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Contents CHAPTER I: HISTORY AND THE PRIVATE/PUBLIC DISTINCTION I. The Setting II. The Historical Underpinnings of Private Security and Public Police A. The Classical Idea of Public Safety B. Feudalism and the Protection of Person and Property C. The Watch and Ward D. Urbanization and the Changing Security Perspective 1. Thief-Takers 2. The Bow Street Magistrates 3. Protection and Enforcement Conceptions in the Philosophy of Sirs Henry and John Fielding 4. The Public Police Model in 19th Century England 5. Sir Robert Peel and the London Metropolitan Police III. The American Experiment with Policing and Public Safety A. The Influence of Allan Pinkerton B. Western Expansionism and the Culture of Public Safety C. The Influence of J. Edgar Hoover IV. The American Paradigm of Public Safety V. Conclusion CHAPTER II: PRIVATIZATION, THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND THE PUBLIC SAFETY PARADIGM I. The Security Industry: Growth and Privatization II. Functions of the Security Industry A. Unarmed Officers B. Alarm Companies C. Private Investigators D. Campus Law Enforcement and Educational Institutions E. Retail/Industrial III. Conclusion CHAPTER THREE: COMMUNITY AND POLICING: PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PERSPECTIVES I. The Promise of Community Based Policing II. Community Based Policing and the Culture of Public Law Enforcement A. Public Police Professionalism and the Resistance to Community Policing B. The Efficacy of Professional Public Policing C. The Incompatibility of Public Police and Community Based Policing Initiatives III. The Compatibility of the Private Sector in Community Protection: The New Paradigm IV. Conclusion CHAPTER IV: PRIVATE SECTOR COMMUNITY PROFILE AND THREAT ASSESSMENT I. General Perceptions of Community Life A. Community Structure: Organized/Disorganized Environments B. The High Crime Community: Challenges and Opportunities II. The Community Profile A. State of Public Police/Community Relations B. Level of Juvenile Delinquency and Gang Activity C. Business Climate and Economic Conditions D. Private Security Professional Perceptions III. Threat Assessment A. Pre-Incident Indicators: A Tool for Threat Assessment IV. Conclusion CHAPTER V: PRIVATE SECTOR OFFICERS IN THE COMMUNITY: COMMUNITY-BASED INTEGRATION TACTICS I. Community Based Integration Programs (CBIP) A. Integration versus Observation B. Personnel and the CBIP C. Training for Community Integration D. Fundamental Skills in the Community Protection Officer 1. Deter Crime 2. Detect Issues 3. Defusing Issues 4. Defending the Community II. A System's Approach to Community Integration A. Reclamation of the Community Environment B. Networking C. Anchoring III. Program Evaluation: The State of the Community IV. Conclusion CHAPTER VI: PRIVATE SECTOR COMMUNITY BASED COMMUNICATION TACTICS I. Communication Policy and Tactics for Private Sector Officers A. Notice and Purpose B. Officer Demeanor and Attitude C. Avoidance of Responsibility D. Arrogance and Interaction E. Failure to Listen II. Public Police and Private Security Communication III. Private Sector Communication and the Media IV. Conclusion CHAPTER VII: PRIVATE SECTOR COMMUNITY BASED PSYCHOLOGICAL TACTICS I. Shock Tactics in Community Based Methodologies A. First Contact Protocols II. High Shock Strategies in High Crime Communities III. Low Intensity Shock Strategies IV. Psychological Operations (PsyOps) as Shock Tactics A. Visual Imagery B. Letters, Surveys and CommuniquÄs C. Visual Intimidation 1. Comprehensive Surveillance 2. Conspicuous Presence D. Strategic Deception E. Media Coverage as Psychological Warfare F. Night Vision Tactics G. Pay Telephones H. Rewards V. Conclusion CHAPTER VIII: PRIVATE SECTOR COMMUNITY BASED PHYSICAL FACTORS I. Physical Security and Environment A. Crime and Environmental Design B. The Mall as an Environment II. Physical Security and Risk A. Image and the Risk Plan B. Technology and the Physical Environment C. Schools as Experiments in Physical Security 1. Safe School Initiatives 2. Uniforms III. Conclusion CHAPTER IX: THE FUTURE OF PUBLIC SAFETY: PREPARING FOR THE CHALLENGES I. The Supremacy of the Private Sector in Community Based Efforts II. A Case of Art over Science in the Delivery of Protective Services III. The Rise of Public/Private Partnerships in the Justice Model IV. The Rise of Regulations, Standards and Accreditation V. The Private Sector Solution VI. Conclusion
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Community policing United States, Private security services United States, Police, Private United States