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Contents Maps, Tables, and Figures xiii Abbreviations xix 1 A Theory of the Local State 1 Interpreting 1927-37 and 1980-92 2/ The Local State 4/ The Importance of Variation in Local States 7/ Rethinking the Concept of State-Society Relations 10/ Local State Building 12/ Local State Building 14/ Modernity and State Building 15/ Focus on Taxation and Public Finance 19/ Cases and Sources 20/ Outline of the Book 24 Part I Local States in Republican China, 1927-1937 Introduction to Part I 29 The State During the Qing Era 29/ Financing the Qing State 32/ The State During the Republic 35/ Financing the Republican State 37 2 Local State Building in Guangdong Province, 1927-1937 41 The Economies, Politics, and Social Structure of Kaiping and Nanxiong 44/ The Provincial and Central Context of County Finance 51/ Measuring Provincial State Building 52/ Province-County Fiscal Relations 57/ Local Revenues and Expenditures in Kaiping and Nanxiong 58/ Formal and Informal Tax and Finance Organizations 72/ The Evolution of Provincial Tax Farming at the County Level 80/ Making Sense of State Building in Kaiping and Nanxiong, 1927-37 86 3 Local State Building in Hebei Province, 1927-1937 89 Economic Overview of the Counties 90/ County Finances in Hebei 94/ Formal and Informal Tax and Finance Organizations 106/ Collecting Commercial Taxes: Patterns of Tax Farming 116/ Extrabureaucratic State Building 123 Part II Local States in Post-Mao China, 1980-1992 Introduction to Part II 133 Politics and Public Finance During the War 133/ Politics and Public Finance During the Civil War, 1946-49 137/ Public Finance and Taxation, 1949-58 138/ Tax and Public Finance During the Great Leap Forward 141/ Tax and Public Finance During the Cultural Revolution 143/ Tax and Public Finance During the Reform Period 144/ Did State Building Take Place During the Mao Years? 149 4 Local State Building in Guangdong Province, 1980-1992 151 Economics and Politics in the Two Counties 152/ Revenue Sharing and Its Effects on County Revenues 157/ County-Level State Building 168/ Explaining State- Building Outcomes 190 5 Local State Building in Tianjin Municipality, 1980-1992 198 Economics and Politics in Jinghai and Jixian Counties 198/ Budgets and Revenue Sharing in Tianjin Municipality 204/ County Income and Expenditures 212/ County-Level State Building in Tianjin Municipality 220/ Explaining State Building in Jinghai and Jixian, 1980-92 235 6 Conclusion: Local State Building and Local State Variation 239 State Involution 239/ What Kinds of States Were Built? 242/ Local State Variations 244/ Sources of Isomorphism in Tax and Public Finance 252/ Consequences of Local State Building for the Central State 257/ Implications of the Approach Beyond Finance and Beyond China 259/ The Future of Tax and Public Finance in China 261 Reference Material Notes 267 Works Cited 289 Index 309
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Finance, Public China Guangdong Sheng History 20th century, Finance, Public China Tianjin History 20th century, Finance, Public China Hebei Sheng History 20th century, Taxation China Guangdong Sheng History 20th century, Taxation China Tianjin History 20th century, Taxation China Hebei Sheng History 20th century, Guangdong Sheng (China) Politics and government 20th century, Tianjin (China) Politics and government 20th century, Hebei Sheng (China) Politics and government 20th century, Local government China Case studies