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@COMP:TOC Contents Foreword Preface Chapter 1: Reading the Vital Signs: The Response to 9-11 The Rise of "Homeland Security" Homeland Security and Public Policy Chapter 2: The System Breaks Down Connecting the Dots Mysterious Powder Worries Spread Homeland Security as Coordination Chapter 3: The Federal Bureaucracy Responds The Organizational Challenge First Steps The Restructuring Struggle The Battle over Boundaries Chapter 4: State and Local Struggles The Dragon Fighters Respond to the Terrorist Attack Gaps in the System Coordination in Theory and Practice Money Normal Organizations and Abnormal Events Chapter 5: The Political Costs of Managing Risk Balancing Risks Warning Signals Trust Chapter 6: Civil Rights and Civil Liberties Passing the Patriot Act Broadening the War The Building Storm Balancing Security and Rights Chapter 7: Stress Test Opening the Policy Window How Does the Political System React to Stress? What Has Homeland Security Done to the Policy System? Preface What happens to the American political system when a major shock shakes it to its foundation? On September 11, 2001, terrorists launched a sophisticated series of attacks by crashing two airplanes into the World Trade Center in New York City and one into the Pentagon in Washington. A fourth plane crashed in Pennsylvania, short of its target, which investigators later suspected was the Capitol in Washington. The attacks were the first by foreign forces on American soil since Pearl Harbor and the first on the continental United States since the War of 1812. The death toll, just under 3,000 lives, marked one of the bloodiest days in American history. A major symbol of American economic power, the twin 110-story World Trade Center towers, came crashing to the ground. For days, the nation stood paralyzed, as Americans wondered why anyone could hate the country so much as to launch such devastating attacks on ordinary citizens. The news media probed stories of incredible heroism, like the tale of firefighters racing up the stairs of the World Trade Center towers, as well as fundamental breakdowns, like the failure of the government's intelligence community to detect the coming attacks. Members of Congress called for a tough response, and President Bush visited the smoldering rubble in both New York and Washington to pledge that those who launched the attacks would be punished. But even as the nation was beginning to right itself, Americans began falling ill from anthrax, and several died. It was clear that terrorists could inflict terrible damage on the country--and it was equally clear that terrorism was unlikely to be an isolated event. As struggles in other parts of the world spilled over into the United States, Americans--officials and citizens alike--debated the role the nation ought to play in the turbulent 21st century global community. Quite suddenly, Americans found themselves confronting "homeland security," a term new to most citizens. Government officials struggled to devise a strategy for protecting the nation from terrorist attack and, should attacks occur, ensuring the most effective response. This book tells these two homeland security stories. But more fundamentally, the book uses homeland security as a way of examining the American political system under stress. Such a test not only provides keen insight into what works well and what does not. It also richly illustrates how the system adapts to the challenges of the 21st century global society. In fact, this book is not only a tale of homeland security. It is a mini-textbook on the effect of modern pressures on the nation's key political institutions and lasting values: the presidency, Congress, the bureaucracy, state and local governments, rules for managing risk, and civil rights and civil liberties. It shows how the government, from its top officials to its local first responders, responds to crisis. The September 11 attacks marked a sharp turning point in American history and American governance. Americans found themselves jarred from the quiet comfort of the post-Cold War era to the unsettling realities of an era in which a handful of terrorists could cause such devastation. Responding to such challenges will likely be a prime challenge for America's leaders for a generation. The issues explored in this book will set the signposts they will need to steer the nation. I hope that the book will be of keen interest to in a wide variety of courses: the introduction to American government; public policy and public administration; intergovernmental relations; and focused instruction in homeland security. In writing this book, I am greatly indebted to the wonderful staff at CQ Press, who provided enthusiastic support and invaluable encouragement along the way. I especially want to thank Brenda Carter and Charisse Kiino for their encouragement of the project; Daphne Levitas for her skilled help with the tables, figures, and photographs; and Nancy Geltman for her keen editorial eye in sharpening the prose. Elise Frasier was simply indispensable in helping me bring the far-ranging issues together into a tighter argument. I am also deeply indebted to the anonymous reviewers, whose comments unquestionably strengthened this book. In the process of writing the book, I had unexpected personal contact with first responders. I developed a bleeding ulcer--from medication I was taking, not from the stress of writing the book! The wonderful care I received helped get me back on my feet in a few months. I'm especially grateful to the city of Madison's emergency medical technicians, Janice Cooney, Dr. Mark Reichelderfer and his medical team, Dr. Layton Rikkers and his surgical team. The experience made me even more grateful for my wife, Sue, who was not only a loving companion but also a consummate nurse. During 2002 and 2003, I worked with the Century Foundation as executive director of their Project on Federalism and Homeland Security. I am grateful to the Century Foundation's President Richard C. Leone for his support of this project, and to Vice President Greg Anrig for his insight and comments on the manuscript. This book simply would not have been possible if it had not been for the intellectual and financial support of the foundation. Most of all, I am grateful to the thousands of Americans who work daily in homeland security to help make the nation safer. The book is dedicated to them--and especially to the hundreds of first responders who made the ultimate sacrifice on the morning of September 11.
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: United States Politics and government, Intergovernmental cooperation United States, National security United States, Terrorism United States Prevention, Civil defense United States, Public administration United States