Table of contents for Fossilization in adult second language acquisition / ZhaoHong Han.


Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog. Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication information provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Contents
1. Introduction		1
1.1 Fossilization and ultimate attainment	8
1.1.1 General failure		9
1.1.2 Differential success/failure		11
1.2 A conceptual framework		13
1.3 An outline of the book		16
2.		What Is Fossilization?		19
<br>	2.1	Selinker's definitions		22
<br>	2.2	Others' view		26
<br>	2.3 	Dictionary definitions		30
<br>	2.4	An alternative definition		32
<br>	2.5	Key issues		35
<br>		2.5.1	Is fossilization global or local?		35
<br>		2.5.2	Is fossilization a product or a process?		36
<br>	2.6	Summary		38
3		Behavioral Reflexes and Causal Variables		41
<br>	3.1	An overview		41	
<br>	3.2	Sample explanations		46
<br>		3.2.1	Absence of corrective feedback		46
<br>		3.2.2	Quality of input		47
<br>		3.2.3	Lack of access to Universal Grammar		47
<br>		3.2.4	Failure of parameter resetting		48
<br>		3.2.5	Learning inhibits learning 		48
<br>		3.2.6	Automatization of faulty knowledge		49
<br>		3.2.7	Lack of understanding		50
<br>		3.2.8	Processing constraints		50
<br>		3.2.9	Lack of sensitivity to input		51
<br>		3.2.10	Change in emotional state		52
<br>		3.2.11	Natural inclination to focus on content, not on form	53
<br>		3.2.12	Avoidance		54
<br>		3.2.13	Satisfaction of communicative needs		55
<br>		3.2.14	Lack of acculturation		56
<br>		3.2.15	Will to maintain identity		58
<br>	3.3	Two primary determinants of lack of ability		60
<br>	3.4 	Summary		67
4		A Macroscopic Analysis: Critical Period Effects		69
<br>	4.1	The Critical Period Hypothesis		69
<br>	4.2	CPH in FLA and SLA		72
<br>	4.3 	The modular nature of CP		86
<br>	4.4	Critical period effects on language learning		89
<br>	4.5	Summary		98
5		A Macroscopic Analysis: Native Language Transfer 	102
<br>	5.1	Transfer-inspired delay in L2 learning 		107
<br>	5.2	'Transfer to somewhere' and 'transfer to nowhere'		109
<br>	5.3	Transfer of 'thinking for speaking'		119
<br>	5.4 	Preprogramming		123
<br>		5.4.1	The Schwartz and Sprouse (1996) study		124
<br>		5.4.2	The Sorace (1993) study		129
<br>	5.5	Summary		137
6		A Microscopic Analysis: Some Empirical Evidence		140
<br>	6.1	Some empirical studies		141
<br>		6.1.1	Longitudinal approach		142
<br>		6.1.2	Typical-error approach		146
<br>		6.1.3	Advanced-learner approach	149
<br>		6.1.4	Corrective-feedback approach	153
<br>		6.1.5	Length-of-residence approach	157
<br>	6.2 	Critique of the methodologies		158
<br>		6.2.1	Two recent longitudinal studies		160
<br>		6.2.2	Is stabilization synonymous with fossilization?		165
<br>		6.2.3	Should a longitudinal study last 5 years or longer?		168
<br>	6.3	The modular nature of fossilization		172
<br>	6.4	Linguistic features prone to fossilization		178
<br>	6.5	The Multiple Effects Principle		188
<br>	6.6	Summary		193
7		Second Language Instruction and Fossilization		199
<br>	7.1	To what extent does instruction aid acquisition?		200
<br>		7.1.1	Explicit or implicit instruction? 		206
<br>		7.1.2	Is grammar instruction necessary?		211
<br>		7.1.3	The zone of capability		216
<br>	7.2	To what extent does instruction promote fossilization?		235
<br>		7.2.1 	Classroom input		242
<br>		7.2.2	Pedagogical strategies		251
<br>		7.2.3	Opportunity for use of language		258
<br>	7.3	Summary		260
8		Summary and Conclusion		265
<br>	8.1	A synopsis		265
<br>	8.2	Implications for research and practice		270
<br>	8.3	General directions for future research		277
References		321
 

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