Table of contents for Vowels and consonants : an introduction to the sounds of languages / Peter Ladefoged.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog.

Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


Counter
 Contents
List of Figures	
List of Tables	
The Compact Disk	
Preface	
Acknowledgments	
The International Phonetic Alphabet	
 1	Sounds and Languages	
	1.1	The Sounds of Language Evolve	
 	1.2	Language and Speech	
 	1.3	Describing Speech Sounds	
 	1.4	Summary	
 2	Pitch and Loudness	
	2.1	Tones	
	2.2	English Intonation	
	2.3	The Vocal Folds	
	2.4	Loudness Differences	
	2.5	Summary	
 3 Vowel Contrasts	
	3.1	Sets of Vowels and Standard Forms of a Language	
	3.2	English Vowels	
	3.3	Summary	
 4 The Sounds of Vowels	
	4.1	Acoustic Structure of Vowels	
	4.2	The Acoustic Vowel Space	
	4.3	Sound Spectrograms	
	4.4	Summary	
 5 Charting Vowels	
	5.1	Formants One and Two	
	5.2	Comparing English Vowels	
	5.3	Formant Three	
	5.4	Summary	
 6 The Sounds of Consonants	
	6.1	Consonant Contrasts	
	6.2	Stop Consonants	
	6.3	Approximants	
	6.4	Nasals	
	6.5	Fricatives	
	6.6	Summary	
 7 Acoustic Components of Speech	
	7.1	The Principal Acoustic Components	
	7.2	Synthesizing Speech	
	7.3	Summary	
 8 Talking Computers	
	8.1	How Writing Must be Pronounced	
	8.2	Words and Sounds in Sentences	
	8.3	Synthesizing Sounds from a Phonetic Transcription	
	8.4	Summary	
 9 Listening Computers	
	9.1	Identifying Sounds	
	9.2	The Basis of Computer Speech Recognition	
	9.3	Special Context Speech Recognizers	
	9.4	Recognizing Running Speech	
	9.5	Different Accents and Different Voices	
	9.6	More for the Computationally Curious	
	9.7	Summary	
10 How we listen to speech	
	10.1	Confusing Sounds	
	10.2	Typical Sounds	
	10.3	What comes first	
10.4	Finding Words	
10.5	Summary	
11 Making English Consonants	
	11.1	Acoustics and Articulations	
	11.2	The Vocal Organs	
	11.3	Places and Manners of Articulation	
	11.4	Describing Consonants	
	11.5	Summary	
12 Making English Vowels	
	12.1	Movements of the Tongue and Lips for Vowels	
	12.2	Muscles Controlling the Tongue and Lips	
	12.3	Traditional Descriptions of Vowels	
	12.4	Summary	
13 Actions of the Larynx	
	13.1	The larynx	
	13.2	Voiced and Voiceless Sounds	
	13.3	Voicing and Aspiration	
	13.4	Glottal Stops	
	13.5	Breathy Voice	
	13.6	Creaky Voice	
	13.7	Further Differences in Vocal Fold Vibrations	
	13.8	Ejectives	
	13.9	Implosives	
	13.10	Recording Data on Larynx Actions	
	13.12	Summary	
14 Consonants Around the World	
	14.1	Phonetic Fieldwork	
	14.2	Well-Known Consonants	
	14.3	More Places of Articulation	
	14.4	More Manners of Articulation	
	14.5	Clicks	
	14.6	Summary	
15 Vowels Around the World	
	15.1	Types of Vowels	
	15.2	Lip Rounding	
	15.3	Nasalized Vowels	
	15.4	Voice Quality	
	15.5	Summary	
16 Putting Vowels and Consonants Together	
	16.1	The Speed of Speech	
	16.2	Slips of the Tongue	
	16.3	The Alphabet	
	16.4	The International Phonetic Alphabet	
	16.5	Contrasting Sounds	
	16.6	Features that Matter within a Language	
	16.7	Summary	
Glossary	
Further Reading	
Index	

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Phonetics.