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Foreword Preface Part One PARTIES AND PARTY SYSTEMS 1 CHAPTER 1 In Search of the Political Parties 5 A Three-Part Definition of Parties The Party Organization The Party in Government The Party in the Electorate What Parties Do Electing Candidates Educating (or Propagandizing) Citizens Governing The Results Of Party Activity The Special Characteristics Of Political Parties Parties are Paramount in Elections They Have a Full-time Commitment to Political Activity They Mobilize Large Numbers They Endure They Serve as Political Symbols How The American Parties Developed The Founding of American Parties The Emergence of a National Two-Party System The Golden Age of the Parties The Progressive Reforms and Beyond How Parties Are Shaped By Their Environment Voters and Elections Political Institutions Laws Governing Parties Political Culture The Nonpolitical Environment CHAPTER 2 The American Two-Party System The National Party System The Fifty State Party Systems Measuring State Party Competition Competitiveness and Candidate Success What Causes A Two-Party System? Institutional Theories "Dualist" Theories Social Consensus Theories Exceptions To The Two-Party Pattern Nonpartisan Elections Pockets of One-Party Monopoly Third Parties Differences in Scope of Ideological Commitment Difference of Origins Differing Tactics What Difference Do They Make? The Rise of Independent Candidates What Is The Future Of The American Two-Party System? The Decline of Minor Parties and the Rise of Independents Increasing Major-Party Competitiveness Part Two THE POLITICAL PARTY AS AN ORGANIZATION CHAPTER 3 The State and Local Party Organizations The Party Organizations In State Law State Regulations Levels of Party Organization The Elected Committeeman or Committeewoman Local Committees State Central Committees The Legendary Party Machines How the Party Machines Developed Could Political Machines Reappear? How Local Party Organizations Have Revitalized Local Parties in the 1970s The 1990s: More Money, More Activity The State Parties: Newfound Prosperity Traditional Weakness Increasing Strength in Recent Years Fund-Raising Campaign Services Republican Advantage Allied Groups The Special Case of the South National Party Money Summing Up: How The State And Local Party Organizations Have Transformed CHAPTER 4 The Parties' National Organizations National Party Committees And Officers The National Committees The Officers Committee Action and Presidential Power The Supporting Cast Of National Groups Special Constituency Groups The Party's Officeholders in the States Congressional Campaign Committees Two Paths To Power The Service Party Path The Democrats' Procedural-Reform Path What Is The Impact Of These Stronger National Parties? The Effects on State and Local Parties Effects on the Presidency Effects on Congress Relationships within the National Party The Limits Of Party Organization CHAPTER 5 The Political Party of the Activists What Draws People Into Party Activity? Material Incentives Patronage Elected Office Preferments Solidary (Social) Incentives Purposive (Issue-based) Incentives Mixed Incentives How Do Parties Recruit Activists? Finding Volunteers: Is Anybody Home? How Are Leaders Recruited? What Kinds Of People Become Party Activists? Common Characteristics Professionals and Amateurs Activists' Motives And The Vitality Of Party Organizations Party Workers and Organizational Strength Activists And Internal Party Democracy Limits on Strong Parties "Stratarchy" Rules Part Three THE POLITICAL PARTY IN THE ELECTORATE CHAPTER 6 Party Identification How People Develop Party Identifications Childhood Influences Influences in Adulthood The Stability Of Party Identifications Party Identification As A Filter For Political Views Projection and Persuasion Partisanship as a Two-Way Street Patterns Of Partisanship Over Time Has There Been a Decline in Partisanship? Party Identification And Voting Party Voting Party versus Candidates and Issues Party Identification and Political Activity Party Identification and Attitudes Toward the Parties Partisanship And Perot The Myth Of The Independent Attitudinal Independents Behavioral Independents Party Identification And Party Change A More Candidate-Centered Politics The Continuing Significance of Party CHAPTER 7 Party Support and Party Realignments Realignments: The Five American Party Systems The First Party System The Second Party System The Third Party System The Fourth Party System The Fifth Party System The Social Bases Of Party Coalitions Socioeconomic Status Divisions Sectional Divisions Religious Divisions Racial Divisions Ethnic Divisions Gender Divisions The Role Issues Play In The Parties' Coalitions Is There A Sixth Party System? Evidence of a Realignment Or Maybe Not Evidence of a Dealignment CHAPTER 8 Who Votes-and Why It Matters The Low Turnout In American Elections The Expanding Right To Vote National Protections for the Right to Vote Legal Barriers To Voting Citizenship Residence Registration The Special Case Of Voting Rights For American Blacks Systematic Denial of the Right to Vote The Long Struggle for Voting Rights The Growth of Black Registration in the South From Voting Rights to Representation Getting Blacks' Votes Counted Political Influences On Turnout The Excitement of the Election Close Competition The Representativeness of the Party System Organized Efforts to Mobilize Voters Turnout: Individual Differences Socioeconomic Status Youth Gender and Race Social Connectedness Personal Costs of Voting Political Attitudes The Puzzle Of Declining Voter Turnout Explaining the Decline Could Voter Participation Revive? Why Do These Changes In Turnout Matter? Long-Range Effects Short-Range Effects The Challenge To The Parties Part Four PARTIES, NOMINATIONS, AND ELECTIONS CHAPTER 9 How Parties Choose Candidates How The Nomination Process Evolved Nominations by Caucus Nominations by Convention Nominations by Direct Primaries The Current Mix Of Primaries And Conventions Types Of Primaries Closed Primaries Open Primaries Blanket Primaries Why Does The Type Of Primary Matter? How Candidates Qualify How Do Candidates Get On the Ballot? Runoffs: When Too Many Candidates Get on the Ballot What Parties Don't Like About Primaries The Risk of Unattractive Nominees Difficulties in Recruiting Candidates Divisive Primaries Problems in Holding Candidates Accountable The Party Organization Fights Back Persuading Candidates to Run (or Not to Run) Endorsing Candidates Providing Tangible Support Candidates And Voters In The Primaries Many Candidates Run Without Competition ...And Voters Are in Short Supply The Impact Of The Direct Primary Has It Made Elections More Democratic? How Badly Has It Harmed the Parties? Is the Primary Worth the Cost? CHAPTER 10 Choosing the Presidential Nominees What Sparked The Reforms? Turbulence in the Democratic Party Presidential Primaries Today Some Party Caucuses Remain The Race To Win Delegate Votes Candidates' Strategic Choices Win Early or Die What Is the Party's Role? Voters' Choices In Presidential Nominations Who Votes? Are Primary Voters Typical? Do Voters Make Informed Choices? Summing Up: Primary Versus Party Selection On To The National Conventions Roots of the Conventions What Conventions Do Approving the Platform Formalizing the Presidential Nomination Approving the Vice-Presidential Nominee Launching the Presidential Campaign Who Are The Delegates? Apportioning Delegate Slots Among the States How Representative Are the Delegates? Demographics Political Experience Issues and Ideology Amateurs or Professionals? Who Controls the Delegates? The Changing Role Of Media Coverage Do Conventions Still Have a Purpose? Should We Reform The Reforms? Pros and Cons of the Current System What Could Be Done? CHAPTER 11 The General Election Elections: The Rules Of The Game The Secret Ballot The Format of the Ballot Office-Bloc Ballots The Order of Candidates' Names The Long Ballot Voting Systems Single-Member District Election Calendars Election Districts Political Effects Of Election Law Who Benefits? Legislative Redistricting Partisan Redistricting through Malapportionment and Gerrymandering Federal Involvement in Redistricting Do Parties Still Gain from Gerrymandering? Campaign Strategy Campaigning In The New Millennium Professional Consultants Sources of Information Computers Polls Methods of Persuasion Television Direct Mail Internet and E-Mail The Old Standby: Negative Campaigning Effects on Presidential Campaigns Do Campaigns Make A Difference? The Argument that Campaigns Matter The Argument That They Don't Did September 11 Change American Campaigning? Some Tentative Answers The Parties' Role In Campaigns Adapting to New Realities The Continuing Struggle Between Candidates and Party Organizations CHAPTER 12 Financing the Campaigns How Big Has The Money Become? Presidential Campaigns Congressional Campaigns Who Spends The Campaign Money? Presidential Campaigns Congressional Campaigns State and Local Campaigns What Is The Impact Of Campaign Spending? Where Does The Money Come From? Individual Contributors Political Action Committees Party Organizations The Candidates Themselves Public Funding Money In State And Local Campaigns Reform Of The Campaign Finance Rules Contribution Limits Spending Limits Public Disclosure Public Funding of Presidential Campaigns The Loopholes That Ate The Reforms Independent Spending Soft Money Issue Advocacy Ads "527" Groups What Have The Reforms Accomplished? Intended and Unintended Effects Effects on the Parties State Regulation and Financing Continuing Efforts at Reform Money In Politics, American Style PART FIVE THE PARTY IN GOVERNMENT CHAPTER 13 Parties in Congress and State Legislatures How The Legislative Parties Are Organized Party Organization in Congress Changes in House Party Leaders' Power The Revolt Against "Czar" Cannon Growing Party Coordination Policy Leadership The Gingrich Revolution ... and Its Aftermath Parties in the "Individualist Senate" Parties in the State Legislatures The Uses Of Party Influence Carrots and Sticks Party Influence On Legislative Voting How Unified Is Each Legislative Party? Party Votes Party Cohesion When Are the Parties Most Unified? On Issues That Touch the Interests of the Legislative Parties On the Executive's Proposals On Policies Central to the Party System Other Sources of Unified Parties The Limits On Party Power When Constituency Interferes with Party Unity Comparing Party Power in Congress and State Legislatures Greater Political Homogeneity No Competing Centers of Power Stronger Party Organization Lesser Legislative Professionalism Legislative Parties: Fighting For Power CHAPTER 14 The Party in the Executive and the Courts Presidents And Governors As Party Leaders Party Leader as Representative of the Whole Constituency Party Leader as Organizational Leader Party Leader as Electoral Leader Coattail Effects Coattails Even without the Coat A Broader Perspective on Electoral Influence Limits on Presidential Leadership The Executive-Centered Party Party Leadership And Legislative Relations How Executives Try to Influence Legislatures Legislative Support for Executives Divided Control of Government Party Influence In Executive Agencies Bureaucrats Have Constituents Too Holding Bureaucrats Accountable Changing Political Outlooks in the Federal Bureaucracy Traces of Party in The Courts Judicial Voting along Party Lines What Causes Partisan Behavior on the Courts? Party Considerations in Judicial Appointments Federal Judges State Court Judges2 The Party Within The Executive And The Judge CHAPTER 15 The Semi-Responsible Parties The Case For Responsible Party Government How Would Party Government (Responsible Parties) Work? The Case Against Party Government 297 It Would Increase Conflict It Wouldn't Work in American Politics Divided Government The Gingrich Experiment: A Temporarily Responsible Party Semi-Responsible Parties: Party Cohesion And Ideology Are The American Parties Ideological? Do They At Least Offer Clear Choices? But Internal Variations Remain Ideology And The American Voter How Ideological Is the American Public? The Dilemma of Ideology Differences by Social Class Differences among Activists, Candidates, and Voters When Is Party Government Most Likely? When There Is Strong Presidential Leadership In Times of Crisis During Party Realignments Party Government And Popular Control CHAPTER 16 The Place of Parties in American Politics 312 Parties And Their Environment The Nature of the Electorate Political Institutions and Rules Societal Forces Party Decay in the 1960s and 1970s The Parties in the Electorate Party Organizations The Party in Government Shifting Power Centers in the Three-part Party Party Renewal Change in the Parties' Electoral Coalitions The Rise of More Cohesive Parties in Government The New "Service" Parties The Future Of Party Politics In America A Changing Intermediary Role Domination by the Party in Government The Need for Strong Parties How to Make the Parties Stronger Conclusion: The Party Dilemma Party Politics on the Internet Endnotes Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Political parties United States