Table of contents for Human physiology / Stuart Ira Fox.

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Contents iv
Preface xi
1 The Study of Body Function 2
Objectives 2
Outline 3
Introduction to Physiology 4
Scientific Method 4
Homeostasis and Feedback Control 6
History of Physiology 6
Negative Feedback Loops 6
Positive Feedback 9
Neural and Endocrine Regulation 9
Feedback Control of Hormone Secretion 9
The Primary Tissues 9
Muscle Tissue 10
Nervous Tissue 11
Epithelial Tissue 12
Connective Tissue 14
Organs and Systems 17
An Example of an Organ: The Skin 18
Systems 19
Body-Fluid Compartments 19
Summary 20
Review Activities 21
Related Websites 21
2 Chemical Composition of the Body 22
Objectives 22
Outline 23
Atoms, Ions, and Chemical Bonds 24
Atoms 24
Chemical Bonds, Molecules, and Ionic
Compounds 25
Acids, Bases, and the pH Scale 28
Organic Molecules 29
Carbohydrates and Lipids 31
Carbohydrates 31
Lipids 34
Proteins 38
Structure of Proteins 38
Functions of Proteins 41
Nucleic Acids 42
Deoxyribonucleic Acid 42
Ribonucleic Acid 44
Summary 44
Review Activities 45
Related Websites 46
3 Cell Structure and Genetic Control 48
Objectives 48
Outline 49
Plasma Membrane and Associated Structures 50
Structure of the Plasma Membrane 51
Phagocytosis 53
Endocytosis 53
Exocytosis 54
Cilia and Flagella 54
Microvilli 55
Cytoplasm and Its Organelles 55
Cytoplasm and Cytoskeleton 56
Lysosomes 56
Peroxisomes 57
Mitochondria 57
Ribosomes 58
Endoplasmic Reticulum 58
Golgi Complex 59
Cell Nucleus and Gene Expression 61
Chromatin 62
RNA Synthesis 64
Protein Synthesis and Secretion 65
Transfer RNA 66
Formation of a Polypeptide 67
Functions of the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Complex 67
DNA Synthesis and Cell Division 69
DNA Replication 69
The Cell Cycle 71
Mitosis 72
Meiosis 75
Interactions 79
Summary 80
Review Activities 81
Related Websites 82
4 Enzymes
and Energy 84
Objectives 84
Outline 85
Enzymes as Catalysts 86
Mechanism of Enzyme Action 86
Naming of Enzymes 88
Control of Enzyme Activity 89
Effects of Temperature and pH 89
Cofactors and Coenzymes 90
Enzyme Activation 90
Substrate Concentration and Reversible Reactions 90
Metabolic Pathways 91
Bioenergetics 93
Endergonic and Exergonic Reactions 94
Coupled Reactions: ATP 94
Coupled Reactions: Oxidation-Reduction 96
Summary 98
Review Activities 100
Related Websites 101
5 Cell Respiration and Metabolism 102
Objectives 102
Outline 103
Glycolysis and the Lactic Acid Pathway 104
Glycolysis 104
Lactic Acid Pathway 105
Glycogenesis and Glycogenolysis 107
Cori Cycle 108
Aerobic Respiration 108
Krebs Cycle 109
Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation 110
Coupling of Electron Transport to ATP Production 112
ATP Balance Sheet 113
Metabolism of Lipids and Proteins 114
Lipid Metabolism 114
Amino Acid Metabolism 116
Uses of Different Energy Sources 118
Interactions 120
Summary 121
Review Activities 122
Related Websites 123
6 Interactions
Between Cells and the Extracellular Environment 124
Objectives 124
Outline 125
Extracellular Environment 126
Body Fluids 126
Extracellular Matrix 126
Categories of Transport Across the Plasma Membrane 127
Diffusion and Osmosis 128
Diffusion Through the Plasma Membrane 128
Rate of Diffusion 129
Osmosis 130
Regulation of Blood Osmolality 133
Carrier-Mediated Transport 134
Facilitated Diffusion 135
Active Transport 136
Bulk Transport 138
The Membrane Potential 140
Equilibrium Potentials 141
Resting Membrane Potential 142
Cell Signaling 143
Interactions 145
Summary 146
Review Activities 147
Related Websites 148
7 The Nervous System: Neurons and Synapses 150
Objectives 150
Outline 151
Neurons and Supporting Cells 152
Neurons 152
Classification of Neurons and Nerves 154
Supporting Cells 154
Neurilemma and Myelin Sheath 156
Functions of Astrocytes 159
Electrical Activity in Axons 160
Ion Gating in Axons 161
Action Potentials 161
Conduction of Nerve Impulses 165
The Synapse 167
Electrical Synapses: Gap Junctions 167
Chemical Synapses 168
Acetylcholine as a Neurotransmitter 170
Chemically Regulated Channels 171
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) 173
Acetylcholine in the PNS 174
Acetylcholine in the CNS 175
Monoamines as Neurotransmitters 176
Serotonin as a Neurotransmitter 177
Dopamine as a Neurotransmitter 178
Norepinephrine as a Neurotransmitter 178
Other Neurotransmitters 179
Amino Acids as Neurotransmitters 179
Polypeptides as Neurotransmitters 179
Endocannabinoids as Neurotransmitters 181
Nitric Oxide as a Neurotransmitter 181
Synaptic Integration 182
Long-Term Potentiation 182
Synaptic Inhibition 182
Summary 184
Review Activities 185
Related Websites 187
8 The Central Nervous System 188
Objectives 188
Outline 189
Structural Organization of the Brain 190
Cerebrum 192
Cerebral Cortex 193
Basal Nuclei 197
Cerebral Lateralization 197
Language 199
Emotion and Motivation 200
Memory 201
Diencephalon 204
Thalamus and Epithalamus 204
Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland 205
Midbrain and Hindbrain 206
Midbrain 206
Hindbrain 206
Spinal Cord Tracts 209
Ascending Tracts 209
Descending Tracts 209
Cranial and Spinal Nerves 212
Cranial Nerves 212
Spinal Nerves 213
Summary 215
Review Activities 216
Related Websites 217
Prohormones and Prehormones 289
Common Aspects of Neural and Endocrine Regulation 289
Hormone Interactions 290
Effects of Hormone Concentrations on Tissue Response 290
Mechanisms of Hormone Action 292
Hormones That Bind to Nuclear Receptor Proteins 292
Hormones That Use Second Messengers 294
Pituitary Gland 299
Pituitary Hormones 299
Hypothalamic Control of the Posterior Pituitary 301
Hypothalamic Control of the Anterior Pituitary 301
Feedback Control of the Anterior Pituitary 303
Higher Brain Function and Pituitary Secretion 304
Adrenal Glands 305
Functions of the Adrenal Cortex 306
Functions of the Adrenal Medulla 307
Stress and the Adrenal Gland 307
Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands 308
Production and Action of Thyroid Hormones 309
Parathyroid Glands 311
Pancreas and Other Endocrine Glands 312
Pancreatic Islets (Islets of Langerhans) 312
Pineal Gland 314
Thymus 315
Gastrointestinal Tract 315
Gonads and Placenta 315
Autocrine and Paracrine Regulation 316
Examples of Autocrine Regulation 316
Prostaglandins 317
Interactions 319
Summary 320
Review Activities 321
Related Websites 323
9 The Autonomic Nervous System 218
Objectives 218
Outline 219
Neural Control of Involuntary Effectors 220
Autonomic Neurons 220
Visceral Effector Organs 221
Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System 222
Sympathetic Division 222
Parasympathetic Division 223
Functions of the Autonomic Nervous System 227
Adrenergic and Cholinergic Synaptic Transmission 228
Responses to Adrenergic Stimulation 230
Responses to Cholinergic Stimulation 232
Other Autonomic Neurotransmitters 233
Organs with Dual Innervation 234
Organs without Dual Innervation 235
Control of the Autonomic Nervous System by Higher Brain Centers 236
Interactions 237
Summary 238
Review Activities 238
Related Websites 239
10 Sensory
Physiology 240
Objectives 240
Outline 241
Characteristics of Sensory Receptors 242
Categories of Sensory Receptors 242
Law of Specific Nerve Energies 242
Generator (Receptor) Potential 243
Cutaneous Sensations 244
Neural Pathways for Somatesthetic Sensations 245
Receptive Fields and Sensory Acuity 246
Lateral Inhibition 246
Taste and Smell 248
Taste 248
Smell 249
Vestibular Apparatus and Equilibrium 251
Sensory Hair Cells of the Vestibular Apparatus 251
Utricle and Saccule 253
Semicircular Canals 253
The Ears and Hearing 255
Outer Ear 255
Middle Ear 255
Cochlea 257
Spiral Organ (Organ of Corti) 258
The Eyes and Vision 261
Refraction 264
Accommodation 265
Visual Acuity 267
Retina 268
Effect of Light on the Rods 268
Electrical Activity of Retinal Cells 270
Cones and Color Vision 272
Visual Acuity and Sensitivity 272
Neural Pathways from the Retina 274
Neural Processing of Visual Information 275
Ganglion Cell Receptive Fields 275
Lateral Geniculate Nuclei 276
Cerebral Cortex 276
Interactions 277
Summary 278
Review Activities 281
Related Websites 282
11 Endocrine Glands: Secretion and Action of Hormones 284
Objectives 284
Outline 285
Endocrine Glands and Hormones 286
Chemical Classification of Hormones 287
12 Muscle: Mechanisms of Contraction and Neural Control 324
Objectives 324
Outline 325
Skeletal Muscles 326
Structure of Skeletal Muscles 326
Motor Units 328
Mechanisms of Contraction 330
Sliding Filament Theory of Contraction 331
Regulation of Contraction 335
Contractions of Skeletal Muscles 340
Twitch, Summation, and Tetanus 340
Isotonic, Isometric, and Eccentric Contractions 340
Series-Elastic Component 341
Length-Tension Relationship 341
Energy Requirements of Skeletal Muscles 342
Metabolism of Skeletal Muscles 342
Slow- and Fast-Twitch Fibers 344
Muscle Fatigue 346
Adaptations of Muscles to Exercise Training 346
Neural Control of Skeletal Muscles 347
Muscle Spindle Apparatus 348
Alpha and Gamma Motoneurons 349
Coactivation of Alpha and Gamma Motonuerons 350
Skeletal Muscle Reflexes 350
Cardiac and Smooth Muscles 353
Cardiac Muscle 354
Smooth Muscle 355
Interactions 359
Summary 360
Review Activities 362
Related Websites 363
13 Heart and Circulation 364
Objectives 364
Outline 365
Functions and Components of the Circulatory System 366
Functions of the Circulatory System 366
Major Components of the Circulatory System 366
Composition of the Blood 367
Plasma 367
The Formed Elements of Blood 368
Hematopoiesis 370
Red Blood Cell Antigens and Blood Typing 372
Blood Clotting 374
Dissolution of Clots 375
Acid-Base Balance of the Blood 377
Structure of the Heart 378
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulations 379
Atrioventricular and Semilunar Valves 380
Cardiac Cycle and Heart Sounds 381
Pressure Changes During the Cardiac Cycle 381
Heart Sounds 382
Electrical Activity of the Heart and the Electrocardiogram 383
Electrical Activity of the Heart 384
The Electrocardiogram 387
Blood Vessels 390
Arteries 390
Capillaries 392
Veins 393
Atherosclerosis and Cardiac Arrhythmias 395
Atherosclerosis 395
Arrhythmias Detected by the Electrocardiograph 397
Lymphatic System 399
Summary 401
Review Activities 403
Related Websites 405
14 Cardiac Output, Blood Flow, and Blood Pressure 406
Objectives 406
Outline 407
Cardiac Output 408
Regulation of Cardiac Rate 408
Regulation of Stroke Volume 409
Venous Return 411
Blood Volume 412
Exchange of Fluid Between Capillaries and Tissues 413
Regulation of Blood Volume by the Kidneys 416
Vascular Resistance to Blood Flow 418
Physical Laws Describing Blood Flow 419
Extrinsic Regulation of Blood Flow 420
Paracrine Regulation of Blood Flow 421
Intrinsic Regulation of Blood Flow 422
Blood Flow to the Heart and Skeletal Muscles 423
Aerobic Requirements of the Heart 423
Regulation of Coronary Blood Flow 423
Regulation of Blood Flow Through Skeletal Muscles 424
Circulatory Changes During Exercise 424
Blood Flow to the Brain and Skin 427
Cerebral Circulation 427
Cutaneous Blood Flow 427
Blood Pressure 429
Baroreceptor Reflex 430
Atrial Stretch Reflexes 432
Measurement of Blood Pressure 432
Pulse Pressure and Mean Arterial Pressure 433
Hypertension, Shock, and Congestive Heart Failure 435
Hypertension 436
Circulatory Shock 437
Congestive Heart Failure 439
Interactions 440
Summary 441
Review Activities 442
Related Websites 443
15 The Immune System 444
Objectives 444
Outline 445
Defense Mechanisms 446
Innate (Nonspecific) Immunity 446
Adaptive (Specific) Immunity 449
Lymphocytes and Lymphoid Organs 450
Local Inflammation 451
Functions of B Lymphocytes 453
Antibodies 453
The Complement System 456
Functions of T Lymphocytes 457
Killer, Helper, and Suppressor T Lymphocytes 458
Interactions Between Antigen-Presenting Cells and T Lymphocytes 460
Active and Passive Immunity 464
Active Immunity and the Clonal Selection Theory 464
Immunological Tolerance 466
Passive Immunity 466
Monoclonal Antibodies 467
Tumor Immunology 468
Natural Killer Cells 469
Immunotherapy for Cancer 469
Effects of Aging and Stress 469
Diseases Caused by the Immune System 470
Autoimmunity 470
Immune Complex Diseases 471
Allergy 471
Interactions 474
Summary 476
Review Activities 476
Related Websites 477
16 Respiratory Physiology 478
Objectives 478
Outline 479
The Respiratory System 480
Structure of the Respiratory System 480
Thoracic Cavity 483
Physical Aspects of Ventilation 483
Intrapulmonary and Intrapleural Pressures 485
Physical Properties of the Lungs 485
Surfactant and the Respiratory Distress Syndrome 486
Mechanics of Breathing 488
Inspiration and Expiration 488
Pulmonary Function Tests 489
Pulmonary Disorders 492
Gas Exchange in the Lungs 493
Calculation of PO2 494
Partial Pressures of Gases in Blood 494
Significance of Blood PO2 and PCO2 Measurements 496
Pulmonary Circulation and Ventilation/Perfusion Ratios 497
Disorders Caused by High Partial Pressures of Gases 498
Regulation of Breathing 499
Brain Stem Respiratory Centers 499
Effects of Blood PCO2 and pH on Ventilation 500
Effects of Blood PO2 on Ventilation 503
Effects of Pulmonary Receptors on Ventilation 503
Hemoglobin and Oxygen Transport 504
Hemoglobin 504
The Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve 506
Effect of pH and Temperature on Oxygen Transport 507
Effect of 2,3-DPG on Oxygen Transport 508
Inherited Defects in Hemoglobin Structure and Function 508
Muscle Myoglobin 509
Carbon Dioxide Transport and Acid-Base Balance 510
The Chloride Shift 510
Ventilation and Acid-Base Balance 511
Effect of Exercise and High Altitude on Respiratory
Function 512
Ventilation During Exercise 513
Acclimatization to High Altitude 514
Interactions 516
Summary 517
Review Activities 519
Related Websites 520
17 Physiology
of the Kidneys 522
Objectives 522
Outline 523
Structure and Function of the Kidneys 524
Gross Structure of the Urinary System 524
Microscopic Structure of the Kidney 526
Glomerular Filtration 529
Glomerular Ultrafiltrate 529
Regulation of Glomerular Filtration Rate 531
Reabsorption of Salt and Water 532
Reabsorption in the Proximal Tubule 532
The Countercurrent Multiplier System 534
Collecting Duct: Effect of Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) 536
Renal Plasma Clearance 539
Transport Processes Affecting Renal Clearance 539
Renal Clearance of Inulin: Measurement of GFR 540
Clearance of PAH: Measurement of Renal Blood Flow 543
Reabsorption of Glucose 543
Renal Control of Electrolyte and Acid-Base Balance 544
Role of Aldosterone in Na+/K+ Balance 544
Control of Aldosterone Secretion 545
Relationship Between Na+, K+, and H+ 546
Renal Acid-Base Regulation 548
Clinical Applications 549
Use of Diuretics 549
Renal Function Tests and Kidney Disease 551
Interactions 553
Summary 554
Review Activities 555
Related Websites 557
18 The Digestive
System 558
Objectives 558
Outline 559
Introduction to the Digestive System 560
Layers of the Gastrointestinal Tract 562
Regulation of the Gastrointestinal Tract 563
From Mouth to Stomach 563
Esophagus 564
Stomach 564
Pepsin and Hydrochloric Acid Secretion 566
Small Intestine 568
Villi and Microvilli 569
Intestinal Enzymes 570
Intestinal Contractions and Motility 571
Large Intestine 572
Fluid and Electrolyte Absorption in the Intestine 574
Defecation 574
Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas 575
Structure of the Liver 575
Functions of the Liver 577
Gallbladder 580
Pancreas 581
Neural and Endocrine Regulation of the Digestive System 583
Regulation of Gastric Function 583
Regulation of Intestinal Function 585
Regulation of Pancreatic Juice and Bile Secretion 586
Trophic Effects of Gastrointestinal Hormones 587
Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 587
Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates 588
Digestion and Absorption of Proteins 588
Digestion and Absorption of Lipids 589
Interactions 592
Summary 593
Review Activities 594
Related Websites 595
19 Regulation
of Metabolism 596
Objectives 596
Outline 597
Nutritional Requirements 598
Metabolic Rate and Caloric Requirements 598
Anabolic Requirements 599
Vitamins and Minerals 601
Free Radicals and Antioxidants 602
Regulation of Energy Metabolism 604
Eating 604
Regulatory Functions of Adipose Tissue 605
Caloric Expenditures 608
Hormonal Regulation of Metabolism 609
Energy Regulation by the Islets of Langerhans 611
Regulation of Insulin and Glucagon Secretion 611
Insulin and Glucagon: Absorptive State 613
Insulin and Glucagon: Postabsorptive State 613
Diabetes Mellitus and Hypoglycemia 615
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus 616
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus 617
Hypoglycemia 618
Metabolic Regulation by Adrenal Hormones,Thyroxine, and
Growth Hormone 618
Adrenal Hormones 619
Thyroxine 620
Growth Hormone 621
Regulation of Calcium and Phosphate Balance 623
Bone Deposition and Resorption 623
Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin 624
1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 625
Negative Feedback Control of Calcium and Phosphate Balance 627
Summary 628
Review Activities 630
Related Websites 631
20 Reproduction 632
Objectives 632
Outline 633
Sexual Reproduction 634
Sex Determination 634
Development of Accessory Sex Organs and External Genitalia 637
Disorders of Embryonic Sexual Development 639
Endocrine Regulation of Reproduction 640
Interactions Between the Hypothalamus, Pituitary Gland, and Gonads 640
The Onset of Puberty 641
Pineal Gland 643
The Human Sexual Response 643
Male Reproductive System 644
Control of Gonadotropin Secretion 644
Endocrine Functions of the Testes 645
Spermatogenesis 646
Male Accessory Sex Organs 649
Erection, Emission, and Ejaculation 650
Male Fertility 652
Female Reproductive System 654
Ovarian Cycle 655
Ovulation 657
Pituitary-Ovarian Axis 658
Menstrual Cycle 659
Phases of the Menstrual Cycle: Cyclic Changes in the Ovaries 660
Cyclic Changes in the Endometrium 662
Contraceptive Methods 663
Menopause 664
Fertilization, Pregnancy, and Parturition 665
Fertilization 666
Cleavage and Blastocyst Formation 667
Implantation of the Blastocyst and Formation of the Placenta 669
Exchange of Molecules Across the Placenta 672
Endocrine Functions of the Placenta 673
Labor and Parturition 674
Lactation 677
Concluding Remarks 679
Interactions 680
Summary 681
Review Activities 682
Related Websites 683
Appendix A
Solutions to Clinical Investigations 684
Appendix B
Answers to Test Your Knowledge of Terms and Facts
Questions 687
Glossary 688
Credits 706
Index 707

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication:

Human physiology.