Table of contents for Gerald D. Schmidt & Larry S. Roberts' foundations of parasitology / Larry S. Roberts, John Janovy, Jr.


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CONTENTS
1
INTRODUCTION TO PARASITOLOGY
Relationship of Parasitology to Other Sciences 1
Parasitology and Human Welfare 2
Parasites of Domestic and Wild Animals 3
Careers in Parasitology 4
Some Basic Definitions 4
Interactions of Symbionts 5
Hosts 7
References 7
Additional References 8
Parasitology on the World Wide Web 8
2
BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS I: PARASITE ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION 
Parasite Ecology 9
The Host as an Environment 9
Trophic Relationships 9
The Parasite's Ecological Niche 10
Parasite Populations 11
Parasite Reproduction 13
Adaptations for Transmission 14
Epidemiology 14
Mathematical Models 15
Parasite Evolution 16
Evolutionary Associations Between Parasites and Hosts 16
Parasitism and Sexual Selection 18
Parasite Life History 18
Systematics and Taxonomy of Parasites 18
References 19
Additional References 20
3
BASIC PRINCIPLES AND CONCEPTS II: IMMUNOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY
Susceptibility and Resistance 21
Innate Defense Mechanisms 21
Physical and Chemical Barriers 21
Cellular Defenses: Phagocytosis 22
Acquired Immune Response in Vertebrates 22
Basis of Self and Nonself Recognition 23
Lymphocytes 24
Cytokines 25
Generation of a Humoral Response 25
The Cell-Mediated Response 26
Inflammation 26
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) 28
Danger Hypothesis 29
Immunity in Invertebrates 29
Immunodiagnosis 30
Pathogenesis of Parasitic Infections 32
Accommodation and Tolerance in the Host-Parasite Relationship 33
References 35
Additional References 36
4
PARASITIC PROTOZOA: FORM, FUNCTION, AND CLASSIFICATION
Form and Function 37
Nucleus and Cytoplasm 38
Locomotor Organelles 40
Reproduction and Life Cycles 44
Encystment 46
Feeding and Metabolism 46
Excretion and Osmoregulation 48
Endosymbionts 48
Classification of the Protozoan Phyla 48
References 54
Additional References 54
5
KINETOPLASTA: TRYPANOSOMES AND THEIR KINAA55
Forms of the Trypanosomatidae 55
Genus Trypanosoma 57
References 78
Additional References 81
6
OTHER FLAGELLATED PROTOZOA
Order Retortamonadida 83
Family Retortamonadidae 83
Order Diplomonadida 84
Family Hexamitidae 84
Order Trichomonadida 89
Family Trichomonadidae 89
Family Monocercomonadidae 93
Order Opalinida 96
Family Opalinidae 96
References 97
Additional References 99
7
THE AMEBASAA101
Order Amoebida 101
Family Entamoebidae 101
Order Schizopyrenida 110
Family Vahlkamphidae 110
Family Hartmannellidae 111
Family Leptomyxiidae 113
References 113
ADDITIONAL REFERENCESAA115
8
PHYLUM APICOMPLEXA: GREGARINES, COCCIDIA, AND RELATED ORGANISMS
The Apical Complex 117
Class Gregarinea 118
Order Eugregarinida 119
Class Coccidea 121
Order Adeleida 121
Order Eimerida 121
References 137
Additional References 139
9
PHYLUM APICOMPLEXA: MALARIA ORGANISMS AND PIROPLASMS
Order Haemosporida 141
Genus Plasmodium 141
Genus Haemoproteus 156
Genus Leucocytozoon 157
Order Piroplasmida 158
Family Babesiidae 159
Family Theileriidae 161
References 162
Additional References 165
10
PHYLUM CILIOPHORA: CILIATED PROTISTAN PARASITES
Class Spirotrichea 167
Subclass Heterotrichia, Order Clevelandellida, Family Nyctotheridae 167
Class Litostomatea 167
Subclass Trichostomatia, Order Vestibuliferida, Family Balantidiidae 167
Order Entodiniomorphida 169
Class Oligohymenophorea 169
Subclass Hymenostomatia, Order Hymenostomatida, Family Ichthyophthiriidae 169
Subclass Peritrichia, Order Mobilida, Family Trichodinidae 171
References 172
Additional References 172
11
PHYLA MICROSPORA AND MYXOZOA: PARASITES WITH POLAR FILAMENTS
Phylum Microspora 173
Class Microsporea 173
Phylum Myxozoa 175
Family Myxosomatidae 175
References 180
Additional References 181
12
THE MESOZOA: PIONEERS OR DEGENERATES?
Class Rhombozoa 183
Order Dicyemida 183
Order Heterocyemida 183
Class Orthonectida 184
Morphology and Biology 184
Phylogenetic Position 186
Physiology and Host-Parasite Relationships 186
Classification of Phylum Mesozoa 187
References 188
Additional References 188
13
INTRODUCTION TO THE PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES
Platyhelminth Systematics 190
Classification of Phylum Platyhelminthes 192
Turbellarians 193
Acoels 193
Rhabditophorans 194
Temnocephalideans 195
Alloeocoels 196
Tricladids 196
Polycladids 196
References 196
Additional References 197
14
TREMATODA: ASPIDOBOTHREA
Form and Function 199
Body Form 199
Tegument 199
Digestive System 199
Osmoregulatory System 199
Nervous System 200
Reproductive Systems 200
Development 202
Aspidogaster conchicola 204
Stichocotyle nephropsis 204
Phylogenetic Considerations 204
Classification of the Aspidobothrea 205
References 205
ADDITIONAL REFERENCES
15
TREMATODA: FORM, FUNCTION, AND CLASSIFICATION OF DIGENEANS
Form and Function 207
Body Form 207
Tegument 208
Muscular System 211
Nervous System 211
Excretion and Osmoregulation 213
Acquisition of Nutrients 
and Digestion 214
Reproductive Systems 215
Development 217
Embryogenesis 217
Larval and Juvenile Development 217
Development in the Definitive Host 223
Trematode Transitions 223
Summary of Life Cycle 224
Metabolism 224
Energy Metabolism 224
Synthetic Metabolism 227
Biochemistry of the Tegument 227
Phylogeny of Digenetic Trematodes 228
Classification of Subclass Digenea 228
References 230
Additional References 233
16
DIGENEANS: STRIGEIFORMES
Superfamily Strigeoidea 235
Family Diplostomidae 235
Family Strigeidae 236
Superfamily Schistosomatoidea 237
Family Schistosomatidae: Schistosoma Species 
and Schistosomiasis 238
References 250
Additional References 252
17
DIGENEANS: ECHINOSTOMATIFORMES AND PARAMPHISTOMIFORMES
Superfamily Echinostomatoidea 253
Family Echinostomatidae 253
Echinostomatids as Models in Experimental Parasitology 255
Family Fasciolidae 256
Other Fasciolid Trematodes 259
Superfamily Paramphistomoidea 261
Family Paramphistomidae 261
Family Diplodiscidae 261
Family Gastrodiscidae 262
REFERENCESAA262
Additional References 263
18
DIGENEANS: PLAGIORCHIFORMES AND OPISTHORCHIFORMES
Order Plagiorchiformes 265
Suborder Plagiorchiata 265
Family Dicrocoeliidae 265
Suborder Troglotrematata 268
Family Troglotrematidae 268
Order Opisthorchiformes 274
Family Opisthorchiidae 275
Family Heterophyidae 279
References 280
Additional References 281
19
MONOGENEA
Form and Function 283
Body Form 283
Tegument 285
Muscular and Nervous Systems 286
Osmoregulatory System 287
Acquisition of Nutrients 288
Male Reproductive System 289
Female Reproductive System 290
Development 291
Oncomiracidium 291
Subclass Polyonchoinea 292
Subclass Polystomatoinea 293
Subclass Oligonchoinea 294
Phylogeny 295
Classification of Class Monogenoidea 295
References 296
Additional References 297
20
CESTOIDEA: FORM, FUNCTION, AND CLASSIFICATION OF THE TAPEWORMS
Form and Function 299
Strobila 299
Scolex 300
Tegument 304
Calcareous Corpuscles 306
Muscular System 306
Nervous System 307
Excretion and Osmoregulation 307
Reproductive Systems 308
Development 312
Larval and Juvenile Development 313
Development in the Definitive Host 315
Metabolism 317
Acquisition of Nutrients 317
Energy Metabolism 318
Synthetic Metabolism 320
Hormonal Effects of Metabolites 320
Classification of Class Cestoidea 321
References 323
Additional References 326
21
TAPEWORMS
Order Pseudophyllidea 327
Family Diphyllobothriidae 327
Other Pseudophyllideans Found in Humans 331
Sparganosis 331
Order Caryophyllidea 332
Order Spathebothriidea 332
Order Cyclophyllidea 333
Family Taeniidae 333
Family Hymenolepididae 342
Family Davaineidae 343
Family Dilepididae 345
Family Anoplocephalidae 345
Family Mesocestoididae 346
Family Dioecocestidae 347
Order Proteocephalata 347
Order Tetraphyllidea 348
Order Trypanorhyncha 349
Subcohort Amphilinidea 350
Cohort Gyrocotylidea 351
References 351
Additional References 354
22
PHYLUM NEMATODA: FORM, FUNCTION, AND CLASSIFICATION
Historical Aspects 355
Form and Function 355
Body Wall 356
Musculature 359
Pseudocoel and Hydrostatic Skeleton 359
Nervous System 361
Digestive System and Acquisition of Nutrients 365
Secretory-Excretory System 368
Reproduction 369
Development 373
Eggshell Formation 373
Embryogenesis 374
Embryonic Metabolism 374
Hatching 375
Growth and Ecdysis 375
Metabolism 377
Energy Metabolism 377
Synthetic Metabolism 378
Classification of Phylum Nematoda 379
References 381
Additional References 384
23
Nematodes: Trichurida and Dioctophymatida, Enoplean Parasites 385
Order Trichurida 385
Family Trichuridae 385
Family Capillariidae 387
Family Anatrichosomatidae 388
Family Trichinellidae 388
Order Dioctophymatida 394
Family Dioctophymatidae 394
References 396
Additional References 398
24
NEMATODES: RHABDITIDA, PIONEERING PARASITES
Families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae 399
Family Rhabdiasidae 399
Family Strongyloididae 400
References 403
Additional References 403
25
NEMATODES: STRONGYLIDA, BURSATE RHABDITIANS
Superfamily Ancylostomatoidea 405
Family Ancylostomidae 405
Superfamily Strongyloidea 412
Family Strongylidae 412
Family Syngamidae 412
Superfamily Trichostrongyloidea 412
Family Trichostrongylidae 412
Family Dictyocaulidae 414
Other Trichostrongyloids 414
Superfamily Metastrongyoidea 414
Family Angiostrongylidae 415
Other Metastrongyloids 415
References 416
Additional References 417
26
NEMATODES: ASCARIDIDA, INTESTINAL LARGE ROUNDWORMS
Superfamily Ascaridoidea 419
Family Ascarididae 419
Family Anisakidae 427
Superfamily Heterakoidea 428
Family Ascaridiidae 428
Family Heterakidae 428
References 429
Additional References 431
27
NEMATODES: OXYURIDA, THE PINWORMS
Family Oxyuridae 433
References 436
Additional References 437
28
NEMATODES: SPIRURIDA, A POTPOURRI
Family Acuariidae 439
Family Gnathostomatidae 440
Gnathostoma spinigerum 440
Family Physalopteridae 441
Physaloptera Species 441
Family Tetrameridae 443
Family Gongylonematidae 443
Family Spirocercidae 444
Spirocerca lupi 444
Family Thelaziidae 445
References 446
Additional References 446
29
NEMATODES: FILAROIDEA, THE FILARIAL WORMS
Family Onchocercidae 447
Wuchereria bancrofti 447
Brugia malayi 451
Onchocerca volvulus 452
Loa loa 456
Other Filariids Found in Humans 457
Dirofilaria immitis 457
References 459
Additional References 460
30
NEMATODES: CAMALLANINA, THE GUINEA WORMS AND OTHERS
Family Camallanidae 461
Family Philometridae 461
Family Dracunculidae 462
Dracunculus medinensis 462
References 467
Additional References 467
31
PHYLUM ACANTHOCEPHALA: THORNY-HEADED WORMS
Form and Function 469
General Body Structure 469
Body Wall 469
Reproductive System 472
Excretory System 474
Nervous System 475
Acquisition and Use of Nutrients 475
Uptake 475
Metabolism 476
Development and Life Cycles 476
Class Eoacanthocephala 476
Class Palaeacanthocephala 477
Class Archiacanthocephala 478
Effects of the Parasite on Its Host 478
Acanthocephala in Humans 479
Phylogenetic Relationships 480
Classification of Phylum Acanthocephala 480
References 481
Additional References 482
32
PHYLUM PENTASTOMIDA: TONGUE WORMS
Morphology 485
Reproductive Anatomy 486
Biology 486
Development 487
Life Cycles 487
Pathogenesis 489
Visceral Pentastomiasis 489
Nasopharyngeal Pentastomiasis 490
Classification of Phylum Pentastomida 490
References 490
33
PHYLUM ARTHROPODA: FORM, FUNCTION, AND CLASSIFICATION
General Form and Function 493
Arthropod Metamerism 493
Exoskeleton 494
Molting 497
Early Development and Embryology 499
Postembryonic Development 499
Diapause 500
External Morphology 501
Form of the Crustacea 501
The Form of Pterygote (Winged) Insects 502
The Form of the Acari 504
Internal Structure 506
Classification of Arthropodan Taxa with Symbiotic Members 509
References 513
Additional References 514
34
Parasitic Crustaceans 515
Class Maxillopoda 515
Subclass Ostracoda 515
Subclass Copepoda 515
Subclass Branchiura 526
Subclass Cirripedia 528
Subclass Tantulocarida 531
Class Malacostraca 531
Order Amphipoda 531
Order Isopoda 532
Order Decapoda 534
References 535
Additional References 537
35
PARASITIC INSECTS: MALLOPHAGA AND ANOPLURA, THE LICE
Order Mallophaga 539
Morphology 539
Biology of Some Representative Species 540
Order Anoplura 542
Morphology 542
Mode of Feeding 542
Other Anoplurans of Note 545
Lice as Vectors of Human Disease 546
Epidemic, or Louse-Borne, Typhus 546
Trench Fever 547
Relapsing Fever 547
Control of Lice 547
References 548
Additional References 549
36
PARASITIC INSECTS: HEMIPTERA, THE BUGS
Mouthparts and Feeding 551
Family Cimicidae 551
Morphology 552
Biology 553
Epidemiology and Control 553
Family Reduviidae 553
Morphology 554
Biology 554
Epidemiology and Control 555
References 556
37
PARASITIC INSECTS: SIPHONAPTERA, THE FLEAS
Morphology 559
Jumping Mechanism 559
Mouthparts and Mode of Feeding 560
Development 560
Host Specificity 562
Families Ceratophyllidae and Leptopsyllidae 562
Family Pulicidae 562
Family Tungidae 564
Fleas as Vectors 565
Plague 565
Murine Typhus 567
Myxomatosis 567
Other Parasites 567
Control of Fleas 568
References 568
38
PARASITIC INSECTS: DIPTERA, THE FLIES
Suborder Nematocera 571
Family Psychodidae 571
Family Culicidae 572
Family Simuliidae 580
Family Ceratopogonidae 581
Suborder Brachycera 582
Infraorder Tabanomorpha 582
Infraorder Muscomorpha 584
Myiasis 587
References 592
39
PARASITIC INSECTS: STREPSIPTERA, HYMENOPTERA, AND OTHERS
Orders with Few Parasitic Species 595
Order Dermaptera (Earwigs) 595
Order Neuroptera (Lacewings) 595
Order Lepidoptera (Butterflies and Moths) 595
Order Coleoptera (Beetles) 596
Order Strepsiptera (the Stylops) 596
Morphology 597
Development 597
Order Hymenoptera (Ants, Bees, and Wasps) 599
Morphology 599
Development 600
Classification and Examples 601
Biological Control 603
References 604
40
PARASITIC ARACHNIDS: SUBCLASS ACARI, THE TICKS AND MITES
Classification of the Arachnida and Acari 607
Order Ixodida: The Ticks 608
Biology 608
Family Ixodidae 609
Family Argasidae 614
Immunity of Ticks 616
Order Mesostigmata 616
Family Laelaptidae 616
Family Halarachnidae 616
Family Dermanyssidae 617
Family Rhinonyssidae 619
Order Prostigmata 619
Family Cheyletidae 619
Family Pyemotidae 620
Family Psorergatidae 620
Family Demodicidae 620
Family Trombiculidae 621
Order Oribatida 622
Order Astigmata 622
Family Psoroptidae 623
Family Sarcoptidae 623
Family Knemidokoptidae 624
Family Pyroglyphidae 625
Bee Mites 625
References 625
Additional References 627
Glossary 629
Index 647




Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Parasitology