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```CONTENTS
Reviewers / ix
Manufacturers / x
Preface / xiii
Directions to the Learner / xv
Refresher Math PreTest / xvi
SECTION 1
Refresher Math
Chapter 1
Relative Value, Addition and Subtraction of Decimals / 2
Relative Value of Decimals / 2Summary / 7
Addition and Subtraction of Decimals / 6Summary Self-Test / 8
Using a Calculator for Addition and Subtraction / 7
Chapter2
Multiplication and Division of Decimals / 11
Multiplication of Decimals Without 	Reduction of Numbers Ending in
Zero / 16
Using a calculator / 11Expressing to the Nearest Tenth / 17
Division of Decimals / 13Expressing to the Nearest Hundredth / 18
Elimination of Decimal Points / 13Summary / 19
Reduction of Fractions / 14Summary Self-Test / 19
Chapter 3
Solving Common Fraction Equations / 22
Whole Number Equations / 22Summary / 31
Decimal Fraction Equations / 26Summary Self-Test / 31
Multiple Number Equations / 29
SECTION 2
Introduction to Drug Measures
Chapter 4
Metric, International (SI) System / 36
Basic Units of the Metric/SI System / 36Conversion Between Metric/SI
Units / 40
Metric/SI Prefixes / 37Common Errors in Metric/SI Dosages / 43
Metric/SI Abbreviations / 37Summary / 44
Variations of Metric/SI Abbreviations / 38Summary Self-Test / 44
Metric/SI Notation Rules / 39
Chapter 5
Milliequivalent, Ratio, Apothecary, Household / 46
International Units (U) / 46	Apothecary/Household to Metric/SI
Percentage (%) Measures / 47Equivalents Table / 50
Milliequivalent (mEq) Measures / 47The Apothecary/Metric Conversion
Clock / 51
Ratio Measures / 48Summary / 52
Apothecary and Household Measures / 48Summary Self-Test / 52
Apothecary/Household Notations / 50
SECTION 3
Reading Medication Labels and Syringe Calibrations
Chapter 6
Reading Oral Medication Labels / 56
Tablet and Capsule Labels / 57Measurement of Oral Solutions / 67
Tablet/Capsule Dosage Calculation / 60Summary / 68
Oral Solution Labels / 65Summary Self-Test / 69
Chapter 7
Hypodermic Syringe Measurement / 76
Standard 3 mL/cc Syringe / 7620 cc and Larger Syringes / 87
Safety Syringes / 80Summary / 89
Tuberculin (TB) Syringe / 82Summary Self-Test / 89
5, 6, 10, and 12 cc/mL Syringes / 84
Chapter 8
Reading Parenteral Medication Labels / 93
Reading Metric/SI Solution Labels / 94Solutions Measured as
Milliequivalents
Percent (%) and Ratio Solution Labels / 95	 (mEq) / 98
Solutions Measured in International 	Summary / 99
Units (U) / 97Summary Self-Test / 100
Chapter 9
Reconstitution of Powdered Drugs / 111
Reconstitution of a Single Strength 	Reconstitution from Package
Insert
Solution / 111	 Directions / 116
Reconstitution of Multiple Strength 	Summary / 117
Solutions / 114Summary Self-Test / 118
Chapter 10
Measuring Insulin Dosages / 125
Types of Insulin / 125Combining Insulin Dosages / 132
U-100 Insulin and Syringes / 128Summary / 134
Lo-Dose Syringes / 128Summary Self-Test / 134
1 cc Capacity Syringes / 130

SECTION 4
Dosage Calculations
Chapter 11
Dosage Calculation Using Ratio and Proportion / 140
Ratios / 140	Dosage Calculation Using R and P Expressed
Ratio and Proportion (R and P) Expressed 	 as Common Fractions
/ 149
Using Colons / 141	Calculations when Drug Weights are in
Dosage Calculation Using R and P Expressed 	 Different Units of
Measure / 152
With Colons / 143Summary / 154
Ratio and Proportion (R and P) Expressed 	Summary Self-Test /
155
Using Common Fractions / 147
Chapter 12
Formula Method / 171
Basic Formula / 171Summary / 175
Use with Metric Conversions / 173Summary Self-Test / 176
Use with U and mEq Calculations / 174
SECTION 5
Dosage Calculation from Body Weight and Body Surface
Area
Chapter 13
Adult and Pediatric Dosages Based on Body Weight /
180
Converting lb to kg / 180Calculating Dosages from Drug
Converting kg to lb / 181	 Literature / 185
Calculating Dosages from Drug Label 	Summary / 189
Information / 182Summary Self-Test / 189
Chapter 14
Adult and Pediatric Dosages Based on
Body Surface Area / 195
Calculating BSA from lb and in / 197Summary / 200
Dosage Calculation Based on BSA / 198Summary Self-Test / 201
Assessing Orders Based on BSA / 198
SECTION 6
Intravenous Calculations
Chapter 15
Introduction to IV Therapy / 206
Primary Line / 206Syringe Pumps / 214
Secondary Line / 208Introduction to IV Fluids / 216
Volume-Controlled Burettes / 211Percentages in IV Fluids / 217
Indwelling Infusion Ports/Intermittent Locks / 211Parenteral Nutrition
/ 217
Volumetric Pumps / 212Summary / 217
Patient-Controlled Analgesia (PCA) Devices / 214Summary Self-Test /
218
Chapter 16
IV Flow Rate Calculation / 220
IV Tubing Calibration / 220Division Factor Method of Calculation / 228
Calculating Large Volume gtt/min Rates 	 Calculation / 226
from mL/hr Ordered / 221Regulating Flow Rate / 230
Calculating Small Volume gtt/min Rates 	Correcting Off-Schedule
Rates / 231
from mL/min Ordered / 224Summary / 233
Formula Method of Flow Rate Calculation / 226	Summary Self-Test /
234
Chapter 17
Calculating IV Infusion and Completion Times / 237
Calculating from Volume and 	Determining Infusion Completion Time /
243
Hourly Rate Ordered / 237	Labeling Solution Bags with Infusion and
Calculating Infusion Time from gtt/min Rate and 	 Completion
Times / 245
Set Calibration / 239Summary / 249
Calculating Small-Volume Infusion Times of 	Summary Self-Test /
249
Less Than 1 Hr / 241
Chapter 18
Medication and Titration Calculations / 257
Calculating mL/hr Rate from Dosage Ordered / 258Titration of
Infusions / 265
Calculating mL/hr Rate from Dosage per kg 	Summary / 270
Ordered / 260Summary Self-Test / 271
Calculating Dosage Infusing from Flow Rate / 263
Chapter 19
Heparin Infusion Calculations / 275
Reading Heparin Labels and Preparing 	Calculating U/hr Infusing
from Solution
IV Solutions / 275	 Strength, Set Calibration, and
Calculating mL/hr Flow Rate from U/hr 	 gtt/min Rate / 282
Ordered / 278Summary / 284
Calculating gtt/min Flow Rate from U/hr 	Summary Self-Test / 285
Ordered / 279
Calculating U/hr Infusing from mL/hr
Infusing / 281
SECTION 7
Pediatric Medication Calculations
Chapter 20
Pediatric Oral and Parenteral Medications / 288
Oral Medications / 288Summary / 291
IM and s.c. Medications / 290Summary Self-Test / 291
Chapter 21
Pediatric Intravenous Medications / 295
Methods of IV Medication Administration / 295Summary / 304
Medication Administration via Burette / 297Summary Self-Test / 304
Comparing IV Dosages Ordered with
Average Dosages / 300
Appendix A