa: Western Nilotes: Luo
Nilotes, Eastern Africa: Western Nilotes: Shilluk, Nuer, Dinka, Anyuak
Njinga Mbande
Nkomo, Joshua
Nkrumah, Kwame
Nkumbula, Harry Mwaanga
Nobadia, Makurra and 'Alwa
Nok Culture: Terracotta, Iron
Nonqawuse and the Cattle-Killing, 1857
North Africa, Ancient: Urbanization
North Africa: Roman Occupation, Empire
North Central Africa: Central Sudanic Peoples
North Central Africa: Chadic Peoples
North Central Africa: Islam, Pilgrimage
Northern Africa
Nubia: Relations with Egypt (7th to 14th centuries)
Nubia: Banu Kanz, Juhayna, Arabization of the Nilotic Sudan
Nyabingi Cult and Resistance
Nyanga Hills
Nyerere, Julius
Obasanjo, Olusegun
Obote, Milton
Odinga, A. Oginga
Olduwan and Acheulian Cultures
Olympio, Sylvanus
Organization of African Unity (OAU) and Pan-Africanism
Oromo: Origins, Social and Economic Organization
Oromo: Migration and Expansion: Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
Ovimbundu States
Pan-African Technical Organizations and Associations
Peacekeeping: Postcolonial Africa
Peasant Production, Colonial
Peasant Production: Food, Markets: West Africa
Pedi Kingdom, and Transvaal, 1822-1879
Permanent Settlement, Early
Phelps-Stokes Commission
Plaatje, Sol T.
Plantations and Labor, Colonial
Policing, Colonial
Polisario and the Western Sahara
Political Parties and One-Party States
Political Systems
Population and Demography
Port Harcourt
Portugal: Exploration and Trade in the Fifteenth Century
Press: Northern Africa
Press: Southern Africa
Press: Tropical Africa
Production and Exchange, Pre-Colonial
Professions, Africans in: Colonial
Punt and Its Neighbors
Rabih ibn Fadl Allah, Bahr el-Ghazal, Borno
Ramphele, Dr. Mamphela Aletta
Ramses II
Rawlings, J.J.
Religion, Colonial Africa: Conversion to World Religions
Religion, Colonial Africa: Independent, Millenarian/Syncretic Churches
Religion, Colonial Africa: Indigenous Religion
Religion, Colonial Africa: Islamic Orders and Movements
Religion, Colonial Africa: Missionaries
Religion, Colonial Africa: Prophetic Movements
Religion, Colonial Africa: Religious Responses to Colonial Rule
Religion, History of
Religion, Postcolonial Africa: African Theology, Indigenization
Religion, Postcolonial Africa: Independence and Churches, Mission-Linked and Independent
Religion, Postcolonial Africa: Islam
Religion, Postcolonial Africa: Neo-Pentecostalism
Religion, Postcolonial Africa: Church/State Relations
Religion: Indigenous Beliefs: sub-Saharan Africa
Religion: Islam, Growth of: Western Africa
Resettlement of Re-Captives: Freetown, Libreville, Liberia, Freretown, Zanzibar
Resistance to Colonialism
Reunion: 19th Century to 1946
Reunion: 1946 to the Present
Rhodes, Cecil J.
Rhodes, Jameson, and Seizure of Rhodesia
Rinderpest and Smallpox: East and Southern Africa
Rock Art, Saharan
Rock Art: Eastern Africa
Rock Art: Southern Africa
Rock Art: Western and Central Africa
Royal Niger Company, 1886-1898
Rudd Concession, 1888
Rumfa, Muhammad
Rural Development, Postcolonial
Rwanda: to 1800
Rwanda : Pre-Colonial, 19th Century
Rwanda: Colonial Period: German and Belgian Rule
Rwanda: Civil Unrest, Independence, 1959-1962
Rwanda: 1962-1990
Rwanda: Genocide, 1994
Rwanda: Genocide, Aftermath of
Sahara: Peoples of the Desert
Sahara: Salt: Production, Trade
Sahara: Trans-Saharan Trade
Salah al-Din/Saladin
Samkange, Rev. D.T.
Sao Tome & Principe, 1800 to present
Sao Tome and Principe to 1800
Sassou-Nguesso, Denis
Savimbi, Jonas
Schreiner, Olive
Segu: Origins and Growth of a Bamana Kingdom
Sena, Tete, Portuguese and Prazos
Senegal: Futa Toro, Early 19th Century
Senegal: 19th Century, Later
Senegal: Faidherbe, Louis and Expansion of French Senegal, 1854-1865
Senegal: Colonial Period: Railways
Senegal: Colonial Period: Four Communes: Dakar, St Louis, Gore and Rufisque
Senegal: World War I
Senegal: Colonial Period: Administration and Assimilation
Senegal: Colonial Period: Economy
Senegal: World War II
Senegal: Nationalism, Federation, Independence
Senegal: Independence to the Present
Senegal: Casamance Province, Conflict in
Seychelles: 19th Century to 1960
Seychelles: Independence, Revolution and Reform, 1960 to Present
Shaka, Zulu Kingdom, 1810-1840
Sierra Leone: Origins, 1787-1808
Sierra Leone: Development of the Colony, 19th Century
Sierra Leone: Christianity, Education, Krio Diaspora
Sierra Leone: Temne, Mende and the Colony
Sierra Leone: Protectorate: Administration and Government
Sierra Leone: Protectorate: Economy
Sierra Leone: Margai, Sir Milton: Independence, Government of
Sierra Leone: Stevens, Siaka and the APC
Sierra Leone: Momoh, Joseph Saidu: Regime, 1986-1992
Sierra Leone: Diamonds, Civil War, 1990s
Sijilmasa, Zawila: trans-Saharan Trade
Sirikwa and Engaruka: Dairy Farming, Irrigation
Slavery in African Society
Slavery, Abolition of: East and West Africa
Slavery, Atlantic Basin in the Era of
Slavery, Colonial Rule and
Slavery, Plantation: East Africa and the Islands
Slavery: Atlantic Trade: Effects in Africa and the Americas
Slavery: Atlantic Trade: Abolition: Philanthropy or Economics?
Slavery: Atlantic Trade: Opposition, African
Slavery: Atlantic Trade: Trans-Atlantic Passage
Slavery: East Africa: 18th Century
Slavery: Mediterranean, Red Sea, Indian Ocean
Slavery: Trans-Saharan Trade
Smuts, Jan C.
Soba and Dongola
Sobukwe, Robert and the Pan-Africanist Congress
Socialism: Postcolonial Africa
Soga, Tiyo
Sokoto Caliphate, 19th Century
Sokoto Caliphate: Hausa, Fulani and Founding of
Soldiers, African: Overseas
Somalia: Pastoralism, Islam, Commerce, Expansion: To 1800
Somalia: 19th Century
Somalia: Hassan, Muhammad Abdile, and Resistance to Colonial Conquest
Somalia: Independence, Conflict, Revolution
Somalia: Barre, Muhammad Siad, Life and Government of
Somalia: 1990 to the Present
Songhay Empire, Gao and Origins of
Songhay Empire: Sonni Ali and the Founding of Empire
Songhay Empire: Ture, Muhammad and the Askiya dynasty
Songhay Empire: Moroccan Invasion, 1591
Soshangane, Umzila, Gungunhane and the Gaza State
South Africa: Missionaries: 19th century
South Africa: Confederation, Disarmament, First Anglo-Boer War, 1871-1881
South Africa: Gold on the Witwatersrand, 1886-1899
South Africa: Peasantry, African
South African War, 1899-1902
South Africa: Peace, Reconstruction, Union: 1902-1910
South Africa: Gandhi, Indian Question
South Africa: Colored Identity
South Africa: African National Congress (ANC)
South Africa: Industrial And Commercial Workers Union (ICU)
South Africa: Afrikaner Nationalism, Broederbond and National Party, 1902-1948
South Africa: World War I and II
South Africa: Segregation, Political Economy of
South Africa: Industry, Labor, Urbanization, 1940-1946
South Africa: Capitalist Farming, "Poor Whites," Labor
South Africa: Apartheid, 1948-59
South Africa: Homelands and "Bantustans"
South Africa: Mining
South Africa: Rural Protest and Violence, 1950s
South Africa: Defiance Campaign, Freedom Charter, Treason Trials: 1952-1960
South Africa: Apartheid, Education and
South Africa: Sharpeville Massacre, 1960
South Africa: Soweto Uprising
South Africa: Africa Policy
South Africa: Anti-Apartheid Struggle: Townships, the 1980s
South Africa: Anti-Apartheid Struggle, International
South Africa: Transition, 1990-1994
South Africa: 1994 to the Present
Southern Africa
Southern African Development Community (SADC)
Soviet Union and Africa
Soyinka, Wole K.
Stanley, Leopold II, Scramble
Stone Age (Later): Central and Southern Africa
Stone Age (Later): Eastern Africa
Stone Age (Later): Nile Valley
Stone Age (Later): Sahara and North Africa
Stone Age (Later): Western Africa
Stone Age, Middle: Cultures
Sudan: Turco-Egyptian Period, 1820-1885
Sudan: Mahdist State, 1881-1898
Sudan: Omdurman and Reconquest
Sudan: Condominium Period: Administration, Legacy in South
Sudan: Condominium Period: Economy
Sudan: Civil war, Independence, Military Rule, 1955-1964
Sudan: October Revolution, 1964
Sudan: Nimeiri, Peace, the Economy
Sudan: Cotton, Irrigation and Oil, 1970s
Sudan: Sadiq Al-Mahdi Regime, 1980s
Sudan: Turabi's Revolution, Islam, Power
Sudan: War: 1990s
Suez Canal
Swahil: Azania to 1498
Swahili, Portuguese and: 1498-1589
Swahili: Mombasa, Fort Jesus, the Portuguese, 1589-1698
Swahili Language
Swaziland: Sobhuza I, Foundation of Ngwane Kingdom
Swaziland: Swazi Kingdom, Survival of, 1839-1879
Swaziland: Concessions, Annexation, 1880-1902
Swaziland: Colonial Period: Land, Labor, Administration
Swaziland: Kingship, Constitution, Independence
Swaziland: Sobhuza II, Life and Government of
Swaziland: Mswati III, Reign of
Tanganyika (Tanzania): Early 19th Century
Tanganyika (Tanzania): Ngoni Incursion from the South
Tanganyika (Tanzania): Nyamwezi and Long-Distance Trade
Tanganyika (Tanzania): German Invasion and Resistance
Tanganyika (Tanzania): Maji Maji Rebellion, 1905-1907
Tanganyika (Tanzania): German Rule: Land, Labor and Economic Transformation
Tanganyika (Tanzania): World War I
Tanganyika (Tanzania): Colonial Period, British: "Indirect Rule"
Tanganyika (Tanzania): Colonial Period, British: Economy
Tanganyika/Tanzania: African Association, 1929-48
Tanganyika (Tanzania): Nationalism, TANU, Independence
Tanganyika (Tanzania): Arusha Declaration
Tanganyika/Tanzania: Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM), One Party Politics
Tanzania (Tanganyika): Uganda, Relations with
Tanzania (Tanganyika): Democracy and Capitalism: 1990 to the Present
Taylor, Charles
Thuku, Harry
Tippu Tip (Muhammed bin Hamed)
Togo: German Colonial Rule
Togo: Dual Mandate Colonial Rule, 1919-1957
Togo: Eyadema, Gnassingbe, Life and Era of
Toivo ya Toiva
Tombalbaye, F. Ngarta
Tonga, Ila and Cattle
Torwa, Changamire Dombo and the Rovzi
Toure, Samori and His Empire
Tourism: Postcolonial
Trade Unions: Postcolonial
Trade: East and Central Africa: Arms, Ivory, Slaves
Trade: Southern Africa: Arms, Ivory, Slaves, 19th Century
Trades, Unionism, Nationalism
Transportation: Postcolonial Africa
Tuareg: Takedda and trans-Saharan trade
Tuareg: Traders, Raiders and the empires of Mali and Songhay
Tuareg: 20th Century
Tukolor Empire of al-Hajj Umar
Tunisia: Ahmad Bey and Army Reform
Tunisia: Khayr al-Din and Constitutional and Administrative Reform, 1855-1878
Tunisia: French Protectorate,1878-1900
Tunisia: Immigration and Colonization, 1881-1950
Tunisia: Nationalism, Growth of, 1881-1938
Tunisia: Neo-Destour and Independence, 1934-1956
Tunisia: Bourguiba, Presidency of: Government and Opposition
Tunisia: Bourguiba, Presidency of: Economic and Social Change
Tunisia: Ben Ali, Liberalization
Tunisia: Educational Policy and Development since Independence
Tunisia: Modern International Relations
Tutu, Desmond
Uganda: Early 19th Century
Uganda: Mwanga and Buganda, 1880s
Uganda: Colonization, Resistance, Uganda Agreement, 1890-1900
Uganda: Colonial Period: Administration, Economy
Uganda: Colonial Period: Northern Uganda
Uganda: Education
Uganda: Buganda Agreement, Independence, Political Parties
Uganda: Independence, Obote's First Regime, 1962-1971
Uganda: Amin Dada, Idi: Coup and Regime, 1971-1979
Uganda: Tanzanian Invasion, 1979-1980
Uganda: Obote: Second Regime, 1980-1985
Uganda: National Resistance Movement (NRM) and the Winning of Political Power
Uganda: Reconstruction: Politics, Economics
Uganda: Conflict, Regional Since 1990
Union Douaniere et Economique de L'Afrique Centrale (UDEAC)
Upare, Usambara, Kilimanjaro
Urbanization and Site Hierarchy: West Africa: Savannah and Sahel
Urbanization: Colonial Context
'Uthman dan Fodio
Vandals: North Africa
Verwoerd, H.F.
Wallace-Johnson, I.T.A. and Radical Politics: West Africa: 1930s
Water Supplies and Schemes
Welensky, Roy
Western Sahara: 19th Century to the Present
White Settler Factor: Economic And Political
Wolof and Jolof Empire
Women: History and Historiography
World Bank, IMF and Structural Adjustment
World History, Africa in
World War I: Survey
World War I: North and Saharan Africa
World War II: French West Africa, Equatorial Africa
World War II: North Africa
World War II: Sub-Saharan Africa: Economic Impact
Yoruba States (Other Than Ife and Oyo)
Yoruba States: Trade and Conflict, 19th Century
Yoruba-Speaking Peoples
Yusuf ibn Tashfin: Almoravid Empire: Maghrib: 1070-1147
Zaire: Politics, Regional
Zambia: Early 19th Century: Survey
Zambia: Long-Distance Trade, 19th Century
Zambia: Ngoni Incursion from the South
Zambia (Northern Rhodesia): British Occupation, Resistance: 1890s
Zambia (Northern Rhodesia): Colonial Period: Administration, Economy
Zambia (Northern Rhodesia): Copperbelt
Zambia (Northern Rhodesia): Mineworkers' Strikes: 1935, 1940
Zambia (Northern Rhodesia): Federation, 1953-1963
Zambia: Nationalism, Independence
Zambia: Religious Movements
Zambia: First Republic, 1964-1972
Zambia: Second Republic, 1973-1991
Zambia: 1991 to the Present
Zanzibar (City)
Zanzibar: Trade: Slaves, Ivory
Zanzibar: BuSaidi Sultanate in East Africa
Zanzibar: Britain, Germany, Scramble
Zanzibar: Colonial Period
Zanzibar: Revolution and Union (Tanzania)
Zimbabwe: 19th Century, Early
Zimbabwe: Incursions from the South, Ngoni and Ndebele
Zimbabwe: 1880s
Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia): Ndebele and Shona Risings: First Chimurenga
Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia): Colonial Period: Land, Tax, Administration
Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia): African Political and Trades Union Movements, 1920s and 
Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia): Urbanization and Conflict, 1940s
Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia): Federation
Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia): Nationalist Politics, 1950s and 1960s
Zimbabwe (Rhodesia): UDI and the Smith Regime, 1964-1979
Zimbabwe: Second Chimurenga, 1966-1979
Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe-Rhodesia, Lancaster House and Independence, 1978-80
Zimbabwe: Conflict and Reconstruction, 1980s
Zimbabwe: 1990s

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Africa -- History -- Encyclopedias.