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A 'Abd al-Qadir 'Abd Allah ibn Yasin: Almoravid: Sahara 'Abd al-Mu'min: Almohad Empire, 1140-1269 Abouh, Muhammad Abu Madian, al-Shadhili and the Spread of Sufism in the Maghrib Abuja Accra Achebe, Chinua Adal: Ibrahim, Ahmad ibn, Conflict with Ethiopia, 1526-1543 Addis Ababa African Development Bank (ADB) Africanus, Leo Afrikaans and Afrikaner Nationalism, 19th Century Aghlabid Amirate of Ifriqiya (800-909) Agriculture, Cash Crops, Food Security Ahidjo, Ahmadou Aid, International, NGOs and the State Air, Sultanate of Aja-Speaking Peoples: Aja, Fon, Ewe, 17th and 18th Centuries Aja-speaking Peoples: Dahomey, Rise of, 17th Century Akan and Asante: Farmers, Traders, Emergence of Akan States Akan States: Bono, Dankyira, Wassa, Akyem, Akwamu, Fante, 15th to 17th Centuries Akan States: Ghana, 18th Century Akhenaten Aksum, Kingdom of Alcohol: Popular Culture, Colonial Control Alexandria Alexandria and Early Christianity: Egypt Algeria, Colonial: Islamic Ideas and Movements in Algeria: Algiers and its Capture, 1815-1830 Algeria: Conquest and Resistance, 1831-1879 Algeria: Government and Administration, 1830-1914 Algeria: Muslim Population, 1871-1954 Algeria: European Population, 1830-1954 Algeria: Arabism and Islamism Algeria: Islamic Ideas and movements in Colonial Algeria Algeria: Nationalism and reform, 1911-54 Algeria: War of Independence, 1954-62 Algeria: Ben Bella, Boumedienne, era of, 1960s and 1970s Algeria: Bendjedid and Elections, 1978-1990 Algeria: International relations, 1962 to the Present Algeria: Islamic Salvation Front, Military Rule, Civil War, 1990s Algiers Allada and Slave Trade All-African People's Conference, 1958 al-Maghili Anglo-Zulu War, 1879-1887 Angola, 18th Century Angola: Ambaquista, Imbangala and Long-Distance trade Angola: Chokwe, Ovimbundu, 19th Century Angola: Slave Trade, Abolition of Angola: Scramble Angola: New Colonial Period: Christianity, Missionaries, Independent Churches Angola: New Colonial Period: White Immigration, Mesticos, Assimilated Africans Angola: Revolts, 1961 Angola: MPLA, FNLA, UNITA, War of Liberation, 1961-1974 Angola: Independence and Civil War, 1974-1976 Angola: Cold War Politics, Civil War, 1975-1994 Angola: Civil War: Impact of, Economic and Social Angola: Peace Betrayed, 1994 to 1999 Antananarivo Anti-Slavery Movement Anti-Slavery Squadron, Decline of Export Slave Trade, 19th Century Arab and Islamic World, Africa in Arab Bedouin: Banu Hilal, Banu Sulaym, Banu Ma'qil (11th to 15th centuries) Armies, Colonial: Africans in Arms, Armies: Postcolonial Africa Art and Architecture, History of African Art, Postcolonial Asante Kingdom: Osei Tutu and Founding of Asians: East Africa Augustine, Catholic Church: North Africa Awolowo, Obafemi Azikiwe, Nnamdi B Bagirmi, Wadai and Darfur Balewa, Alhaji Sir Abubakar Bamako Banda, Dr. Hastings Kamuzu Banking and Finance Bantu Cultivators: Kenyan Highlands Barbary Corsairs and the Ottoman Provinces: Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli in the 17th Century Beira Corridor Bello, Alhaji Sir Ahmadu Benin, Empire: Origins and Growth of City State Benin, Empire: Oba Ewuare, Trade with the Portuguese Benin: 19th Century Benin (Republic of): British Conquest Benin (Republic of): Colonial Period Benin (Republic of): Independence, Coup, Politics Benin (Republic of): Kerekou, Mathieu Benin (Republic of): Democratization: National Conference and, 1990s Benue Valley Peoples: Jukun and Kwarafa Berbers: Ancient North Africa Berlin West Africa Conference, 1884-1885 Bhambatha Rebellion, 1906 Blantyre Blyden, E.W. Boer Expansion: Interior of South Africa Boganda, Barthelemy Borno (Bornu), Sultanate of: Origins and Rise, 15th Century Borno (Bornu), Sultanate of: Mai Idris Aloma Borno (Bornu), Sultanate of: Saifawa Dynasty: Horses, Slaves, Warfare Borno (Bornu), Sultanate of, 17th and 18th Centuries Botswana: 19th Century: Pre-Colonial Botswana: Missionaries, 19th Century Botswana: Bechuanaland Protectorate, Founding of: 1885-1899 Botswana: Colonial Period Botswana: Independence: Economic Development, Politics Boundaries, Colonial Bourbon, Ile de France, Seychelles: 18th century Brazzaville British Togoland Brussels Conference and Act, 1890 Buganda to the 19th Century Bulawayo Bunyoro Burkina Faso (Upper Volta): 19th Century Burkina Faso (Upper Volta): Colonial period Burundi: 19th Century Burundi: Colonial Period: German and Belgian Burundi: Independence to 1988 Burundi: 1988 to Present Buthelezi and Inkatha Freedom Party Byzantine Africa, 533-710 C Cairo Cameroon: 19th Century Cameroon: Colonial Period: German rule (Kamerun) Cameroon: Colonial Period: British and French Rule Cameroon: Rebellion, Independence, Unification, 1960-1961 Cameroon: Independence to the Present Cape Colony: Origins, Settlement, Trade Cape Colony: Khoi-Dutch Wars Cape Colony: Slavery Cape Colony: British Occupation, 1806-1872 Cape Liberalism, 19th Century Cape Town Cape Verde, History of Carthage Carvajal, Luis del Marmol Casablanca Casely Hayford, J.E. Central Africa, Northern: Slave Raiding Central African Republic: 19th Century: Gbaya, Banda and Azande Central African Republic: Colonial Period: Occupation, Resistance, Baya Revolt, 1928 Central African Republic: Colonial Period: Oubangui-Chari Central African Republic: Nationalism, Independence Central African Republic: 1980s and 1990s Cetshwayo Chad: Colonial Period: French Rule Chad: Independence to the Present Chad: Libya, Aouzou Strip, Civil War Civil War: Postcolonial Africa Climate and Vegetational Change Clothing and cultural change Cold War, Africa and the Collaboration as Resistance Colonial Administrations, Africans in Colonial European Administrations: Comparative Survey Colonial Federations: British Central Africa Colonial Federations: French Equatorial Africa Colonial Federations: French West Africa Colonial Imports vs. Indigenous Crafts Colonialism, Inheritance of: Postcolonial Africa Colonialism, overthrow of: 30 Years War for Southern African Liberation Colonialism, Overthrow of: Nationalism and Anti-Colonialism Colonialism, Overthrow of: Northern Africa Colonialism, overthrow of: Sub-Saharan Africa Colonialism, overthrow of: Women and the Nationalist Struggle Colonialism: Ideology of Empire: Supremacist, Paternalist Colonialism: Impact on African societies Commonwealth, Africa and the Communaute Financiere Africaine (CFA) Communications Community in African Society Comoros / Mayotte: 19th Century to 1975 Comoros/ Mayotte: Independence to the Present Comoros: Before 1800 Conakry Concessionary Companies Congo (Brazzaville), Republic of: Nineteenth Century: Pre-Colonial Congo (Brazzaville), Republic of: De Brazza and French Colonization Congo (Brazzaville), Republic of: Colonial Period: Moyen-Congo Congo (Brazzaville), Republic of: Independence, Revolution, 1958-1979 Congo (Brazzaville), Republic of: Liberalization, Rebellion, 1980s and 1990s Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of/ Zaire: 19th Century: Pre-Colonial Congo Free State, 1885-1908 Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of/ Zaire: Belgian Congo: Administration and Society, 1908-60 Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of/ Zaire: Belgian Congo: Colonial Economy, 1908-1960 Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of/ Zaire: Evolues, Politics, Independence Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of/ Zaire: Civil War, 1960-1965 Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of/ Zaire: Mobutu, Zaire, Mobutuism Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of/ Zaire: Mineral Factor Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of/ Zaire: National Conference and politics of opposition, 1990-1996 Congo (Kinshasa), Democratic Republic of/ Zaire: Post-Mobutu Era Coups d'etat and Military Rule: Postcolonial Africa Crowther, Reverend Samuel Ajayi and the Niger Mission Currencies and Banking Cushites: Northeastern Africa: Stone Age Origins to Iron Age D Dahomey: 18th Century Dakar Dar es Salaam Debt, International, Development and Dependency Delta States, 19th Century Democracy: Postcolonial Development, Postcolonial: Central Planning, Private Enterprise, Investment Diagne, Gueye and Politics of Senegal, 1920s and 1930s Diamonds Diaspora: Colonial Era Diaspora: Historiographical Debates Difaqane on the Highveld Diop, Cheikh Anta Diouf, Abdou Djibouti: 19th Century to the Present: survey Domestication, Plant and Animal, History of Donatist Church: North Africa Douala Drama, Film: Postcolonial Drought, Famine, Displacement Du Bois, W.E.B. and Pan-Africanism Dube, John Langalibalele Durban E East African Community, The, 1967-1977 Eastern Africa Eastern and North-Central Africa: Arab Penetration, Rise of Cavalry States Eastern Savannah, Political Authority in Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Economies, Postcolonial: Peasants, Markets and Subsistence Education in Colonial sub-Saharan Africa Education in Postcolonial sub-Saharan Africa Education, Higher, in Postcolonial Africa Education: French West Africa Education: North Africa (Colonial and Postcolonial) Egypt, Ancient: Chronology Egypt, Ancient: Pre-dynastic Egypt and Nubia: Historical Outline Egypt, Ancient: Unification of Upper and Lower: Historical Outline Egypt, Ancient: Old Kingdom and its contacts to the south: Historical Outline Egypt, Ancient: Middle Kingdom: Historical Outline Egypt, Ancient: New Kingdom and the Colonization of Nubia Egypt, Ancient: Late Dynastic, 1085-333 BCE: Historical Outline Egypt, Ancient: Roman Conquest and occupation: Historical Outline Egypt, Ancient, and Africa Egypt, Ancient: Agriculture Egypt, Ancient: Architecture Egypt, Ancient: Funeral practices and Mummification Egypt, Ancient: Hieroglyphics and Origins of Alphabet Egypt, Ancient: Literacy Egypt, Ancient: Religion Egypt, Ancient: Social OrganiZation Egypt: Arab Conquest Egypt: In Arab Empire Egypt: Tulunids and Ikhshidids Egypt: Fatimid Caliphate Egypt: Fatimids, Later: Outline Egypt: Fatimids, Later: Army and Administration Egypt: Fatimids, Later: World Trade Egypt: Ayyubid Dynasty Egypt and Africa (1000-1500) Egypt: Mamluk Dynasty (1250-1517): Baybars, Qalawun and the Mongols Egypt: Mamluk Dynasty (1250-1517): Literature Egypt: Mamluk Dynasty (1250-1517): Army and Iqta' System Egypt: Mamluk Dynasty (1250-1517): Plague Egypt: Ottoman, 1517-1798: Historical Outline Egypt: Ottoman, 1517-1798: Mamluk Beylicate (c.1600-1798) Egypt: Ottoman, 1517-1798: Napoleon and the French in Egypt (1798-1801) Egypt: Ottoman, 1517-1798: Nubia and the Red Sea Egypt: Ottoman, 1517-1798: Trade with Africa Egypt: Muhammad Ali, 1805-1849: Imperial Expansion Egypt: Muhammad Ali, 1805-1849: State and Economy Egypt: Urabi Pasha and British occupation of, 1879-1882 Egypt: Cromer administration, 1883-1907: Irrigation, Agriculture and Industry Egypt: Islamism and radicalism: Salafiyya and Muslim Brotherhood Egypt: Nationalism, World War I and the Wafd, 1882-1922 Egypt: Monarchy and Parliament, 1922-1939 Egypt: Printing, Broadcasting Egypt: Nasser, 1952-1970: Foreign Policy: Suez Canal Crisis to Six Day War Egypt: Nasser, 1952-1970: High Dam and Economic Development Egypt: Sadat, Nationalism, 1970-1981 Egyptology, from Herodotus to 20th Century Elites and Political Patronage: Postcolonial Africa Environment, Conservation, Development: Postcolonial Africa Epidemics: Malaria, AIDS, other Disease: Postcolonial Africa Equatorial Guinea: Colonial Period, 19th Century Equatorial Guinea: Independence to the Present Equiano, Olaudah Eritrea: Ottoman Province to Italian Colony Eritrea: 1941 to the present Ethiopia: Muslim States, Awash Valley: Shoa, Ifat, Fatagar, Hadya, Dawaro, Adal, 9th to 16th Centuries Ethiopia: Aksumite Inheritance, c.850-1150 Ethiopia: Zagwe Dynasty, 1150-1270 Ethiopia: Solomonid Dynasty, 1270-c.1550 Ethiopia: Shoan Plateau,15th and 16th Centuries Ethiopia, c.1550-c.1700 Ethiopia, Portuguese and, 16th-17th centuries Ethiopia: Eighteenth Century Ethiopia: Early Nineteenth Century Ethiopia: Tewodros II, Era of Ethiopia: Johannes IV, Era of Ethiopia: Menelik II, Era of Ethiopia: Italian Invasion and Occupation: 1935-1940 Ethiopia: Land, Agriculture, Politics 1941-1974 Ethiopia: Famine, Revolution, Mengistu Dictatorship, 1974-1991 Ethiopia: Civil war and Liberation (to 1993) Ethiopia: 1991 to the Present Ethiopianism and the Independent Church Movement Ethnicity, Tribalism: Colonial Experience Europe: Explorers, Adventurers, Traders Europe: Industrialization and Imperialism F Fatimid Empire: Maghrib, 910-1057 Federations and Unions, Postcolonial Fonds d'Investment pour le Developpement Economique et Social (FIDES, 1946) Forest Peoples: Sierra Leone, Liberia and Ivory Coast: History of to 1800 Francophonie, Africa and the Freetown Fulbe/Fulani/Peul: Origins Fulbe/Fulani/Peul: Cattle Pastoralism, Migration, 17th and 18th Centuries Funj Sultanate, 16th to 18th Centuries Futa Jalon to 1800 Futa Jalon: 19th Century Futa Toro G Gabon: 19th Century: Pre-colonial Gabon: Colonial Period: Administration, Labor, Economy Gabon: Colonial Period: Social Transformation Gabon: Decolonization and the Politics of Independence, 1945-1967 Gabon: Bongo, Omar and the One-Party State, 1967 to the Present Gambia, The: 19th Century to Independence Gambia, The: Independence to the Present Gambia, The: Relations with Senegal Garamantes: Early trans-Saharan Trade Garang, John, and the Sudan Peoples' Liberation Party (SPLA) Gender and Migration: Southern Africa Geography, Environment in African History Ghana, Empire: Historiography of Origins Ghana, Kingdom of: History of Ghana, Republic of: 1800-74 Ghana, Republic of: Colonization, Resistance, 1875-1901 Ghana, Republic of: Colonial Period: Administration Ghana, Republic of: Colonial Period: Economy Ghana, Republic of: Guggisberg Administration, 1919-1927 Ghana, Republic of: Nationalism, Independence Ghana, Republic of: Social and Economic Development: First Republic Ghana, Republic of: Coups d'etat, Second Republic, 1966-1972 Ghana, Republic of: Achaempong regime to Third Republic, 1972-81 Ghana, Republic of: Revolution and Fourth Republic, 1981 to Present Globalization, Africa and Gold: Akan Goldfields: 1400 to 1800 Gold: Mining Industry of Ghana: 1800 to the Present Gold: Production and Trade: West Africa Gore-Browne, Stewart Great Lakes Region: Cattle Herding Great Lakes Region: Karagwe, Nkore and Buhaya Great Lakes Region: Kitara and the Chwezi Dynasty Great Lakes Region: Ntusi, Kibiro and Bigo Great Zimbabwe: Colonial Historiography Great Zimbabwe: Origins and Rise Guinea: Colonial Period Guinea: Decolonization, Independence Guinea: Toure, Ahmed Sekou, Era of Guinea: 1984 to the Present Guinea-Bissau: 19th century to 1960 Guinea-Bissau: Cabral, Amilcar, PAICG, Independence, 1961-1973 Guinea-Bissau: Independence to the Present H Haile Selassie I Hailey: An African Survey Hamdallahi Caliphate, 1818-1862 Harare Harris, Prophet William Wade Hausa Polities: Origins, Rise Hausa Polities: Urbanism, Industry and Commerce Hausa Polities: Warfare, Nineteenth Century Health: medicine, disease and public Health: Colonial Health: Medicine, Disease: Postcolonial Herding, Farming, Origins of: Sahara and Nile Valley Historiography of Africa Historiography of Western Africa, 1790s-1860s History, African: Sources of Horton, James Africanus Beale Houphouet-Boigny, Felix Human Rights: Postcolonial Africa Humankind: Hominids, Early: Origins of Hundred Years' War, 1779-1878 Hunting, Colonial Era Hunting, Foraging I Ibadan Ibn Battuta, Mali Empire and Ibn Khaldun: Civilization of the Maghrib Ibn Khaldun: History of the Berbers Ibn Tumart, Almohad Community and Identity, Political Ife, Oyo, Yoruba, Ancient: Kingship and Art Igbo and Igala Igboland, 19th Century Igbo-Ukwo Industrialization and Development Ingombe Ilede Iron Age (Early): Farming, Eastern Africa Iron Age (Early): Farming, Equatorial Africa Iron Age (Early): Herding, Farming, Southern Africa Iron Age (Later): Central Africa Iron Age (Later): Central Africa: Luangwa Tradition Iron Age (Later): Central Africa: Peoples, Forest Iron Age (Later): Central Africa: Upemba Basin Iron Age (Later): East Africa: Cattle, Wealth, Power Iron Age (Later): East Africa: Labor, Gender, Production Iron Age (Later): East Africa: Societies, Evolution of Iron Age (Later): East Africa: :Salt Iron Age (Later): East Africa: Trade Iron Age (Later): Southern Africa: Characteristics and Origins, South of Zambezi Iron Age (Later): Southern Africa: Ethnicity, Language, Identity Iron Age (Later): Southern Africa: Highveld, Emergence of States on Iron Age (Later): Southern Africa: Leopard's Kopje, Bambandyanalo and Mapungubwe Iron Age (Later): Southern Africa: Peoples Iron Age (Later): Southern Africa: Southeastern Lowveld, Emergence of States on Iron Age (Later): Southern Africa: Toutswemogala, Cattle and Political Power Iron Age and Neolithic: West Africa Islam: Eastern Africa Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivoire): Colonization and Resistance Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivoire): Colonial Period: Administration and Economy Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivoire): Independence to the Present Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivoire): PDCI (Parti Democratique de la Cote d'Ivoire) J Jabavu, John Tengo Jameson Raid, Origins of South African War: 1895-1899 Johannesburg Johnston, Harry H. Jonathan, Chief Joseph Leabua Journalism, African: Colonial Era Juula/Dyula K Kabarega and Bunyoro Kagwa, Apolo Kakungulu and the Creation of Uganda Kampala Kanem: Origins and Growth (6th to 10th centuries) Kanem: Slavery and trans-Saharan Trade Kanem: Decline, Merge with Borno (c.1400) Kano Kasai and Kuba: Chiefdoms and Kingdom Kaunda, Kenneth Kazembe's Eastern Lunda Kenya: 19th Century: Pre-Colonial Kenya: East African Protectorate and the Uganda Railway Kenya: Mekatilele and Giriama Resistance, 1900-1920 Kenya: World War I, Carrier Corps Kenya: Mau Mau Revolt Kenya: Nationalism, Independence Kenya: Kenyatta, Jomo: Life and Government of Kenya: Independence to the Present Kenya: Islam Kerma and Egyptian Nubia Khama III Khama, Seretse Khartoum Kimbangu, Simon and Kimbanguism Kimberley, Diamond Fields and Kinshasa Kongo, Teke (Tio) and Loango: History to 1483 Kongo Kingdom: Afonso I, Christianity and Kingship Kongo Kingdom, 1543-68 Kongo Kingdom: Jaga Invasion to 1665 Kongo Kingdom: 17th and 18th Centuries Kouyate, Tiemoko Garan Kruger, Paul Kumasi Kush L Labor, Migrant Labor: Cooperative Work Labor: Decline in Traditional Forms of Exploitation Labotsibeni, Queen Lagos Lagos Colony and Oil Rivers Protectorate Lalibela and Ethiopian Christianity Language Classification Language, Colonial State and Law and the Legal System: Postcolonial Africa Law, Islamic: Postcolonial Africa Legitimate Commerce, Export Slave Trade, 19th century Lenshina, Alice Lesotho: Treaties and Conflict on the Highveld, 1843-1868 Lesotho (Basutoland): Colonization and Cape rule, 1868-1884 Lesotho (Basutoland): Peasantry, rise of Lesotho (Basutoland): Colonial Period Lesotho: Independence to the Present Lesotho: Nationalism and Independence Lewanika I, the Lozi and the BSA Company Liberia: Origins, Foundations, 19th Century Liberia: 19th Century: Politics, Society and Economy Liberia: Firestone Liberia: Tubman, William V.S., Life and Era of Liberia: Tolbert, William, Life and Era of Liberia: Doe, Samuel K., Life and Era of Liberia: Civil war, ECOMOG and Return to Civilian Rule Libreville Libya: Yusuf Pasha Karamanli and the Ottoman Reoccupation, 1795-1835 Libya: Muhammad al-Sanusi and the Sanusiyya Libya: Italian Invasion, 1911-1931 Libya: Italian Colonization and Administration Libya: World War II and the Kingdom of Libya, 1942-69 Libya: Gaddafi (Qadhdhafi) and Jamahiriyya (Libyan Revolution) Libya: Oil, Politics and OPEC Libya: Foreign Policy under Gaddafi Literacy and Indigenous Scripts: Precolonial West Africa Literacy: Vehicle for Cultural Change Literature, Western: Africa in Livingstone, David Loango: Slave Trade Lome Lome Conventions (Africa and the European Union) Lozi Kingdom and the Kololo Luanda Luba: Origins and Growth Luba: 17th and 18th Centuries Lubumbashi Lumumba, Patrice Lunda: Mwaant Yaav (Mwata Yamvo) and Origins Lunda: Kingdoms, 17th and 18th Centuries Lunda: Titles Lusaka Luthuli, Albert Luwum, Janani M Ma'al-Aynayn Macauley, Herbert Madagascar: Prehistory and Development to c. 1500 Madagascar: Malagasy Kingdoms, Evolution of Madagascar: Merina Kingdom, 19th Century Madagascar: French Conquest, Colonization Madagascar: Colonial Period: French Rule Madagascar: Great Rebellion, 1947-1948 Madagascar: Reconciliation, Reform and Independence, 1948-1960 Madagascar: Independence to 1972 Madagascar: Reform and Revolution, 1972-1989 Madagascar: Democracy, Development, 1990s Madikizela-Mandela, Winnie Maghrib, Arab Conquest of, 650-715 Maghrib Unity, European Union and Maghrib: Marinids, Ziyanids and Hafsids, 1235-1359 Maghrib, European Expansion into, 1250-1550 Maghrib: Ottoman Conquest of Algiers, Tripoli and Tunis Maghrib: Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli under the Deys Husaynids and Karamanlis in the 18th century Maghrib: Muslim Brotherhoods Mai Dunama Dibalami Makeke, Charlotte Makhanye Makenye Kalemba Malawi: Ngoni Incursions from the South, 19th Century Malawi: Long-Distance Trade, 19th Century Malawi: Missionaries and Christianity, 19th Century Malawi: Colonization and Wars of Resistance, 1889-1904 Malawi (Nyasaland): Colonial Period: Land, Labor and Taxation Malawi (Nyasaland): Colonial Period: Chilembwe Rising, 1915 Malawi (Nyasaland): Colonial Period: Federation Malawi: Nationalism, Independence Malawi: Independence to the Present Mali Empire, Sundiata and Origins of Mali Empire: Economy Mali Empire: Decline, 15th Century Mali (Republic of): Economy and Society, 19th Century Mali (Republic of): Alliances and Wars Mali (Republic of): Colonial Soudan Francais Mali (Republic of): Nationalism, Federation, Independence Mali (Republic of): Keita, Modibo, Life and Era of Mali (Republic of): Traore, Moussa, Life and Era of Mali: Politics, Economics: 1990s Mandates: League of Nations and United Nations Mandela, Nelson Mandinka States of the Gambia Mane: Migrations, Sixteenth Century, History of Mansa Musa, Mali Empire and Manyika of Eastern Zimbabwe Maputo Maravi: Phiri Clan, Lundu and Undi Dynasties Maravi: Zimba Invasions Maravi: Kalonga Masula: Empire, Trade Marrakesh Martial Races Mascerene Islands Prior to the French Massassi and the Kaarta State Massawa, Ethiopia and the Ottoman Empire Matthews, Z.K. Mauritania: Colonial Period: 19th Century Mauritania: Independence and Western Sahara, 1960-1979 Mauritania: Domestic and International Politics and Conflict, 1980s and 1990s Mauritania: Ethnicity, Conflict, Development, 1980s and 1990s Mauritius: Slavery and Slave Society to 1835 Mauritius: Indentured Labor and Society, 1835-1935 Mauritius: Nationalism, Communalism, Independence, 1935-1968 Mauritius: Ramgoolam, Seewoosagur, Government of Mauritius: 1982 to the Present Mboya, Tom J. Media as Propaganda Medical Factor in Christian Conversion Meroe: Meroitic Culture and Economy Metalworking: Origins of Iron-Working Mfecane Military: Colonialism, Conquest, Resistance Mining Mining, Multinationals and Development Missionary Enterprise: Pre-Colonial Mogadishu Mokhehle, Ntsu Mondlane, Eduardo Monophysitism, Coptic Church, 379-640 Monrovia Morocco: Sa'adians Morocco: Ahmad al-Mansur and Invasion of Songhay Morocco: Maraboutic Crisis, Founding of the 'Alawite Dynasty Morocco: Mawlay Isma'il and Empire of Morocco: Sidi Muhammad and Foundations of Essawira Morocco: Mawlay Sulayman, Life and Era of Morocco: Mawlay 'Abd al-Rahman, Life and Era of Morocco: Economy and Society, 19th Century Morocco: Hay, Edward and John Drummond, British Diplomatic Protection, 1829-1903 Morocco: Mawlay Hasan and the Makhzen Morocco: French and Spanish Protectorates, 1903-1914 Morocco: Resistance and Collaboration, Bu Hmara to Abdlekrim (Ibn 'Abd el-Krim) Morocco: Lyautey, General Hubert, and Evolution of French Protectorate, 1912-1950 Morocco: Spain in Morocco and the Sahara, 1900-1958 Morocco: Immigration and Colonization, 1900-1950 Morocco: Nationalism, Muhammad V, Independence, 1930-1961 Morocco: Hassan II, Life and Government of Morocco: Education since Independence Morocco: Economics and Social Change since Independence Morocco: International Relations since Independence Moshoeshoe I, Founding of the Basotho kingdom Mosque, Sub-Saharan: Art and Architecture of Mozambique: 19th Century, Early Mozambique: Ngoni Incursions from the South Mozambique: Colonial Period: Labor, Migration, Administration Mozambique: Colonial Period: Resistance and Rebellions Mozambique: FRELIMO and War of Liberation, 1962-1975 Mozambique: Machel and FRELIMO, 1975-1986 Mozambique: Renamo, Destabilization Mozambique: Chissano and, 1986 to the Present Mphahlele, Ezekiel Msiri: Yeke Kingdom Mugabe, Robert Multinationals and the State Museums, History of: Postcolonial Africa Museveni, Yoweri Kaguta Music: Postcolonial Africa Mutapa State, 1450-1884 Mutesa, Kabaka N Namibia: 19th Century to 1880 Namibia: German Colonization, 1883-1896 Namibia: Nama and Herero Risings Namibia: South African Rule Namibia: League of Nations, United Nations Mandate Namibia: SWAPO and the Freedom Struggle Namibia: Struggle for Independence, 1970-1990 Namibia: Independence to the Present Napata and Meroe Natal, 19th Century Nationalism(s): Postcolonial Africa Ndongo, Kingdom of Negritude Neolithic North Africa Neolithic, Pastoral: Eastern Africa Neto, Agostinho Ngugi wa Thiong'o Niger Delta and its Hinterland: History to 16th century Niger Delta and its Hinterland: Peoples and States to 1800 Niger: 19th Century: Survey Niger: French Occupation and Resistance Niger: Colonial Period to Independence Niger: Independence to Present Nigeria: British Colonization to 1914 Nigeria: Lugard, Administration, Indirect Rule Nigeria: World War I Nigeria: Colonial Period: Railways, Mining and Market Production Nigeria: Colonial Period: Christianity and Islam Nigeria: World War II Nigeria: Colonial Period: Intelligentsia, Nationalism, Independence Nigeria: Colonial Period: Federation Nigeria: Conferences, Commissions, Nigerian Constitution: 1956-1960 Nigeria: Federalism, Corruption, Popular Discontent: 1960-1966 Nigeria: Army Nigeria: Gowon Regime, 1966-1975 Nigeria: Biafran Secession and Civil War, 1967-1970 Nigeria: Civilian Rule, 1975-1979 Nigeria: Second Republic, 1979-1983 Nigeria: Agriculture, Irrigation, Rural Development Nigeria: Industry, Oil, Economy Nigeria: Military Rule, 1983-1999 Nigeria: Opposition, 1990s, to the Fourth Republic Nilotes, Eastern Africa: Origins, Pastoralism, Migration Nilotes, Eastern Africa: Eastern Nilotes: Ateker (Karimojong) Nilotes, Eastern Africa: Maasai Nilotes, Eastern Africa: Southern Nilotes: Kalenjin, Dadog, Pokot Nilotes, Eastern Africa: Western Nilotes: Luo Nilotes, Eastern Africa: Western Nilotes: Shilluk, Nuer, Dinka, Anyuak Njinga Mbande Nkomo, Joshua Nkrumah, Kwame Nkumbula, Harry Mwaanga Nobadia, Makurra and 'Alwa Nok Culture: Terracotta, Iron Nonqawuse and the Cattle-Killing, 1857 North Africa, Ancient: Urbanization North Africa: Roman Occupation, Empire North Central Africa: Central Sudanic Peoples North Central Africa: Chadic Peoples North Central Africa: Islam, Pilgrimage Northern Africa Nubia: Relations with Egypt (7th to 14th centuries) Nubia: Banu Kanz, Juhayna, Arabization of the Nilotic Sudan Nyabingi Cult and Resistance Nyanga Hills Nyerere, Julius O Obasanjo, Olusegun Obote, Milton Odinga, A. Oginga Oil Olduwan and Acheulian Cultures Olympio, Sylvanus Organization of African Unity (OAU) and Pan-Africanism Oromo: Origins, Social and Economic Organization Oromo: Migration and Expansion: Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries Ovimbundu States P Pan-African Technical Organizations and Associations Peacekeeping: Postcolonial Africa Peasant Production, Colonial Peasant Production: Food, Markets: West Africa Pedi Kingdom, and Transvaal, 1822-1879 Permanent Settlement, Early Phelps-Stokes Commission Plaatje, Sol T. Plantations and Labor, Colonial Policing, Colonial Polisario and the Western Sahara Political Parties and One-Party States Political Systems Population and Demography Port Harcourt Portugal: Exploration and Trade in the Fifteenth Century Press: Northern Africa Press: Southern Africa Press: Tropical Africa Pretoria Production and Exchange, Pre-Colonial Professions, Africans in: Colonial Punt and Its Neighbors Q Qayrawan R Rabih ibn Fadl Allah, Bahr el-Ghazal, Borno Railways Ramphele, Dr. Mamphela Aletta Ramses II Rawlings, J.J. Refugees Religion, Colonial Africa: Conversion to World Religions Religion, Colonial Africa: Independent, Millenarian/Syncretic Churches Religion, Colonial Africa: Indigenous Religion Religion, Colonial Africa: Islamic Orders and Movements Religion, Colonial Africa: Missionaries Religion, Colonial Africa: Prophetic Movements Religion, Colonial Africa: Religious Responses to Colonial Rule Religion, History of Religion, Postcolonial Africa: African Theology, Indigenization Religion, Postcolonial Africa: Independence and Churches, Mission-Linked and Independent Religion, Postcolonial Africa: Islam Religion, Postcolonial Africa: Neo-Pentecostalism Religion, Postcolonial Africa: Church/State Relations Religion: Indigenous Beliefs: sub-Saharan Africa Religion: Islam, Growth of: Western Africa Reserves Resettlement of Re-Captives: Freetown, Libreville, Liberia, Freretown, Zanzibar Resistance to Colonialism Reunion: 19th Century to 1946 Reunion: 1946 to the Present Rhodes, Cecil J. Rhodes, Jameson, and Seizure of Rhodesia Rinderpest and Smallpox: East and Southern Africa Rock Art, Saharan Rock Art: Eastern Africa Rock Art: Southern Africa Rock Art: Western and Central Africa Royal Niger Company, 1886-1898 Rudd Concession, 1888 Rumfa, Muhammad Rural Development, Postcolonial Rwanda: to 1800 Rwanda : Pre-Colonial, 19th Century Rwanda: Colonial Period: German and Belgian Rule Rwanda: Civil Unrest, Independence, 1959-1962 Rwanda: 1962-1990 Rwanda: Genocide, 1994 Rwanda: Genocide, Aftermath of S Sahara: Peoples of the Desert Sahara: Salt: Production, Trade Sahara: Trans-Saharan Trade Salah al-Din/Saladin Samkange, Rev. D.T. Sanhaja Sao Tome & Principe, 1800 to present Sao Tome and Principe to 1800 Sassou-Nguesso, Denis Savimbi, Jonas Schreiner, Olive Segu: Origins and Growth of a Bamana Kingdom Sena, Tete, Portuguese and Prazos Senegal: Futa Toro, Early 19th Century Senegal: 19th Century, Later Senegal: Faidherbe, Louis and Expansion of French Senegal, 1854-1865 Senegal: Colonial Period: Railways Senegal: Colonial Period: Four Communes: Dakar, St Louis, Gore and Rufisque Senegal: World War I Senegal: Colonial Period: Administration and Assimilation Senegal: Colonial Period: Economy Senegal: World War II Senegal: Nationalism, Federation, Independence Senegal: Independence to the Present Senegal: Casamance Province, Conflict in Seychelles: 19th Century to 1960 Seychelles: Independence, Revolution and Reform, 1960 to Present Shaka, Zulu Kingdom, 1810-1840 Sierra Leone: Origins, 1787-1808 Sierra Leone: Development of the Colony, 19th Century Sierra Leone: Christianity, Education, Krio Diaspora Sierra Leone: Temne, Mende and the Colony Sierra Leone: Protectorate: Administration and Government Sierra Leone: Protectorate: Economy Sierra Leone: Margai, Sir Milton: Independence, Government of Sierra Leone: Stevens, Siaka and the APC Sierra Leone: Momoh, Joseph Saidu: Regime, 1986-1992 Sierra Leone: Diamonds, Civil War, 1990s Sijilmasa, Zawila: trans-Saharan Trade Sirikwa and Engaruka: Dairy Farming, Irrigation Slavery in African Society Slavery, Abolition of: East and West Africa Slavery, Atlantic Basin in the Era of Slavery, Colonial Rule and Slavery, Plantation: East Africa and the Islands Slavery: Atlantic Trade: Effects in Africa and the Americas Slavery: Atlantic Trade: Abolition: Philanthropy or Economics? Slavery: Atlantic Trade: Opposition, African Slavery: Atlantic Trade: Trans-Atlantic Passage Slavery: East Africa: 18th Century Slavery: Mediterranean, Red Sea, Indian Ocean Slavery: Trans-Saharan Trade Smuts, Jan C. Soba and Dongola Sobukwe, Robert and the Pan-Africanist Congress Socialism: Postcolonial Africa Soga, Tiyo Sokoto Caliphate, 19th Century Sokoto Caliphate: Hausa, Fulani and Founding of Soldiers, African: Overseas Somalia: Pastoralism, Islam, Commerce, Expansion: To 1800 Somalia: 19th Century Somalia: Hassan, Muhammad Abdile, and Resistance to Colonial Conquest Somalia: Independence, Conflict, Revolution Somalia: Barre, Muhammad Siad, Life and Government of Somalia: 1990 to the Present Songhay Empire, Gao and Origins of Songhay Empire: Sonni Ali and the Founding of Empire Songhay Empire: Ture, Muhammad and the Askiya dynasty Songhay Empire: Moroccan Invasion, 1591 Soshangane, Umzila, Gungunhane and the Gaza State South Africa: Missionaries: 19th century South Africa: Confederation, Disarmament, First Anglo-Boer War, 1871-1881 South Africa: Gold on the Witwatersrand, 1886-1899 South Africa: Peasantry, African South African War, 1899-1902 South Africa: Peace, Reconstruction, Union: 1902-1910 South Africa: Gandhi, Indian Question South Africa: Colored Identity South Africa: African National Congress (ANC) South Africa: Industrial And Commercial Workers Union (ICU) South Africa: Afrikaner Nationalism, Broederbond and National Party, 1902-1948 South Africa: World War I and II South Africa: Segregation, Political Economy of South Africa: Industry, Labor, Urbanization, 1940-1946 South Africa: Capitalist Farming, "Poor Whites," Labor South Africa: Apartheid, 1948-59 South Africa: Homelands and "Bantustans" South Africa: Mining South Africa: Rural Protest and Violence, 1950s South Africa: Defiance Campaign, Freedom Charter, Treason Trials: 1952-1960 South Africa: Apartheid, Education and South Africa: Sharpeville Massacre, 1960 South Africa: Soweto Uprising South Africa: Africa Policy South Africa: Anti-Apartheid Struggle: Townships, the 1980s South Africa: Anti-Apartheid Struggle, International South Africa: Transition, 1990-1994 South Africa: 1994 to the Present Southern Africa Southern African Development Community (SADC) Soviet Union and Africa Soyinka, Wole K. Stanley, Leopold II, Scramble Stone Age (Later): Central and Southern Africa Stone Age (Later): Eastern Africa Stone Age (Later): Nile Valley Stone Age (Later): Sahara and North Africa Stone Age (Later): Western Africa Stone Age, Middle: Cultures Sudan: Turco-Egyptian Period, 1820-1885 Sudan: Mahdist State, 1881-1898 Sudan: Omdurman and Reconquest Sudan: Condominium Period: Administration, Legacy in South Sudan: Condominium Period: Economy Sudan: Civil war, Independence, Military Rule, 1955-1964 Sudan: October Revolution, 1964 Sudan: Nimeiri, Peace, the Economy Sudan: Cotton, Irrigation and Oil, 1970s Sudan: Sadiq Al-Mahdi Regime, 1980s Sudan: Turabi's Revolution, Islam, Power Sudan: War: 1990s Suez Canal Swahil: Azania to 1498 Swahili, Portuguese and: 1498-1589 Swahili: Mombasa, Fort Jesus, the Portuguese, 1589-1698 Swahili Language Swaziland: Sobhuza I, Foundation of Ngwane Kingdom Swaziland: Swazi Kingdom, Survival of, 1839-1879 Swaziland: Concessions, Annexation, 1880-1902 Swaziland: Colonial Period: Land, Labor, Administration Swaziland: Kingship, Constitution, Independence Swaziland: Sobhuza II, Life and Government of Swaziland: Mswati III, Reign of T Tanganyika (Tanzania): Early 19th Century Tanganyika (Tanzania): Ngoni Incursion from the South Tanganyika (Tanzania): Nyamwezi and Long-Distance Trade Tanganyika (Tanzania): German Invasion and Resistance Tanganyika (Tanzania): Maji Maji Rebellion, 1905-1907 Tanganyika (Tanzania): German Rule: Land, Labor and Economic Transformation Tanganyika (Tanzania): World War I Tanganyika (Tanzania): Colonial Period, British: "Indirect Rule" Tanganyika (Tanzania): Colonial Period, British: Economy Tanganyika/Tanzania: African Association, 1929-48 Tanganyika (Tanzania): Nationalism, TANU, Independence Tanganyika (Tanzania): Arusha Declaration Tanganyika/Tanzania: Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM), One Party Politics Tangier Tanzania (Tanganyika): Uganda, Relations with Tanzania (Tanganyika): Democracy and Capitalism: 1990 to the Present Taxation Taylor, Charles Thuku, Harry Timbuktu Tippu Tip (Muhammed bin Hamed) Togo: German Colonial Rule Togo: Dual Mandate Colonial Rule, 1919-1957 Togo: Eyadema, Gnassingbe, Life and Era of Toivo ya Toiva Tombalbaye, F. Ngarta Tonga, Ila and Cattle Torwa, Changamire Dombo and the Rovzi Toure, Samori and His Empire Tourism: Postcolonial Trade Unions: Postcolonial Trade: East and Central Africa: Arms, Ivory, Slaves Trade: Southern Africa: Arms, Ivory, Slaves, 19th Century Trades, Unionism, Nationalism Transport Transportation: Postcolonial Africa Tripoli Tuareg: Takedda and trans-Saharan trade Tuareg: Traders, Raiders and the empires of Mali and Songhay Tuareg: 20th Century Tukolor Empire of al-Hajj Umar Tunis Tunisia: Ahmad Bey and Army Reform Tunisia: Khayr al-Din and Constitutional and Administrative Reform, 1855-1878 Tunisia: French Protectorate,1878-1900 Tunisia: Immigration and Colonization, 1881-1950 Tunisia: Nationalism, Growth of, 1881-1938 Tunisia: Neo-Destour and Independence, 1934-1956 Tunisia: Bourguiba, Presidency of: Government and Opposition Tunisia: Bourguiba, Presidency of: Economic and Social Change Tunisia: Ben Ali, Liberalization Tunisia: Educational Policy and Development since Independence Tunisia: Modern International Relations Tutu, Desmond U Uganda: Early 19th Century Uganda: Mwanga and Buganda, 1880s Uganda: Colonization, Resistance, Uganda Agreement, 1890-1900 Uganda: Colonial Period: Administration, Economy Uganda: Colonial Period: Northern Uganda Uganda: Education Uganda: Buganda Agreement, Independence, Political Parties Uganda: Independence, Obote's First Regime, 1962-1971 Uganda: Amin Dada, Idi: Coup and Regime, 1971-1979 Uganda: Tanzanian Invasion, 1979-1980 Uganda: Obote: Second Regime, 1980-1985 Uganda: National Resistance Movement (NRM) and the Winning of Political Power Uganda: Reconstruction: Politics, Economics Uganda: Conflict, Regional Since 1990 Union Douaniere et Economique de L'Afrique Centrale (UDEAC) Upare, Usambara, Kilimanjaro Urbanization and Site Hierarchy: West Africa: Savannah and Sahel Urbanization: Colonial Context 'Uthman dan Fodio V Vandals: North Africa Verwoerd, H.F. W Wallace-Johnson, I.T.A. and Radical Politics: West Africa: 1930s Water Supplies and Schemes Welensky, Roy Western Sahara: 19th Century to the Present White Settler Factor: Economic And Political Wolof and Jolof Empire Women: History and Historiography World Bank, IMF and Structural Adjustment World History, Africa in World War I: Survey World War I: North and Saharan Africa World War II: French West Africa, Equatorial Africa World War II: North Africa World War II: Sub-Saharan Africa: Economic Impact Y Yaounde Yoruba States (Other Than Ife and Oyo) Yoruba States: Trade and Conflict, 19th Century Yoruba-Speaking Peoples Yusuf ibn Tashfin: Almoravid Empire: Maghrib: 1070-1147 Z Zaire: Politics, Regional Zambia: Early 19th Century: Survey Zambia: Long-Distance Trade, 19th Century Zambia: Ngoni Incursion from the South Zambia (Northern Rhodesia): British Occupation, Resistance: 1890s Zambia (Northern Rhodesia): Colonial Period: Administration, Economy Zambia (Northern Rhodesia): Copperbelt Zambia (Northern Rhodesia): Mineworkers' Strikes: 1935, 1940 Zambia (Northern Rhodesia): Federation, 1953-1963 Zambia: Nationalism, Independence Zambia: Religious Movements Zambia: First Republic, 1964-1972 Zambia: Second Republic, 1973-1991 Zambia: 1991 to the Present Zanzibar (City) Zanzibar: Trade: Slaves, Ivory Zanzibar: BuSaidi Sultanate in East Africa Zanzibar: Britain, Germany, Scramble Zanzibar: Colonial Period Zanzibar: Revolution and Union (Tanzania) Zimbabwe: 19th Century, Early Zimbabwe: Incursions from the South, Ngoni and Ndebele Zimbabwe: 1880s Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia): Ndebele and Shona Risings: First Chimurenga Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia): Colonial Period: Land, Tax, Administration Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia): African Political and Trades Union Movements, 1920s and 1930s Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia): Urbanization and Conflict, 1940s Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia): Federation Zimbabwe (Southern Rhodesia): Nationalist Politics, 1950s and 1960s Zimbabwe (Rhodesia): UDI and the Smith Regime, 1964-1979 Zimbabwe: Second Chimurenga, 1966-1979 Zimbabwe: Zimbabwe-Rhodesia, Lancaster House and Independence, 1978-80 Zimbabwe: Conflict and Reconstruction, 1980s Zimbabwe: 1990s
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:
Africa -- History -- Encyclopedias.