Table of contents for Party politics in America / Marjorie Randon Hershey.


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Foreword 
Preface
Part One	PARTIES AND PARTY SYSTEMS 1
CHAPTER 1	In Search of the Political Parties 5
A Three-Part Definition of Parties 
The Party Organization 
The Party in Government 
The Party in the Electorate 
What Parties Do 
Electing Candidates 
Educating (or Propagandizing) Citizens 
Governing 
The Results Of Party Activity 
The Special Characteristics Of Political Parties 
Parties are Paramount in Elections 
They Have a Full-time Commitment to Political Activity 
They Mobilize Large Numbers 
They Endure 
They Serve as Political Symbols 
How The American Parties Developed 
The Founding of American Parties 
The Emergence of a National Two-Party System
The Golden Age of the Parties
The Progressive Reforms and Beyond
How Parties Are Shaped By Their Environment
Voters and Elections
Political Institutions
Laws Governing Parties
Political Culture
The Nonpolitical Environment
CHAPTER 2	The American Two-Party System
The National Party System
The Fifty State Party Systems
Measuring State Party Competition
Competitiveness and Candidate Success
What Causes A Two-Party System?
Institutional Theories
"Dualist" Theories
Social Consensus Theories
Exceptions To The Two-Party Pattern
Nonpartisan Elections
Pockets of One-Party Monopoly
Third Parties
Differences in Scope of Ideological Commitment
Difference of Origins
Differing Tactics
What Difference Do They Make?
The Rise of Independent Candidates
What Is The Future Of The American Two-Party System?
The Decline of Minor Parties and the Rise of Independents
Increasing Major-Party Competitiveness
Part Two	THE POLITICAL PARTY AS AN ORGANIZATION
CHAPTER 3	The State and Local Party Organizations
The Party Organizations In State Law
State Regulations
Levels of Party Organization
The Elected Committeeman or Committeewoman
Local Committees
State Central Committees
The Legendary Party Machines
How the Party Machines Developed
Could Political Machines Reappear?
How Local Party Organizations Have Revitalized
Local Parties in the 1970s
The 1990s: More Money, More Activity
The State Parties: Newfound Prosperity
Traditional Weakness
Increasing Strength in Recent Years
Fund-Raising
Campaign Services
Republican Advantage
Allied Groups
The Special Case of the South
National Party Money
Summing Up: How The State And Local Party Organizations Have Transformed
CHAPTER 4	The Parties' National Organizations
National Party Committees And Officers
The National Committees
The Officers
Committee Action and Presidential Power
The Supporting Cast Of National Groups
Special Constituency Groups
The Party's Officeholders in the States
Congressional Campaign Committees
Two Paths To Power
The Service Party Path
The Democrats' Procedural-Reform Path
What Is The Impact Of These Stronger National Parties?
The Effects on State and Local Parties
Effects on the Presidency
Effects on Congress
Relationships within the National Party
The Limits Of Party Organization
CHAPTER 5	The Political Party of the Activists
What Draws People Into Party Activity?
Material Incentives
Patronage
Elected Office
Preferments
Solidary (Social) Incentives
Purposive (Issue-based) Incentives
Mixed Incentives
How Do Parties Recruit Activists?
Finding Volunteers: Is Anybody Home?
How Are Leaders Recruited?
What Kinds Of People Become Party Activists?
Common Characteristics
Professionals and Amateurs
Activists' Motives And The Vitality Of Party Organizations
Party Workers and Organizational Strength
Activists And Internal Party Democracy
Limits on Strong Parties
"Stratarchy" Rules
Part Three	THE POLITICAL PARTY IN THE ELECTORATE
CHAPTER 6	Party Identification
How People Develop Party Identifications
Childhood Influences
Influences in Adulthood
The Stability Of Party Identifications
Party Identification As A Filter For Political Views
Projection and Persuasion
Partisanship as a Two-Way Street
Patterns Of Partisanship Over Time
Has There Been a Decline in Partisanship?
Party Identification And Voting
Party Voting
Party versus Candidates and Issues
Party Identification and Political Activity
Party Identification and Attitudes Toward the Parties
Partisanship And Perot
The Myth Of The Independent
Attitudinal Independents
Behavioral Independents
Party Identification And Party Change
A More Candidate-Centered Politics
The Continuing Significance of Party
CHAPTER 7	Party Support and Party Realignments
Realignments: The Five American Party Systems
The First Party System
The Second Party System
The Third Party System
The Fourth Party System
The Fifth Party System
The Social Bases Of Party Coalitions
Socioeconomic Status Divisions
Sectional Divisions
Religious Divisions
Racial Divisions
Ethnic Divisions
Gender Divisions
The Role Issues Play In The Parties' Coalitions
Is There A Sixth Party System?
Evidence of a Realignment
Or Maybe Not
Evidence of a Dealignment
CHAPTER 8	Who Votes-and Why It Matters
The Low Turnout In American Elections
The Expanding Right To Vote
National Protections for the Right to Vote
Legal Barriers To Voting
Citizenship
Residence
Registration
The Special Case Of Voting Rights For American Blacks
Systematic Denial of the Right to Vote
The Long Struggle for Voting Rights
The Growth of Black Registration in the South
From Voting Rights to Representation
Getting Blacks' Votes Counted
Political Influences On Turnout
The Excitement of the Election
Close Competition
The Representativeness of the Party System
Organized Efforts to Mobilize Voters
Turnout: Individual Differences
Socioeconomic Status
Youth
Gender and Race
Social Connectedness
Personal Costs of Voting
Political Attitudes
The Puzzle Of Declining Voter Turnout
Explaining the Decline
Could Voter Participation Revive?
Why Do These Changes In Turnout Matter?
Long-Range Effects
Short-Range Effects
The Challenge To The Parties
Part Four	PARTIES, NOMINATIONS, AND ELECTIONS
CHAPTER 9	How Parties Choose Candidates
How The Nomination Process Evolved
Nominations by Caucus
Nominations by Convention
Nominations by Direct Primaries
The Current Mix Of Primaries And Conventions
Types Of Primaries
Closed Primaries
Open Primaries
Blanket Primaries
Why Does The Type Of Primary Matter?
How Candidates Qualify
How Do Candidates Get On the Ballot?
Runoffs: When Too Many Candidates Get on the Ballot
What Parties Don't Like About Primaries
The Risk of Unattractive Nominees
Difficulties in Recruiting Candidates
Divisive Primaries
Problems in Holding Candidates Accountable
The Party Organization Fights Back
Persuading Candidates to Run (or Not to Run)
Endorsing Candidates
Providing Tangible Support
Candidates And Voters In The Primaries
Many Candidates Run Without Competition
...And Voters Are in Short Supply
The Impact Of The Direct Primary
Has It Made Elections More Democratic?
How Badly Has It Harmed the Parties?
Is the Primary Worth the Cost?
CHAPTER 10	Choosing the Presidential Nominees
What Sparked The Reforms?
Turbulence in the Democratic Party
Presidential Primaries Today
Some Party Caucuses Remain
The Race To Win Delegate Votes
Candidates' Strategic Choices
Win Early or Die
What Is the Party's Role?
Voters' Choices In Presidential Nominations
Who Votes?
Are Primary Voters Typical?
Do Voters Make Informed Choices?
Summing Up: Primary Versus Party Selection
On To The National Conventions
Roots of the Conventions
What Conventions Do
Approving the Platform
Formalizing the Presidential Nomination
Approving the Vice-Presidential Nominee
Launching the Presidential Campaign
Who Are The Delegates?
Apportioning Delegate Slots Among the States
How Representative Are the Delegates?
Demographics
Political Experience
Issues and Ideology
Amateurs or Professionals?
Who Controls the Delegates?
The Changing Role Of Media Coverage
Do Conventions Still Have a Purpose?
Should We Reform The Reforms?
Pros and Cons of the Current System
What Could Be Done?
CHAPTER 11	The General Election
Elections: The Rules Of The Game
The Secret Ballot
The Format of the Ballot
Office-Bloc Ballots
The Order of Candidates' Names
The Long Ballot
Voting Systems
Single-Member District
Election Calendars
Election Districts
Political Effects Of Election Law
Who Benefits?
Legislative Redistricting
Partisan Redistricting through Malapportionment and Gerrymandering
Federal Involvement in Redistricting
Do Parties Still Gain from Gerrymandering?
Campaign Strategy
Campaigning In The New Millennium
Professional Consultants
Sources of Information
Computers
Polls
Methods of Persuasion
Television
Direct Mail
Internet and E-Mail
The Old Standby: Negative Campaigning
Effects on Presidential Campaigns
Do Campaigns Make A Difference?
The Argument that Campaigns Matter
The Argument That They Don't
Did September 11 Change American Campaigning?
Some Tentative Answers
The Parties' Role In Campaigns
Adapting to New Realities
The Continuing Struggle Between Candidates and Party Organizations
CHAPTER 12	Financing the Campaigns
How Big Has The Money Become?
Presidential Campaigns
Congressional Campaigns
Who Spends The Campaign Money?
Presidential Campaigns
Congressional Campaigns
State and Local Campaigns
What Is The Impact Of Campaign Spending?
Where Does The Money Come From?
Individual Contributors
Political Action Committees
Party Organizations
The Candidates Themselves
Public Funding
Money In State And Local Campaigns
Reform Of The Campaign Finance Rules
Contribution Limits
Spending Limits
Public Disclosure
Public Funding of Presidential Campaigns
The Loopholes That Ate The Reforms
Independent Spending
Soft Money
Issue Advocacy Ads
"527" Groups
What Have The Reforms Accomplished?
Intended and Unintended Effects
Effects on the Parties
State Regulation and Financing
Continuing Efforts at Reform
Money In Politics, American Style
PART FIVE	THE PARTY IN GOVERNMENT
CHAPTER 13	Parties in Congress and State Legislatures
How The Legislative Parties Are Organized
Party Organization in Congress
Changes in House Party Leaders' Power
The Revolt Against "Czar" Cannon
Growing Party Coordination
Policy Leadership
The Gingrich Revolution ... and Its Aftermath
Parties in the "Individualist Senate"
Parties in the State Legislatures
The Uses Of Party Influence
Carrots and Sticks
Party Influence On Legislative Voting
How Unified Is Each Legislative Party?
Party Votes
Party Cohesion
When Are the Parties Most Unified?
On Issues That Touch the Interests of the Legislative Parties
On the Executive's Proposals
On Policies Central to the Party System
Other Sources of Unified Parties
The Limits On Party Power
When Constituency Interferes with Party Unity
Comparing Party Power in Congress and State Legislatures
Greater Political Homogeneity
No Competing Centers of Power
Stronger Party Organization
Lesser Legislative Professionalism
Legislative Parties: Fighting For Power
CHAPTER 14	The Party in the Executive and the Courts
Presidents And Governors As Party Leaders
Party Leader as Representative of the Whole Constituency
Party Leader as Organizational Leader
Party Leader as Electoral Leader
Coattail Effects
Coattails Even without the Coat
A Broader Perspective on Electoral Influence
Limits on Presidential Leadership
The Executive-Centered Party
Party Leadership And Legislative Relations
How Executives Try to Influence Legislatures
Legislative Support for Executives
Divided Control of Government
Party Influence In Executive Agencies
Bureaucrats Have Constituents Too
Holding Bureaucrats Accountable
Changing Political Outlooks in the Federal Bureaucracy
Traces of Party in The Courts
Judicial Voting along Party Lines
What Causes Partisan Behavior on the Courts?
Party Considerations in Judicial Appointments
Federal Judges
State Court Judges2
The Party Within The Executive And The Judge
CHAPTER 15	The Semi-Responsible Parties
The Case For Responsible Party Government
How Would Party Government (Responsible Parties) Work?
The Case Against Party Government 297
It Would Increase Conflict
It Wouldn't Work in American Politics
Divided Government
The Gingrich Experiment: A Temporarily Responsible Party
Semi-Responsible Parties: Party Cohesion And Ideology
Are The American Parties Ideological?
Do They At Least Offer Clear Choices?
But Internal Variations Remain
Ideology And The American Voter
How Ideological Is the American Public?
The Dilemma of Ideology
Differences by Social Class
Differences among Activists, Candidates, and Voters
When Is Party Government Most Likely?
When There Is Strong Presidential Leadership
In Times of Crisis
During Party Realignments
Party Government And Popular Control
CHAPTER 16	The Place of Parties in American Politics 312
Parties And Their Environment
The Nature of the Electorate
Political Institutions and Rules
Societal Forces
Party Decay in the 1960s and 1970s
The Parties in the Electorate
Party Organizations
The Party in Government
Shifting Power Centers in the Three-part Party
Party Renewal
Change in the Parties' Electoral Coalitions
The Rise of More Cohesive Parties in Government
The New "Service" Parties
The Future Of Party Politics In America
A Changing Intermediary Role
Domination by the Party in Government
The Need for Strong Parties
How to Make the Parties Stronger
Conclusion: The Party Dilemma
Party Politics on the Internet
Endnotes
Index




Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Political parties United States