Table of contents for A history of interior design / by John Pile.


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Contents
Preface 8
Acknowledgments 9
	1	Prehistory to Early Civilizations 10
Prehistoric Interiors 10
	Archeological Evidence 10
	The First Shelters 10 Dolmens and Barrows 12
	Evidence from Tribal Cultures 13
	Pattern and Design 15
The First Permanent Settlements 16
	Mesopotamia: Sumeria 16
	Ancient Egypt 17
	Geometry and Proportion 17 Egyptian Temples and Houses 18 Egyptian Furniture and Other Interior Furnishings 19
Pre-Columbian America ?????
	2	Classical Civilizations: Greece and Rome 20
Minoan and Mycenaean Cultures 20
	Knossos 20
	Mycenae and Tiryns 20
Greece 22
	The Temple 22
	Secular Interiors 24
	INSIGHTS: THE GROWTH OF ATHENS 25
Rome 27
	Arches, Vaults, and Domes 27
	Amphitheaters and Baths 28
	Temples 30
	Secular Buildings 31
	INSIGHTS: THE COST OF LIVING IN ANCIENT ROME 32
	Furniture and Other Interior Furnishings 34
	The Legacy of Rome: Technology 34
	3	Early Christian, Byzantine, and Romanesque 36
Early Christian Design 36
	Byzantine Design 38
	INSIGHTS: THE RAVENNA MOSAICS 39
	Ravenna 39
	Constantinople ??
	Hagia Sophia 40
	Secular Buildings 41
Early Medieval: The "Dark Ages" 41
The Romanesque Style 41
	Churches 42
	Germany 42 Italy 43 France 44 England 45 Scandinavia 46
	Fortresses and Castles 46
	Monasteries and Abbeys 48
	INSIGHTS: THE ABBEY AT CLUNY 48
	Houses 49
	Furniture and Other Interior Furnishings 50
Islamic Influence in Spain 52
	The Mosque in Spain 52
	Moorish Elements in Spanish Romanesque 53
	4	Islamic and Asian Traditions ???
Islamic Influence ???
	Mosques and Palaces ???
	Islamic Influence in Spain ???
	The Mosque in Spain
	Islamic Furnishings ???
India and Pakistan ???
	Buddhist, Hindu, and Jain Architecture ???
	Hindu Religious and Secular Buildings
	Jain Architecture
	Northern and Southern Styles of Temple
	Islamic Influence in India
INSIGHTS: BERNIER'S ACCOUNT OF THE TAJ MAHAL
	Indian Furnishings ???
	Western Influence ???
Cambodia ???
Java ???
Thailand ???
China ???
	Chinese Architecture ???
	Chinese Furnishings ???
Korea ???
Japan ???
	Japanese Furnishings ???
	5	The Later Middle Ages 54
Elements of Gothic Style 54
New Construction Techniques 56
Gothic Cathedrals and Churches 59
	France 59
	England 62
	Elsewhere in Europe 63
Secular Gothic Buildings 64
	INSIGHTS: CONSTRUCTION WORK IN A MEDIEVAL BUILDING 65
	Castles and Palaces 66
	Medieval Houses 68
	Innovations in Domestic Comfort 70
	6	The Renaissance in Italy 72
The Rise of Humanism 72
	Renaissance Interest in History 72
Elements of Renaissance Style 74
The Early Renaissance 75
	Brunelleschi 75
	Michelozzo 78
	Alberti 79
The High Renaissance 79
	Bramante 79
	Palaces 82
	INSIGHTS: VASARI'S ACCOUNT OF THE FARNESE PALACE 82
The Late Renaissance and Mannerism 84
	Michelangelo 85
	Romano 86
	Palladio 87
	Vignola 89
Interior Furnishings 89
	Furniture 90
	Coverings 91
	7	Baroque and Rococo in Italy and Northern Europe 92
Elements of Baroque Style 92
The Baroque in Italy 92
	Rome 94
	Bernini 94 Borromini 95
	Venice 97
	Longhena 97
	Turin 97
	Guarini 97 Juvarra 99
Baroque in Northern Europe 100
	Austria 100
	Switzerland 103
	Germany 103
Furniture and Other Interior Features 106
	8	Renaissance, Baroque, and Rococo in France and Spain 108
France 108
	Early Renaissance 108
	High Renaissance 112
	Baroque 116
	Versailles 116
	INSIGHTS: LOUIS XIV AND VERSAILLES 116
	Louvre 117 Baroque Churches 120 Furniture and Furnishings 121
	Regency to Rococo 123
	Paris H"tels 123 The Petit Trianon 124 Regency and Rococo Furniture 125
	Rococo to Neoclassicism 125
	The Empire Style 127
	INSIGHTS: THE EMPIRE STYLE 128
	Provincial Style 130
Spain 131
	Plateresco 131
	Desornamentado 132
	Churrigueresco 132
	Furniture and Other Interior Features 132
	9	Renaissance to Georgian in The Low Countries and England 136
Low Countries 136
	Civic Buildings 136
	Private Dwellings 138
England 139
	Tudor 140
	Elizabethan 140
	Elizabethan Furniture 141
	Jacobean 142
	Jones 142 Jacobean Interior Furnishings 143
	From Carolean to William and Mary 143
	Wren 143 Carolean and William and Mary Interior Furnishings 145
	Queen Anne 146
	Queen Anne Furniture 147
	Georgian 147
	Robert and James Adam 148
	INSIGHTS: ROBERT ADAM AND SYON HOUSE 148
	Georgian Town Houses 149 Other Building Types 150 Georgian Furniture and Interior Furnishings 150
	10	Colonial and Federal America 154
Colonial Styles in Latin America 154
Colonial Styles in North America 156
	Early Colonial Houses 156
	Early Colonial Furniture and Interior Furnishings 157
	Churches and Meeting Houses 158
American Georgian 159
	American Georgian Houses 159
	American Georgian and Queen Anne Furniture 163
	Late Colonial Public Buildings 163
Federal Styles 165
	Jefferson 165
	Bulfinch 166
	Thornton and Latrobe 166
	Furniture of the Federal Period 169
	Other Furnishings of the Federal Period 170
	11	The Regency, Revivals, and Industrial Revolution 172
Regency 172
	Nash 172
	Soane 174
	Regency Furniture 174
Revivals 175
	Greek Revival 175
	Germany 175 England 176 United States 176
	Gothic Revival 178
	United States 178 England 180
The Industrial Revolution 183
	Early Industrialization and Inventions 184
	Industry and Interiors 184
	Iron and Glass 185
	England: Paxton 186
	INSIGHTS: THE PUBLIC'S PERCEPTION OF CRYSTAL PALACE 186
	France: Labrouste, Baltard, and Eiffel 188
	12	The Victorian Era 190
The Roots of Victorian Style 190
Britain 193
	Mansions 193
	Middle-class Houses and Public Buildings 193
	Shaw and the Queen Anne Revival 194
United States: Victorian Variations 195
	Mansions 197
	Vernacular House Styles 198
	Shingle Style 199 Adirondack Style 200
	Shaker Design 200
	INSIGHTS: THE SHAKER PHILOSOPHY 201
	Early Skyscrapers 202
	Public Buildings 205
	Furness 205
Furniture and Other Interior Furnishings 206
	13	The Aesthetic Movements 210
Britain: Arts and Crafts 210
	Ruskin and the Roots of Arts and Crafts 210
	Morris 210
	Webb 213
	Other British Designers 214
	INSIGHTS: ROSSETTI AND THE AESTHETIC HOUSE 215
	Links to Modernism 218
	Voysey 218 Mackmurdo 218 Mackintosh 219
United States: The Craftsman Movement 219
	Stickley and the Roycrofters 219
	Bradley 220 
	Richardson 221
	Greene & Green and Maybeck 223
Developments in Continental Europe 223
	Germany: Muthesius 225
	The Netherlands: Berlage 225
	14	Art Nouveau and the Vienna Secession 226
Roots and Characteristics of Art
	Nouveau 226
Belgium 229
	Horta 229
	INSIGHTS: VICTOR HORTA AND ART NOUVEAU 229
	Van de Velde 230
France 230
	The School of Nancy 230
	Guimard 230
	Other French Designers 232
Spain 232
	Gaudí 232
Germany: Jugendstil 232
	Endell 233
	Riemerschmid and Behrens 234
Scandinavia 234
Austria: The Vienna Secession 234
	Olbrich 234
	Wagner 235
	INSIGHTS: OTTO WAGNER AND "MODERN ARCHITECTURE" 236
	Hoffmann 236
	Loos 238
United States 238
	Tiffany 238
	Sullivan 240
	15	Eclecticism 244
The Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris 244
United States 247
	Key Architects and Designers 247
	Hunt 247 McKim, Mead, & White 249
	Public Buildings 252
	Early Skyscrapers 252
	The Rise of the Interior Decorator 255
	De Wolfe 255 Wood 255 McMillen 256 Other American Decorators 256
	Eclecticism in Professional Practice 256
	Saarinen and Cranbrook Academy 257
	Stripped Classicism 259
	Eclecticism for the Masses 259
	Houses and Apartments 259 Furniture and Accessories 260 Movie Theaters 261
Europe 261
	Scandinavia 263
	Britain 263
	Lutyens 264
	INSIGHTS: SIR EDWIN LUTYENS AND THE VICEROY'S HOUSE IN NEW DELHI 264
	Ocean Liners 265
	The Spread of Eclecticism 265
	16	The Emergence of Modernism 266
Frank Lloyd Wright 266
	The Early Commissions 268
	INSIGHTS: THE PHILOSOPHY OF FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT 269
De Stijl 270
	Mondrian and van Doesburg 270
	Rietveld 271
Pioneers of the International Style 272
	Gropius and the Bauhaus 272
	Mies van der Rohe 274
	Work of the 1920s and 1930s 274
	INSIGHTS: MIES VAN DER ROHE: THE TUGENDHAT HOUSE 274
	Emigration to the United States 276 Later Commissions 277
	Le Corbusier 278
	Paris: Developing the Machine Aesthetic 278 Early Houses, Villas, and Apartments 279
	INSIGHTS: THE PHILOSOPHY OF LE CORBUSIER 282
	Town Planning 283 Post-War Years 284
	Late Commissions 285
	Aalto 285
	INSIGHTS: THE VISION OF ALVAR AALTO 286
	17	Art Deco and Industrial Design 290
Art Deco 290
	France 290
	Furniture Designers 290 Textile Design 293
	Ocean Liners 293
	United States 295
	Designers from Europe 295 Deco Architecture 295
	Britain 296
	Scandinavia 296
Industrial Design 297
	Loewy and Other Designers 298
	Design Training 300
Residential Design 301
	Kitchens and Bathrooms 301
	Lighting 302
	Textiles, Carpets, and Furniture 303
	18	The Spread of Early Modernism in Europe 304
The Netherlands 306
Germany and Austria 306
Italy 307
Switzerland 308
France 308
Scandinavia 310
England 311
	19	Modernism in America 314
Architects and Designers 314
	Gill 314
	Wright: 1920s and 1930s 314
	Schindler and Neutra 319
	Lescaze 320
	Goodwin and Stone 321
	Gropius and Breuer 321
	Mies van der Rohe 322
	Johnson 323
	Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill 323
	Eero Saarinen 324
Interior Decoration: The Reaction to Modernism 324
Furniture and other Interior Furnishings 325
	Knoll 325
	Herman Miller Furniture Company 326
	20	The Ascendency of Modernism 328
Italy 328
	INSIGHTS: GIO PONTI: PIRELLI TOWER 330
Scandinavia 331
France 334
Germany 334
The Netherlands 335
Britain 336
United States 337
	Urban Office Buildings 341
	Office Planning 343
	Office Furniture 344
	Interior Designers 346
Furniture and Other Interior Furnishings 346
	Textiles 346
	21	Contemporary Design 348
Prophets of Future Design 348
	Kahn 348
	Pelli 351
High-tech 351
	Fuller 351
	INSIGHTS: ROGERS AND PIANO AND THE CENTRE POMPIDOU 353
	Rogers and Piano 353
	Foster 354
	Stirling 356
	INSIGHTS: JAMES STIRLING 356
Post-modernism 357
	Venturi and Scott Brown 357
	Graves 359
	Johnson 361
	Post-modernism in Europe 361
The Revival of Tradition 362
	Greenberg 362
	Stern 362
Late Modernism 364
	Pei 364
	Gwathmey and Meier 366
Individual Stylists 367
	Starck 367
	Putman 368
Deconstructivism 369
	Eisenman 370
	Gehry 371
Other Trends 373
	East-West Crossovers 373
	Preservation 375
	Green Buildings 376
Glossary 378
Bibliography 384
Picture Credits 388
Index 390




Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Interior decoration History, Interior architecture History