Table of contents for Understanding solids : the science of materials / Richard J.D. Tilley.


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CONTENTS
PREFACE
PART 1 STRUCTURES AND MICROSTRUCTURES
CHAPTER 1 THE ELECTRON STRUCTURE OF ATOMS
	ATOMS
	THE HYDROGEN ATOM
		The quantum mechanical description of a hydrogen atom
		The energy of the electron
		The location of the electron
		Orbital shapes
	MANY ELECTRON ATOMS
		The orbital approximation
		Electron spin and electron configuration
		The Periodic Table
	ATOMIC ENERGY LEVELS
		Electron energy levels
		The vector model
		Terms and term schemes
	Answers to introductory questions
	Further reading
	Problems and exercises
Quick Quiz
		Calculations and Questions
Appendix 1.1 Chemical equations and units
Appendix 1.2 The electron configuration of the lighter atoms
Appendix 1.3 The 3d transition metals
	Appendix 1.4 The lanthanides
Appendix 1.5 Energy levels and term schemes of many electron atoms
Appendix 1.6 The ground state term of an atom
CHAPTER 2 CHEMICAL BONDING
	IONIC BONDING
		Ions
		Ionic bonding
		Madelung energy
		Repulsive energy
		Lattice energy
		The formulae and structures of ionic compounds
		Ionic size and shape
		Ionic structures
	COVALENT BONDING
		Molecular orbitals
		The energies of molecular orbitals in diatomic molecules
Bonding between unlike atoms
		Electronegativity
		Bond strength and direction
		Orbital hybridisation
		Multiple bonds
		Resonance
	METALLIC BONDING
Bonding in metals
Chemical bonding
Atomic orbitals and energy bands
Divalent and other metals
The classical free electron gas
The quantum free electron gas
 	The Fermi energy and Fermi surface
Energy bands
Brillouin zones 
Alloys and non-crystalline metals
Bands in ionic and covalent solids
	Answers to introductory questions
Further reading
Problems and exercises
Quick Quiz
		Calculations and Questions
	Appendix 2.1 Madelung constants
CHAPTER 3 STATES OF AGGREGATION
	FORMULAE AND NAMES
		Weak chemical bonds
		Chemical names and formulae
		Polymorphism and other transformations
	MACROSTRUCTURES, MICROSTRUCTURES AND NANOSTRUCTURES
		Structures and microstructures
		Crystalline solids
		Non-crystalline solids
		Partly crystalline solids
		Nanostructures
	THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSTRUCTURES
		Solidification
		Processing
	DEFECTS
		Point defects in crystals of elements
		Solid solutions
		Schottky defects
		Frenkel defects
		Non-stoichiometric compounds
Edge dislocations
Screw dislocations
Partial and mixed dislocations
Multiplication of dislocations
Planar defects
Volume defects; precipitates
	Answers to introductory questions
Further reading
Problems and exercises
Quick Quiz
		Calculations and Questions
CHAPTER 4 PHASE DIAGRAMS
	PHASES AND PHASE DIAGRAMS
		One-component (unary) systems
	BINARY PHASE DIAGRAMS
	Two-component (binary) systems
Simple binary phase diagrams: nickel (Ni) - copper (Cu)
		Binary systems containing a eutectic point: Tin (Sn) - lead (Pb)
		Solid solution formation
		Binary systems containing intermediate compounds
		The iron - carbon phase diagram
Steels and cast irons
Invariant points
	TERNARY SYSTEMS
		Ternary phase diagrams
	Answers to introductory questions
Further reading
Problems and exercises
Quick Quiz
		Calculations and Questions
Appendix 4.1 The phase rule
CHAPTER 5 CRYSTALLOGRAPHY AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURES
	CRYSTALLOGRAPHY
		Crystal lattices
Crystal structures and crystal systems
		Symmetry and crystal classes
		Crystal planes and Miller indices
		Hexagonal crystals and Miller-Bravais indices
		Directions
		The reciprocal lattice
	THE DETERMINATION OF CRYSTAL STRUCTURES
		Single crystal X-ray diffraction
		Powder X-ray diffraction and crystal identification
Neutron diffraction
Electron diffraction
CRYSTAL STRUCTURES
Unit cells and atomic coordinates
The density of a crystal
The cubic close-packed (A1) structure
The body-centred cubic (A2) structure
The hexagonal (A3) structure
The diamond (A4) structure
The hexagonal (A9) (graphite) structure
		The structure of boron nitride 
The halite (rock salt, sodium chloride, B1) structure
		The spinel (H11) structure
	STRUCTURAL RELATIONSHIPS
		Sphere packing
Ionic structures in terms of anion packing
		Polyhedral representations
	Answers to introductory questions
Further reading
Problems and exercises
Quick Quiz
		Calculations and Questions
Appendix 5.1 Miller indices
Appendix 5.2 Interplanar spacing and unit cell volume
Appendix 5.3. Construction of a reciprocal lattice
PART 2 CLASSES OF MATERIALS
CHAPTER 6 METALS, CERAMICS, POLYMERS AND COMPOSITES
	METALS
		The crystal structures of pure metals
		Metallic radii
		Alloy solid solutions
Substitutional solid solutions
Interstitial solid solutions
Metallic glasses
The principal properties of metals
	CERAMICS
Bonding and structure of silicate ceramics
		Bonding and structure of non-silicate ceramics	
The preparation and processing of ceramics
The principal properties of ceramics
	GLASS
Bonding and structure of silicate glasses
Glass deformation
Strengthened glass
		Glass ceramics
	POLYMERS
The chemical structure of some polymers
Microstructures of polymers
Production of polymers
Elastomers
The principal properties of polymers
COMPOSITE MATERIALS
Fibre reinforced plastics
Metal-matrix composites
Ceramic-Matrix composites
Cement and Concrete
Portland cement
Hardening of cement
Microstructures of cement and concrete
	Answers to introductory questions
Further reading
Problems and exercises
Quick Quiz
		Calculations and Questions
Appendix 6.1 Summary of organic chemical nomenclature
PART 3 REACTIONS AND TRANSFORMATIONS
CHAPTER 7 DIFFUSION
Self-diffusion, tracer diffusion and tracer impurity diffusion
Non steady-state diffusion
Steady-state diffusion
Temperature variation of diffusion coefficient
The effect of impurities
The penetration depth
Self-diffusion mechanisms
Atomic movement during diffusion
Atomic migration and diffusion coefficients
Self-diffusion in crystals
The Arrhenius equation and the effect of temperature
Correlation factors for self-diffusion
Ionic conductivity
		The relationship between ionic conductivity and diffusion
			coefficient
	Answers to introductory questions
	Further reading
	Problems and exercises
		Quick Quiz
		Calculations and Questions
	Appendix 7.1 The relationship between D and diffusion distance
	Appendix 7.2 Atomic migration and the diffusion coefficient
	Appendix 7.3 Ionic conductivity
	
 CHAPTER 8 REACTIONS AND TRANSFORMATIONS
DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM
		Reversible reactions and equilibrium
		Equilibrium constants
		Combining equilibrium constants
		Equilibrium conditions
		Pseudochemical equilibrium
	PHASE DIAGRAMS AND MICROSTRUCTURES
Equilibrium solidification of simple binary alloys
Non-equilibrium solidification and coring
		Solidification of systems containing a eutectic point
		Equilibrium heat treatment of steels
		Rapid cooling of steels
	MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATIONS
		Displacive transitions
		Martensitic transformations in alloys
		Shape memory alloys
	SINTERING
	Sintering and reaction
	The driving force for sintering
	The kinetics of neck growth
	HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION OF METALS
		The driving force for oxidation
The rate of oxidation
Mechanisms of oxidation
SOLID STATE REACTIONS
Spinel formation
The kinetics of spinel formation
	Answers to introductory questions
Further reading
Problems and exercises
Quick Quiz
		Calculations and Questions
	Appendix 8.1 Phase transformations and thermodynamics
CHAPTER 9 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION
	REDOX REACTIONS
		Oxidation and reduction 
GALVANIC CELLS
Galvanic cells
Standard electrode potentials
Cell Potential and free energy
Concentration dependence
Chemical analysis using galvanic cells
BATTERIES
"Dry" and alkaline primary batteries
Lithium-ion primary batteries
The lead-acid secondary battery
Nickel-cadmium Ni-Cd (nicad) rechargable batteries
Nickel-metal-hydride rechargeable batteries
Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries
Fuel cells
CORROSION
The reaction of metals with water and aqueous acids
Dissimilar metal corrosion
Single metal electrochemical corrosion
ELECTROLYSIS
Electrolytic cells
Electrolysis of fused salts
The electrolytic preparation of titanium by the FCC Cambridge
 process
Electrolysis of aqueous solutions
The amount of product produced during electrolysis
Electroplating
POURBAIX DIAGRAMS
Passivation and corrosion
Variable valence states
Pourbaix diagram for a metal showing two valence states, M2+ and
M3+
Pourbaix diagram displaying tendency for corrosion
Limitations of Pourbaix diagrams
	Answers to introductory questions
Further reading
Problems and exercises
Quick Quiz
		Calculations and Questions
	Appendix 9.1 Oxidation numbers
Appendix 9.2 Cell notation
	Appendix 9.3 The stability field of water
Appendix 9.4 Corrosion and the calculation of the Pourbaix diagram for iron
PART 4 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
CHAPTER 10 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS
	DEFORMATION
Strength
Stress and strain
Stress - strain curves
Elastic deformation: the elastic (Young's) modulus
Poisson's ratio
Toughness and stiffness
		Brittle fracture
Plastic deformation of metals and ceramics
Dislocation movement and plastic deformation
Brittle and ductile materials 
Plastic deformation of polymers
Fracture following plastic deformation
Strengthening 
Hardness
TIME DEPENDENT PROPERTIES
Fatigue
Creep
NANOSCALE PROPERTIES
Solid lubricants
Auxetic materials
Thin films
COMPOSITE MATERIALS
Elastic modulus of large particle composites
Elastic modulus of fibre reinforced composites
Elastic modulus of a two-phase system
	Answers to introductory questions
Further reading
Problems and exercises
Quick Quiz
		Calculations and Questions
	Appendix 10.1 Elastic moduli
Appendix 10.2 The calculation of elastic and bulk moduli
	Appendix 10.3 Estimation of fracture strength of a brittle solid
	Appendix 10.4 Estimation of the fracture strength of a brittle solid
		containing a crack
CHAPTER 11 INSULATING SOLIDS
	INSULATORS
		Relative permittivity and polarisation
		Polarizability
Polarizability and relative permittivity
The frequency dependence of polarizability and relative
permittivity
Polarisation in non-isotropic solids
PIEZOELECTRICS, PYROELECTRICS AND FERROELECTRICS
The piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects
		Piezoelectric mechanisms
Piezoelectric polymers
The pyroelectric effect
	FERROELECTRICS
Ferroelectric crystals
		Hysteresis in ferroelectric crystals 
Antiferroelectrics
		The temperature dependence of ferroelecticity and 
			antiferroelectricity
		Ferroelectricity due to hydrogen bonds
		Ferroelectricity due to polar groups
		Ferroelectricity due to medium sized transition metal cations
Poling and polycrystalline piezoelectric solids
Doping and modification of properties
	Answers to introductory questions
Further reading
Problems and exercises
Quick Quiz
		Calculations and Questions
	Appendix 11.1 Formulae and units used to describe the electrical
		properties of insulators
CHAPTER 12 MAGNETIC SOLIDS
	MAGNETIC MATERIALS
		The characterisation of magnetic materials
		Types of magnetic material
		Atomic magnetism
	WEAK MAGNETIC MATERIALS
		Diamagnetic materials
		Paramagnetic materials
		Temperature dependence of paramagnetic susceptibility
	FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS
		Ferromagnetism
	Exchange energy
		Antiferromagnetism and superexchange
		Ferrimagnetism and double exchange
		Cubic spinel ferrites
		Hexagonal ferrites
	THE MICROSTRUCTURES OF FERROMAGNETIC SOLIDS
		Domains
		Hysteresis
		Hard and soft magnetic materials
	FREE ELECTRONS
		Pauli paramagnetism
		Transition metals
	NANOSTRUCTURES
		Small particles and data recording
Superparamagnetism and thin films
Molecular magnetism
	Answers to introductory questions
Further reading
Problems and exercises
Quick Quiz
		Calculations and Questions
	Appendix 12.1 Formulae and units used to describe the magnetic 
		properties of materials
Appendix 12.2 Crystal field and ligand field theory
CHAPTER 13 ELECTRONIC CONDUCTIVITY IN SOLIDS
METALS
		Metals, semiconductors and insulators
Conductivity of metals and alloys
	SEMICONDUCTORS
		Intrinsic semiconductors
Carrier concentrations in intrinsic semiconductors
		Extrinsic semiconductors
Carrier concentrations in extrinsic semiconductors
Characterisation
		The p-n junction diode
Modification of insulators
		Conducting polymers
NANOSTRUCTURES AND QUANTUM CONFINEMENT OF 
ELECTRONS
Quantum wells
Quantum wires and quantum dots
	SUPERCONDUCTIVITY
		Superconductors
The effect of magnetic fields
The effect of current
The nature of superconductivity
Ceramic "high temperature" superconductors.
		Lanthanum cuprate, La2CuO4 
Yttrium barium copper oxide, (123), YBa2Cu3O7 
Josephson junctions
	Answers to introductory questions
Further reading
Problems and exercises
Quick Quiz
		Calculations and Questions
Appendix 13.1 Electrical resistance and conductivity
Appendix 13.2 Current flow
Appendix 13.3 The electron and hole concentrations in intrinsic 
	semiconductors
CHAPTER 14 OPTICAL ASPECTS OF SOLIDS
	THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM
		Light waves
		Photons
The interaction of light with matter
	SOURCES OF LIGHT
		Luminescence
Incandescence
		Fluorescence and solid-state lasers
		The ruby laser: three level lasers
		The neodymium (Nd3+) solid state laser: four level lasers
		Light emitting diodes
Semiconductor lasers
	COLOUR AND APPEARANCE	
Luminous solids
		Non-luminous solids
		The Beer-Lambert law
	REFRACTION AND DISPERSION	
Refraction
Refractive index and structure
The refractive index of metals and semiconductors
Dispersion
	REFLECTION
		Reflection from a surface
		Reflection from a single thin film
The reflectivity of a single thin film in air
		The colour of a single thin film in air
		The colour of a single thin film on a substrate
		Low reflectivity (antireflection) and high reflectivity coatings
		Multiple thin films and dielectric mirrors
	SCATTERING
Rayleigh scattering
Mie scattering
	DIFFRACTION
Diffraction by an aperture
Diffraction gratings
Diffraction from crystal-like structures
Photonic crystals
	FIBRE OPTICS
		Optical communications
		Attenuation in glass fibres
		Dispersion and optical fibre design
		Optical amplification
	NON-LINEAR OPTICAL MATERIALS
Non-linear optics
ENERGY CONVERSION
Photoconductivity and photovoltaic solar cells
Photoelectrochemical cells
NANOSTRUCTURES
The optical properties of quantum wells
Quantum dots and quantum wires
	Answers to introductory questions
Further reading
Problems and exercises
Quick Quiz
		Calculations and Questions
	Appendix 14.1 Energy and wavelength conversions
	Appendix 14.2 Rates of absorption and emission
	Appendix 14.3 The colour of a thin film in white light
CHAPTER 15 THERMAL PROPERTIES
	TEMPERATURE EFFECTS
Heat capacity	
Theory of heat capacity
Quantum and classical statistics
Thermal conductivity
Heat transfer
Thermal expansion
Thermal expansion and interatomic potentials
Thermal contraction
	THERMOELECTRIC EFFECTS
		Thermoelectric coefficients
		Thermoelectric effects and charge carriers 
		Thermocouples, power generation and refrigeration
	Answers to introductory questions
Further reading
Problems and exercises
Quick Quiz
		Calculations and Questions
Appendix 15.1. Classical and quantum statistics
PART 5 NUCLEAR PROPERTIES OF SOLIDS
CHAPTER 16 RADIOACTIVITY AND NUCLEAR REACTIONS
	RADIOACTIVITY
		Radioactive elements
		Isotopes and nuclides
		Nuclear equations
		Radioactive series
		Transuranic elements
		Artificial radioactivity
	RATES OF DECAY
		Nuclear stability
The rate of nuclear decay
		Radioactive dating
	NUCLEAR POWER
		The binding energy of nuclides
		Nuclear fission
		Thermal reactors and power generation
		Fuel for space exploration
		Fast breeder reactors
		Fusion
		Solar cycles
	NUCLEAR WASTE
		Nuclear accidents
		The storage of nuclear waste
	Answers to introductory questions
Further reading
Problems and exercises
Quick Quiz
		Calculations and Questions
ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS AND EXERCISES
INDEX




Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Materials science, Solids