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[CT]Contents Introduction Chapter 1: What Do You Mean by ìMiddle Eastî? Origin of the Term Orientalism Exposed Geographic Boundaries Ethnic and Linguistic Groups Common Religion Culture and History Social Identity Conservative and Liberal Definitions Boundaries for This Book Chapter 2: The Cradle of Civilization Components of a Civilization The Sumerians The Egyptians The Phoenicians The Hittites The Babylonians The Hebrews Chapter 3: Rise of the Empires Components of an Empire The Assyrians The Chaldeans, a.k.a. Neo-Babylonians The Medes The Persians The Greeks The Romans Chapter 4: Ancient Judaism The Sons of Jacob and Their God From Slavery to Wandering Moses and the Levitical Law Code Conquest, Kingdom, and Captivity The Message of the Tanakh Chapter 5: Early Christianity First Century Judaism The Concept of Moshiach Yeshua and His Followers Execution and Persecution Growth from Jerusalem and Antioch The Letters The Church and Rome Chapter 6: The Byzantine Empire Emperor Constantineís Conversion New Religious Freedom Holy Hermits Politics and Religion Looking Inside and Out Justinianís Creations and Conquests Division and Decline Chapter 7: Early Islam Ancient Arabia The Seventh Century Muhammad and His Followers Growth from Medina Death, Division, and Domination Conquests of the Caliphs The Qurían and Hadith Chapter 8: Islamic Empires and European Colonies Umayyads in Damascus Abbasids in Baghdad Umayyads in Spain Fractured Fraternities When Turks Attack Europe to the RescueóEveryone Loses Expulsion of the Infidels Chapter 9: A New Empire Is Born The Aftermath of Defeat Osmanís Empire Constantinople and Cairo Fall Sultan S¸leyman and Ottoman Expansion Turkic Rivalries Euro Power Division and Decay Chapter 10: World War and Change Choosing Sides Lawrence or Arabia? Settling Dust and Changing Maps Winds of Nationalism Memories of Imperialism Birth of the Nations Chapter 11: Modern Mideast Mosaic Urban and Eclectic Kurds Armenians Circassians Assyrians Copts Berbers Jews Islamic OffshootsóReformers or Heretics? Chapter 12: Israel/PalestineóAll Eyes on Jerusalem Aryanism, Zionism, and Exodus Declaration of State and War The Fix of ë56 Six Days in ë67 War of Atonement Peace Camps and Refugee Camps Suicides, Strikes, and Settlements Chapter 13: EgyptóHeart of the Arab World Remnants of Imperialism Nationalism and Revolution Nasserís Pan-Arabism Sadatís Peace Radicals Reborn President MubarakóStayiní Alive Chapter 14: Saudi ArabiaóCrossroads of Islam Hashemite Protectors and the House of Sa`ud Whatís a Wahhabi? Godís Black Gold Bin Ladenís Bucks All Roads Lead to Mecca Times They are a Changiní Chapter 15: IraqóBritish Colony to Baíthist Beginnings Ousting Ottomans and Housing Hashemites Independence with Strings Kingless Kingdom Instability and Revolutions Starting the Baíth Chapter 16: IraqóThe Rise and Fall of Saddam Hussein The Boy from Tikrit At War with Iran At War with the World Suppression, Sanctions, and Suffering Between Iraq and a Hard Place Chapter 17: IranóThe Shiíite State Dynasties and Divisions America and the Shah Seeds of Revolt Khomeiniís Student Revolution Ayatollahs and Politics Winds of Change Chapter 18: TurkeyóModern and Democratic Young Turk Takeover From the Ashes of Empire Atat¸rkís Radical Reforms Kemalist Clergy Internal StruggleóEast or West? One Nation Looking Forward Chapter 19: Tackling the Tough Issues Understanding Shame/Honor Societies Is Islam a Violent Religion? Islamic Revivalism and Militancy Between Frustration and Aggression Clashing Civilizations or Civilized Collaboration? Chapter 20: Whereís the Peace? Border Disputes Ethnic Divisions and Religious Differences Ideological Differences and Political Agendas Historical Memory Your Place in this World Appendix A: Timeline: Prehistory to the Present Appendix B: Further Reading and Resources
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Middle East