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References and Suggested Reading 917 Problems 918 PART IV _ APPENDIXES APPENDIX 1 _ PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (SI UNITS) 929 Table A-1 Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and Critical-Point Properties 930 Table A-2 Ideal-Gas Specific Heats of Various Common Gases 931 Table A-3 Properties of Common Liquids, Solids, and Foods 934 Table A-4 Saturated Water-Temperature Table 936 Table A-5 Saturated Water-Pressure Table 938 Table A-6 Superheated Water 940 Table A-7 Compressed Liquid Water 944 Table A-8 Saturated Ice-Water Vapor 945 Figure A-9 T-s Diagram for Water 946 Figure A-10 Mollier Diagram for Water 947 Table A-11 Saturated Refrigerant-134a¥Temperature Table 948 Table A-12 Saturated Refrigerant-134a¥Pressure Table 949 Table A-13 Superheated Refrigerant-134a 950 Figure A-14 P-h Diagram for Refrigerant-134a 952 Table A-15 Properties of Saturated Water 953 Table A-16 Properties of Liquids 955 Table A-17 Ideal-Gas Properties of Air 956 Table A-18 Properties of Gases at 1 atm Pressure 958 Table A-19 Properties of Solid Metals 962 Table A-20 Properties of Solid Nonmetals 965 Table A-21 Properties of Building Materials 966 Table A-22 Properties of Insulating Materials 968 Table A-23 Properties of Miscellaneous Materials 969 Table A-24 Emissivities of Surfaces 970 Table A-25 Solar Radiative Properties of Materials 972 Table A-26 Properties of the Atmosphere at High Altitude 973 Figure A-27 The Moody Chart for the Friction Factor for Fully Developed Flow in Circular Tubes 974 APPENDIX 2 _ PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS (ENGLISH UNITS) 975 Table A-1E Molar Mass, Gas Constant, and Critical-Point Properties 976 Table A-2E Ideal-Gas Specific Heats of Various Common Gases 977 Table A-3E Properties of Common Liquids, Solids, and Foods 980 Table A-4E Saturated Water-Temperature Table 982 Table A-5E Saturated Water-Pressure Table 983 Table A-6E Superheated Water 985 Table A-7E Compressed Liquid Water 989 Table A-8E Saturated Ice-Water Vapor 990 Figure A-9E T-s Diagram for Water 991 Figure A-10E Mollier Diagram for Water 992 Table A-11E Saturated Refrigerant-134a¥Temperature Table 993 Table A-12E Saturated Refrigerant-134a¥Pressure Table 994 Table A-13E Superheated Refrigerant-134a 995 Figure A-14E P-h Diagram for Refrigerant-134a 997 Table A-15E Properties of Saturated Water 998 Table A-16E Properties of Liquids 1000 Table A-17E Ideal-Gas Properties of Air 1001 Table A-18E Properties of Gases at 1 atm Pressure 1003 Table A-19E Properties of Solid Metals 1005 Table A-20E Properties of Solid Nonmetals 1008 Table A-21E Properties of Building Materials 1009 Table A-22E Properties of Insulating Materials 1011 Table A-23E Properties of Miscellaneous Materials 1012 Table A-26E Properties of the Atmosphere at High Altitude 1013 APPENDIX 3 _ INTRODUCTION TO EES 1015 INDEX 1027 APPLICATIONS CHAPTERS AVAILABLE ON THE WEB: http://www.mcgraw-hill.com/cengel 21 _ HEATING AND COOLING OF BUILDINGS 21-1 A Brief History 21-2 Human Body and Thermal Comfort 21-3 Heat Transfer from Human Body 21-4 Design Conditions for Heating and Cooling 21-5 Heat Gain from People, Lights, and Appliances 21-6 Heat Transfer Through Walls and Roofs 21-7 Heat Transfer Through Basement Walls and Floors 21-8 Heat Transfer Through Windows 21-9 Solar Heat Gain Through Windows 21-10 Infiltration Heat Load and Weatherizing 21-11 Annual Energy Consumption 21-12 Summary References and Suggested Reading Problems 22 _ COOLING OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT 22-1 Introduction and History 22-2 Manufacturing of Electronic Equipment 22-3 Cooling Load of Electronic Equipment 22-4 Thermal Environment 22-5 Electronics Cooling in Different Applications 22-6 Conduction Cooling 22-7 Air Cooling: Natural Convection and Radiation 22-8 Air Cooling: Forced Convection 22-9 Liquid Cooling 22-10 Immersion Cooling 22-11 Heat Pipes 22-12 Summary References and Suggested Reading Problems Table of Examples CHAPTER 1 _ INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW 1 Example 1-1 Spotting Errors from Unit Inconsistencies 12 Example 1-2 Obtaining Formulas from Unit Considerations 12 Example 1-3 Water Flow through a Garden Hose 24 Example 1-4 Discharge of Water from a Tank 25 CHAPTER 2 _ BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS 35 Example 2-1 A Car Powered by Nuclear Fuel 42 Example 2-2 Expressing Temperature Rise in Different Units 45 Example 2-3 Absolute Pressure of a Vacuum Chamber 47 Example 2-4 Measuring Pressure with a Manometer 52 Example 2-5 Measuring Pressure with a Multi-Fluid Manometer 53 Example 2-6 Measuring Atmospheric Pressure with a Barometer 55 Example 2-7 Effect of Piston Weight on Pressure in a Cylinder 56 CHAPTER 3 _ PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES 69 Example 3-1 Temperature Drop of a Lake Due to Evaporation 85 Example 3-2 Finding the Pressure of Saturated Liquid 88 Example 3-3 Finding the Temperature of Saturated Vapor 88 Example 3-4 The Volume and Energy Change during Evaporation 89 Example 3-5 The Pressure and Volume of a Saturated Mixture 91 Example 3-6 The Properties of a Saturated Liquid-Vapor Mixture 91 Example 3-7 Finding the Internal Energy of Superheated Vapor 92 Example 3-8 Finding the Temperature of Superheated Vapor 93 Example 3-9 Approximating Compressed Liquid as Saturated Liquid 94 Example 3-10 The Use of Steam Tables to Determine Properties 94 Example 3-11 Finding the Mass of an Ideal Gas 98 Example 3-12 Different Methods of Evaluating Gas Pressure 103 Example 3-13 Evaluation of the _U of an Ideal Gas 110 Example 3-14 Enthalpy of Compressed Liquid 112 CHAPTER 4 _ ENERGY TRANSFER BY HEAT, WORK, AND MASS 127 Example 4-1 Burning of a Candle in an Insulated Room 131 Example 4-2 Heating of a Potato in an Oven 131 Example 4-3 Heating of an Oven by Work Transfer 131 Example 4-4 Heating of an Oven by Heat Transfer 131 Example 4-5 Boundary Work during a Constant-Volume Process 135 Example 4-6 Boundary Work during a Constant-Pressure Process 135 Example 4-7 Boundary Work during an Isothermal Process 136 Example 4-8 Power Transmission by the Shaft of a Car 138 Example 4-9 Expansion of a Gas against a Spring 139 Example 4-10 Power Needs of a Car to Climb a Hill 141 Example 4-11 Power Needs of a Car to Accelerate 141 Example 4-12 Energy Transport by Mass 144 CHAPTER 5 _ THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 153 Example 5-1 Cooling of a Hot Fluid in a Tank 159 Example 5-2 Electric Heating of a Gas at Constant Pressure 159 Example 5-3 Unrestrained Expansion of Water into an Evacuated Tank 161 Example 5-4 Heating of a Gas in a Tank by Stirring 162 Example 5-5 Heating of a Gas by a Resistance Heater 163 Example 5-6 Heating of a Gas at Constant Pressure 164 Example 5-7 Cooling of an Iron Block by Water 166 Example 5-8 Temperature Rise due to Slapping 167 Example 5-9 Cooling of Bananas in a Cold Storage Room 167 Example 5-10 Freezing of Chicken in a Box 168 Example 5-11 Deceleration of Air in a Diffuser 174 Example 5-12 Acceleration of Steam in a Nozzle 175 Example 5-13 Compressing Air by a Compressor 177 Example 5-14 Power Generation by a Steam Turbine 177 Example 5-15 Expansion of Refrigerant-134a in a Refrigerator 179 Example 5-16 Mixing of Hot and Cold Waters in a Shower 180 Example 5-17 Cooling of Refrigerant-134a by Water 182 Example 5-18 Electric Heating of Air in a House 184 Example 5-19 Charging of a Rigid Tank by Steam 187 Example 5-20 Cooking with a Pressure Cooker 188 CHAPTER 6 _ THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 217 Example 6-1 Net Power Production of a Heat Engine 223 Example 6-2 Fuel Consumption Rate of a Car 224 Example 6-3 Cost of Cooking with Electric and Gas Ranges 228 Example 6-4 Heat Rejection by a Refrigerator 232 Example 6-5 Heating a House by a Heat Pump 233 Example 6-6 Analysis of a Carnot Heat Engine 247 Example 6-7 A Questionable Claim for a Refrigerator 250 Example 6-8 Heating a House by a Carnot Heat Pump 251 Example 6-9 Malfunction of a Refrigerator Light Switch 255 CHAPTER 7 _ ENTROPY 277 Example 7-1 Entropy Change during an Isothermal Process 281 Example 7-2 Entropy Generation during Heat Transfer Processes 283 Example 7-3 Entropy Change of a Substance in a Tank 285 Example 7-4 Entropy Change during a Constant Pressure Process 287 Example 7-5 Isentropic Expansion of Steam in a Turbine 288 Example 7-6 The T-S Diagram of the Carnot Cycle 290 Example 7-7 Effect of Density of a Liquid on Entropy 296 Example 7-8 Economics of Replacing a Valve by a Turbine 297 Example 7-9 Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas 301 Example 7-10 Isentropic Compression of Air in a Car Engine 304 Example 7-11 Isentropic Compression of an Ideal Gas 305 Example 7-12 Compressing a Substance in the Liquid vs. Gas Phases 307 Example 7-13 Work Input for Various Compression Processes 311 Example 7-14 Isentropic Efficiency of a Steam Turbine 314 Example 7-15 Effect of Efficiency on Compressor Power Input 316 Example 7-16 Effect of Efficiency on Nozzle Exit Velocity 318 CHAPTER 8 _ POWER AND REFRIGERATION CYCLES 335 Example 8-1 Derivation of the Efficiency of the Carnot Cycle 339 Example 8-2 The Ideal Otto Cycle 345 Example 8-3 The Ideal Diesel Cycle 349 Example 8-4 The Simple Ideal Brayton Cycle 355 Example 8-5 An Actual Gas-Turbine Cycle 356 Example 8-6 Actual Gas-Turbine Cycle with Regeneration 358 Example 8-7 The Simple Ideal Rankine Cycle 363 Example 8-8 An Actual Steam Power Cycle 365 Example 8-9 Effect of Boiler Pressure and Temperature on Efficiency 368 Example 8-10 The Ideal Reheat Rankine Cycle 372 Example 8-11 The Ideal Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle 379 Example 8-12 The Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle 381 CHAPTER 9 _ INTRODUCTION TO FLUID MECHANICS 411 Example 9-1 Determining the Viscosity of a Fluid 417 Example 9-2 The Capillary Rise of Water in a Tube 422 CHAPTER 10 _ FLUID STATICS 427 Example 10-1 Hydrostatic Force Acting on the Door of a Submerged Car 433 Example 10-2 A Gravity-Controlled Cylindrical Gate 436 Example 10-3 Measuring Specific Gravity by a Hydrometer 439 Example 10-4 Weight Loss of an Object in Seawater 440 CHAPTER 11 _ BERNOULLI, ENERGY, AND MOMENTUM EQUATIONS 449 Example 11-1 Performance of a Hydraulic Turbine-Generator 452 Example 11-2 Conservation of Energy for an Oscillating Steel Ball 453 Example 11-3 Spraying Water into the Air 462 Example 11-4 Water Discharge from a Large Tank 463 Example 11-5 Siphoning out Gasoline from a Fuel Tank 463 Example 11-6 Velocity Measurement by a Pitot Tube 465 Example 11-7 The Rise of the Ocean Due to Hurricanes 465 Example 11-8 Bernoulli Equation for Compressible Flow 467 Example 11-9 Effect of Friction on Fluid Temperature and Head Loss 471 Example 11-10 Pumping Power and Frictional Heating in a Pump 472 Example 11-11 Hydroelectric Power Generation from a Dam 473 Example 11-12 Fan Selection for Air Cooling of a Computer 473 Example 11-13 Head and Power Loss during Water Pumping 475 Example 11-14 The Force to Hold a Deflector Elbow in Place 484 Example 11-15 The Force to Hold a Reversing Elbow in Place 486 Example 11-16 Water Jet Striking a Stationary Plate 486 Example 11-17 Power Generation and Wind Loading of a Wind Turbine 487 Example 11-18 Repositioning of a Satellite 490 CHAPTER 12 _ FLOW IN PIPES 509 Example 12-1 Flow Rates in Horizontal and Inclined Pipes 518 Example 12-2 Pressure Drop and Head Loss in a Pipe 519 Example 12-3 Determining the Head Loss in a Water Pipe 524 Example 12-4 Determining the Diameter of an Air Duct 525 Example 12-5 Head Loss and Pressure Rise during Gradual Expansion 531 Example 12-6 Pumping Water through Two Parallel Pipes 535 Example 12-7 Gravity-Driven Water Flow in a Pipe 537 CHAPTER 13 _ FLOW OVER BODIES: DRAG AND LIFT 553 Example 13-1 Measuring the Drag Coefficient of a Car 559 Example 13-2 Effect of Mirror Design on the Fuel Consumption of a Car 569 Example 13-3 Flow of Hot Oil over a Flat Plate 574 Example 13-4 Drag Force Acting on a Pipe in a River 578 Example 13-5 Lift and Drag of a Commercial Airplane 586 Example 13-6 Effect of Spin on a Tennis Ball 587 CHAPTER 14 _ MECHANISMS OF HEAT TRANSFER 603 Example 14-1 The Cost of Heat Loss through the Roof 605 Example 14-2 Measuring the Thermal Conductivity of a Material 609 Example 14-3 Conversion between SI and English Units 610 Example 14-4 Measuring Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient 612 Example 14-5 Radiation Effect on Thermal Comfort 615 Example 14-6 Heat Loss from a Person 616 Example 14-7 Heat Transfer between Two Isothermal Plates 617 Example 14-8 Heat Transfer in Conventional and Microwave Ovens 618 Example 14-9 Heating of a Plate by Solar Energy 619 CHAPTER 15 _ STEADY HEAT CONDUCTION 629 Example 15-1 Heat Loss through a Wall 636 Example 15-2 Heat Loss through a Single-Pane Window 637 Example 15-3 Heat Loss through Double-Pane Windows 638 Example 15-4 Equivalent Thickness for Contact Resistance 641 Example 15-5 Contact Resistance of Transistors 642 Example 15-6 Heat Loss through a Composite Wall 644 Example 15-7 Heat Transfer to a Spherical Container 649 Example 15-8 Heat Loss through an Insulated Steam Pipe 651 Example 15-9 Heat Loss from an Insulated Electric Wire 654 Example 15-10 Effect of Insulation on Surface Temperature 661 Example 15-11 Optimum Thickness of Insulation 662 Example 15-12 Maximum Power Dissipation of a Transistor 674 Example 15-13 Selecting a Heat Sink for a Transistor 676 Example 15-14 Effect of Fins on Heat Transfer from Steam Pipes 676 Example 15-15 Cost of Heat Loss through Walls in Winter 677 CHAPTER 16 _ TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION 699 Example 16-1 Temperature Measurement by Thermocouples 704 Example 16-2 Predicting the Time of Death 704 Example 16-3 Boiling Eggs 712 Example 16-4 Heating of Large Brass Plates in an Oven 713 Example 16-5 Cooling of a Long Stainless Steel Cylindrical Shaft 714 Example 16-6 Minimum Burial Depth of Water Pipes to Avoid Freezing 718 Example 16-7 Cooling of a Short Brass Cylinder 722 Example 16-8 Heat Transfer from a Short Cylinder 723 Example 16-9 Cooling of a Long Cylinder by Water 724 Example 16-10 Refrigerating Steaks while Avoiding Frostbite 725 CHAPTER 17 _ FORCED CONVECTION 741 Example 17-1 Flow of Hot Oil over a Flat Plate 748 Example 17-2 Cooling of a Hot Block by Forced Air at High Elevation 748 Example 17-3 Cooling of Plastic Sheets by Forced Air 750 Example 17-4 Heat Loss from a Steam Pipe in Windy Air 752 Example 17-5 Cooling of a Steel Ball by Forced Air 754 Example 17-6 Heating of Water by Resistance Heaters in a Tube 763 Example 17-7 Heat Loss from the Ducts of a Heating System in the Attic 764 Example 17-8 Flow of Oil in a Pipeline through the Icy Waters of a Lake 766 CHAPTER 18 _ NATURAL CONVECTION 783 Example 18-1 Heat Loss from Hot Water Pipes 788 Example 18-2 Cooling of a Plate in Different Orientations 790 Example 18-3 Heat Loss through a Double-Pane Window 795 Example 18-4 Heat Transfer through a Spherical Enclosure 796 Example 18-5 Heating Water in a Tube by Solar Energy 797 CHAPTER 19 _ RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER 815 Example 19-1 Radiation Emission from a Black Ball 822 Example 19-2 Emission of Radiation from an Incandescent Light Bulb 824 Example 19-3 Average Emissivity of a Surface and Emissive Power 828 Example 19-4 Selective Absorber and Reflective Surfaces 836 Example 19-5 View Factors Associated with Two Concentric Spheres 843 Example 19-6 Fraction of Radiation Leaving through an Opening 844 Example 19-7 View Factors Associated with a Tetragon 846 Example 19-8 View Factors Associated with a Long Triangular Duct 846 Example 19-9 The Crossed-Strings Method for View Factors 848 Example 19-10 Radiation Heat Transfer in a Black Cubical Furnace 849 Example 19-11 Radiation Heat Transfer between Large Parallel Plates 855 Example 19-12 Radiation Heat Transfer in a Cylindrical Furnace 857 Example 19-13 Radiation Heat Transfer in a Triangular Furnace 858 Example 19-14 Heat Transfer through Tubular Solar Collector 859 Example 19-15 Radiation Shields 864 Example 19-16 Radiation Effect on Temperature Measurements 865 CHAPTER 20 _ HEAT EXCHANGERS 881 Example 20-1 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient of a Heat Exchanger 889 Example 20-2 Effect of Fouling on the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 891 Example 20-3 The Condensation of Steam in a Condenser 897 Example 20-4 Heating Water in a Counter-Flow Heat Exchanger 899 Example 20-5 Heating of Glycerin in a Multipass Heat Exchanger 900 Example 20-6 Cooling of an Automotive Radiator 901 Example 20-7 Upper Limit for Heat Transfer in a Heat Exchanger 904 Example 20-8 Using the Effectiveness-NTU Method 909 Example 20-9 Cooling Hot Oil by Water in a Multipass Heat Exchanger 910 Example 20-10 Installing a Heat Exchanger to Save Energy and Money 914
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Thermodynamics, Heat Transmission, Fluid mechanics