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Table of contents A. Introduction 7 PART I. SOME DEBATES OF RELEVANCE TO THE DEVELOPMENT PRACTITIONER 15 CHAPTER 1. BACKGROUND 17 (A) The Big Picture 17 (A) The human rights debates 24 CHAPTER 2. THE LEGAL CHALLENGES 29 (A) The Charge of Euro-centrism 29 (B) The legal solution 34 (B) Weak Cultural Relativism 37 (B) The Affirmative Position 39 (B) The Empiricist Strategy 41 (B) The Philosophical Approach 43 (B) Incremental Change 46 (B) Conclusion 51 (B) Relevance of this Overview for the Development Community 52 (A) The Contested Nature of Second and Third generation Rights 61 (B) Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Mere Aspirations? 61 (B) The right to development 66 PART II. HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE PRACTICE OF DEVELOPMENT 71 CHAPTER 3. THE BASICS 73 (A) Rhetorical Incorporation 78 CHAPTER 4. POLITICAL CONDITIONALITY 85 (A) History of conditionality 86 (A) Difficulties 89 (A) Beyond aid conditionality 104 (B) Improved Conditionality 105 (B) Selectivity 105 (B) CDF and PRSP 108 (A) Conclusion 114 CHAPTER 5. POSITIVE SUPPORT 123 (A) The practice of positive support 126 (B) From Human Rights to Democracy to Elections 128 (A) The Tools of Positive Support 131 (B) Democratization is non-linear, unpredictable, and sometimes reversible 140 Democratization is not a matter of transplanting Western institutions 143 (B) Civil society support 145 (A) Does positive support (if not all aid) undermine governance by definition? 160 (A) Conclusion 172 (A) Post-Script: The issue of coherence 174 CHAPTER 6. A RIGHTS-BASED APPROACH TO DEVELOPMENT 179 (A) Vision 189 (B) A rights-based approach as a Framework for Analysis 189 (B) Accountability 191 (B) Human rights is a political matter 196 (A) Process 200 (A) Some Practical Implications of a Rights-Based Approach to Development 203 (B) Investing in the Human Rights Law Machinery 203 (B) Capacity Building 206 (B) Advocacy 210 (B) The Violations Approach 214 (B) The Inwards Look. 225 (B) Rule of Law 227 (B) Re-conceptualization of the overall aims of development agencies 235 (B) Choice of New Partners 238 (A) Conclusion 243 CHAPTER 7: FINAL SYNTHESIS AND QUESTIONS 245 (A) A Synthesis of the Arguments 246 (B) Rhetorical Repackaging 247 (B) Conditionality 248 (B) Positive support 253 (B) The rights-based approach to development 257 (A) A Step Back: Big Trends and Questions 262 (A) Choices Among Rights 271 (B) Denial 274 (B) Some Legal Exceptions 275 (B) Empirical reasoning: the priority of economic growth 278 (B) Theoretical Reasoning: Basic Rights 283 (B) Participatory methods 285 (A) A Fear: Is this Agenda too Interventionist? 286 BIBLIOGRAPHY 297
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Human rights, Economic development, Human rights Developing countries