Table of contents for Marmes Rockshelter : a final report on 11,000 years of cultural use / edited by Brent A. Hicks.


Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog. Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication information provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


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CONTENTS Abstract i Acknowledgements iii List of Figures viii List of Tables xi 
Preface xiii 1. Project Background 1 Site Description 1 History of 
Investigations 4 2. Research Design 25 Research Themes and Questions 25 
Cultural Chronology 25 Past Environment and Climate Change 28 Site Function 28 
Trade 31 Human Remains/Burials 31 The Study Plan 32 Anticipated Problems 33 
Background Research and Project Constraints 34 Sampling 38 3. Environmental 
Overview 43 Geological Setting 44 Glacial-era Floods and Tephra Chronology 46 
Climatic and Vegetation History 49 The Nature of the Data 49 Late Pleistocene 
52 Latest Pleistocene/Early Holocene (12,500-8000 B.P.) 54 Middle Holocene 
(8000-5500 B.P.) 57 Early Late Holocene (5500 to 2000 B.P.) 59 Late Holocene 
(2,000 to Present) 61 Study Area Vegetation 63 Study Area Faunal Resources 64 
4. Cultural Context 65 Prehistory 65 Ethnographic Period 70 Historic Period 74 
5. Stratigraphy and Site Formation Processes 77 Geomorphic Context 77 Methods 
78 Rockshelter Stratigraphy 82 The Data (1968 and 1998) 83 Interpretations 89 
Colluvial Slope Stratigraphy 95 The Data 95 Interpretations 98 Floodplain 
Stratigraphy 103 The Data 104 Interpretations 113 Site Formation Processes at 
the Marmes Site 118 Summary and Conclusions 120 6. Features 123 Rockshelter 
Features 124 Hearths/Fire Pits 124 Storage Pit Features 128 Floodplain Features 
134 7. Human Remains 139 Methods 139 Rockshelter 140 Floodplain 143 Results of 
Analysis of Rockshelter Remains 144 Results of Analysis of Floodplain Remains 
156 Conclusions 157 8. Lithic Debitage and Formed Tools 159 Methods of Analyses 
162 Raw Materials 163 Reduction Technology 164 Use-wear 164 Obsidian X-ray 
Fluorescence 165 Blood Residue Analysis 166 Results of Analyses 167 Lithic 
Technology 167 Obsidian Sourcing 203 Blood Residue Analysis 209 Summary of 
Analyses 209 Conclusions 214 Culture-History 214 Index Fossils and Tool 
Functions 217 The Cascade Technique 223 Gravels and Travels 224 Site Function 
225 Comparisons With Other Sites 226 9. Modified Bone andAntler 229 Methods and 
Techniques 229 Manufacturing Technology and Function 230 Use-Life Classes 230 
Description of the Modified Bone Collection 231 Changes Through Time 249 
Comparison of the Windust Phase Floodplain and Rockshelter Deposits 252 10. 
Faunal Remains 253 Current Research 253 The Marmes Fauna 260 Summary of Taxa 
Identified 280 Intersite Analyses 298 Summary and Conclusions 309 11. Fish 
Remains 319 Methods and Materials 319 Descriptive Summary of Fish Remains 320 
Results 322 Comparison of Rockshelter and Floodplain Fish Fauna 336 12. 
Invertebrate Fauna (Shellfish) 339 Materials and Methods 339 Results 340 
Discussion of Results by Stratum 342 Discussion 344 13. Botanical Materials 347 
Methods of Analysis 347 Results and Discussion 352 Temporal Considerations 368 
Contaminants 371 14. Summary of Results 373 Background Research 373 Site 
Setting 373 Feature Review Results 375 Human Remains 377 Material Analysis 
Results 380 Conclusions 386 15. Interpretation 389 Cultural Chronology 389 
Trade 400 Past Environment and Climate Change 403 Site Function 408 Subsistence 
412 Marmes Rockshelter in a Regional Perspective 414 Recommendations 420 
References 423 Appendices Appendix A Marmes Collection Inventory Database 
(provided on disk) Appendix B Stratigraphic Profile Drawings Appendix C 
Particle-Size Data Appendix D Chemical Data Appendix E Physical Descriptions 
Appendix F Feature Data Tables Appendix G List of Abbreviations and Glossary of 
Terms - Lithic Analysis Appendix H Lithic Technological Analysis Data Appendix 
I Obsidian Source Analysis Appendix J List of Samples Analyzed in This Study 
from the Marmes Floodplain Appendix K List of Unanalyzed Presorted Mammal 
Remains from the Marmes Floodplain Appendix L List of Unanalyzed Bird Remains 
from the Marmes Floodplain Appendix M List of Unanalyzed Samples Containing 
Reptile and Amphibian Bones Appendix N Fish Remains Analysis Data Appendix O 
All Identified Shellfish Appendix P Marmes Horizon Swan Bone Identification 
Appendix Q Radiocarbon Dating Reports Appendix RPollen Analysis Report




Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Paleo-Indians Washington (State) Franklin County, Archaeological geology Washington (State) Franklin County, Geology, Stratigraphic Holocene, Franklin County (Wash, ) Antiquities, Palouse River Valley (Idaho and Wash, ) Antiquities