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Contents List of Illustrations Preface to the Third Edition A Note about Place Names and Transliteration Part IThe Development of Islamic Civilization to the Eighteenth Century 1 1.The Rise and Expansion of Islam 5 2.The Development of Islamic Civilization to the Fifteenth Century 27 3.The Ottoman and Safavid Empires: A New Imperial Synthesis 51 Part IIThe Beginnings of the Era of Transformation 78 4. Forging a New Synthesis: The Pattern of Reforms, 1789-1849 83 5.The Ottoman Empire and Egypt During the Era of the Tanzimat 111 6.Egypt and Iran in the Late Nineteenth Century 145 7.The Response of Islamic Society 170 8. The Era of the Young Turks and the Iranian Constitutionalists 192 9.World War I and the End of the Ottoman Order 218 Part IIIThe Struggle for Independence: The Interwar Era to the End of World War II 245 10.Authoritarian Reform in Turkey and Iran 250 11. The Arab Struggle for Independence: Egypt, Iraq, and Transjordan from the Interwar Era to 1945 279 12. The Arab Struggle for Independence: Syria, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia from the Interwar Era to 1945 314 13. The Palestine Mandate and the Birth of the State of Israel 345 Part IVThe Independent Middle East from the End of World War II to the 1970s 265 14.Democracy and Authoritarianism: Turkey and Iran 395 15.The Middle East in the Age of Nasser: The Egyptian Base 438 16.The Middle East in the Age of Nasser: The Radicalization of Arab Politics 471 17.Israel and the Palestinians from 1948 to the 1970s 505 Part VA Time of Upheaval and Renewal: The Middle East from the 1970s to the 1990s 540 18.Changing Patterns of War and Peace: Egypt and Lebanon in the 1970s and 1980s 546 19. The Consolidation of Authoritarian Rule in Syria and Iraq: The Regimes of Hafiz al-Asad and Saddam Hussein 583 20. The Iranian Revolution and the Resurgence of Islam 623 21. The Arabian Peninsula in the Petroleum Era 666 22. Challenges to the Existing Order: The Palestinian Uprising and the Gulf War 701 23. A Peace So Near, A Peace So Far: Israeli-Palestinian Relations since the Gulf War 740 24. Patterns of Continuity and Change in the Central Middle East since the Gulf War 770 Epilogue 804 Glossary Select Bibliography Index
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