Table of contents for Aquaculture and fisheries biotechnology : genetic approaches / Rex A. Dunham.


Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog. Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication information provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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Contents
Preface
Chapter 1: History of Genetic Biotechnology in Aquaculture and Fisheries        1
Chapter 2: Phenotypic Variation and Environmental Effects			 14
      Stocking density and mortality						 16
      Age, temperature and water quality					             17
      Biology and physiology								 19
      Maternal effects								
	 19
      Correction of growth data								 27
      Skewness and feeding practices							 31
      Compensatory gain								 33
      Communal stocking/evaluation						             39
Chapter 3: Polyploidy						  44
       Polyploid induction						  45
         Polyploid induction in shellfish						                 48    
       Triploid cells									  51
       Ploidy determination						  57              
       Triploid fish performance						  59
       Growth						  59             
       Feed conversion and consumption						  66
       Morphology, meristics and identification					              67                       
       Carcass traits and flesh quality						  68
       Survival						  72
       Tolerance of low oxygen						  75
       Disease resistance						  78
       Reproduction						  79
       Embryonic development 						  85
       Sex ratio						  86
       Hybrid viability						  86
         Heterozygosity in triploids							  89
       Behavior										  90
        Invertebrate triploid performance 						  90
       Growth										  90
         Energy storage and bioenergetics						  93
       Survival and disease resistance					              94
       Reproduction						  95
       Reversion to diploidy					            98
       Sex Ratio									            98
	
       Flesh quality		`						            99
       Tetraploids 								          100
       Tetraploid induction							          101
       Fertility and performance						                      102
	
       Hexaploid Fish							                      104
       Tetraploid shellfish							          105
       Limitations and constraints 						          105
       Fisheries management applications 					          107
       Environmental protection					
	          108
       Conclusions								          110
Chapter 4: Gynogenesis, Androgenesis Cloned Populations and Nuclear 
Transplantation					          112 
       
        Induction of gynogenesis and androgenesis				
	          112	
        Performance of gynogens and androgens					          117
        Reproduction					          118         
        Monosex populations					          
119
        Cloned populations					          120 
          Phenotypic variability					          121
        Regeneration of genetic variation in salmonids				          122
        Growth           					          
123
        Disease resistance					          123
        Clonal hybrids								          125
        Nuclear transplantation-nucleocytoplasmic hybrids			          125
Chapter 5: Sex Reversal and Breeding					          134
           Sexual dimorphism							          135
           Chemical and mechanical sterilization				          139
           Hormonal sex reversal							          145
           Anabolic effect								          150
           Health issues								          153 
           Sex reversal and breeding						          153
           All female XX systems					                      155
           All male ZZ systems							          161
           All male YY systems							          162
           Genetics of sex determination						          163
           Effects of temperature							          169
           Genetics of temperature effects on sex determination			          170
           YY system of channel catfish						          171
           Constraints and sex markers						          172
Chapter 6: Biochemical and Molecular Markers 				          176
           Isozymes and enzymes					          177
           Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) 		          184
           Mitochondrial DNA							          184
           Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)			          186     
           Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) 			          191
           Microsatellites					          200
           Expressed sequence tags (EST)					          203
           Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)					          205
           Relative costs of different markers					          206
           Relative effectiveness of markers					          208
 
Chapter 7: Population Genetics and Interactions of Hatchery 
                     and Wild Fish				                      215
		
            Genetic variation, population structure and biodiversity 		          215 
            Effects of geography and environment on population variation	          227
            Factors affecting establishment of new genotypes in established natural  
               populations					           232
            Interspecific hybridization					           235
            Interactions between domestic and wild fish				           239
Integrated management strategy					           251
Chapter 8: Gene Mapping, QTL Mapping and Marker-Assisted Selection      254
           Choice of markers 						254
              Mapping systems								256
            Linkage disequilibrium   							258
            Isozyme maps									259
            DNA markers and maps  							271   
            MHC and oncogenes								278
           Effects of karyotypes, clustering and distortion				280
          QTL mapping     								284
          QTL markers in agriculture   							286
          QTLs of aquatic organisms 						287
          Marker-assisted selection   						286
         Marker-assisted selection in agriculture						287
         Marker-assisted selection in fish						290
Chapter 9:Gene Expression, Isolation and Cloning				296
	
           Gene expression and ESTs						296
           Growth					            301
           Ovulation and reproduction					            306
Diseases								            310
Brain										  
315
            Cold tolerance									  
318
Osmoregulation								  
319
             Genetic imprinting and paternal predominance				  
320	
             Transposable elements						  
321
Ribosomes									  
328
             Proteomics						  
335
Chapter 10: Gene Transfer Technology						  
337
            Gene transfer technique in fish						  
339
            Promoters									  
343
            Integration						  
346
           Transmission of transgenes 						  
354
           Transgene expression of growth hormone and reporter genes		  355
           Performance of transgenic fish						  
360
              Growth									  
360
              Dramatic growth of transgenic fish: explanations and limitations 		  
366
             Cold tolerance								  
371
           Disease Resistance								  
371 
           Transgenic production of pharmaceuticals 					  
375
            Gene knock-out technology							  
375
             Pleiotropic effects of  transferred genes				
		  382
             Potential role of mtDNA in gene transfer					  
397	
Chapter 11: Combining Genetic Enhancement Programs			  
402	
            Sex reversal and triploidy                 						 
402
              Genetic engineering and crossbreeding					 
403	
            Genetic engineering selection crossbreeding, strains and hybrids		 
403
            Selection, crossbreeding and sex reversal				             404            
Gynogenesis, selection and hybridization						 
406						
Chapter 12: Genotype-Environment Interactions					  
411
             Traditional breeding						  
412
               Polyploidy and transgenics						  
413	
Chapter 13:Environmental Risk of Aquatic Organisms from Genetic
 Biotechnology						  
419
Theoretical Risks								  
419
           Environmental risk data on transgenic fish 					  
428
          Common goals of aquaculture and genetic conservation			  
435
          Genetic sterilization						  
436
Chapter 14: Food Safety of Transgenic Aquatic Organisms   	          454
                International guidelines					          455 
             Labelling					          457
Chapter 15: A Case Example: Safety Of Consumption Of Transgenic 
Salmon Potentially Containing Elevated Levels Of Growth Hormone 
And Insulin- Like Growth Factor			                                               459
Growth Hormone/Salmonid Growth Hormone						460
IGF/Salmonid IGF						461
GH Levels in Non-transgenic Salmon and Fish					463
IGF Levels in Non-transgenic Salmon and Fish						465
GH Levels in Transgenic Salmon and Fish						467
IGF Levels in Transgenic Salmon and Fish						468
GH and IGF Levels in Humans						468
GH and IGF Levels in Mammals							469
Bioavailability of sGH and sIGF in the Upper GI Tract				469
Dosage from Consumption								475
Bioactivity of Salmon/Non-primate GH in Man					477
Bioactivity of fish IGF						479
Explanation for Primate Specificity for GH Bioactivity				480
Potential Toxic Effects of GH/IGF and Food Safety					484
Studies on Transgenic GH Fish Food Safety						485
Conclusions on Human Food Safety							487
Chapter 16: Government Regulation of Transgenic Fish				489
US performance standards						493
International performance standards						496
Canada						497
United Kingdom						498
Nomenclature						500
International trade						502
Intellectual property rights						503
Chapter 17: Commercial Application of Fish Biotechnology			508
		
               Polyploidy						508
                Sex reversal and breeding							510
               Genetic engineering 							513
	
 
Chapter 18: Strategies For Genetic Conservation, Gene Banking
 and Maintaining Genetic Quality					                       515
     Population size, inbreeding and maintenance of genetic quality		            515
     Genetic conservation								526
Chapter 19: Constraints and Limitations of Genetic Biotechnology 		531
Research Issues									531
General Recommendations								532
Development issues									532
Biodiversity issues									533
Political Issues									534
Economic Issues						534
Glossary					           536
References 					            620
 

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Fishes Breeding, Shellfish Breeding, Fishes Molecular genetics, Shellfish Molecular genetics