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Preface viii
How to Use This Book xii
Chapter 1Arithmetic of Whole Numbers
Preview 11
Working with Whole Numbers	3
Expanded Form	4
Rounding Whole Numbers	7
Estimating	9
Subtraction of Whole Numbers	16
Multiplication of Whole Numbers	24
Multiplying by Zero and One	25
Multiplying by Larger Numbers	26
Two-Digit Multiplications	29
Division of Whole Numbers	33
Factors	38
Primes	39
Prime Factors	39
Order of Operations	43
Problem Set 	147
Using a Calculator, I: Whole-Number Calculations	49
Chapter 2
Fractions
Preview 	255
Working with Fractions	57
Numerator	58
Denominator	58
Proper Fraction	59
Improper Fraction	59
Mixed Numbers	60
Equivalent Fractions	62
Writing in Lowest Terms	63
Comparing Fractions	66
Multiplication of Fractions	68
Division of Fractions	73
Reciproca	l74
Addition and Subtraction of Fractions	79
Like Fractions	80
Unlike Fractions	81
Least Common Denominator	81
Subtraction	87
Using a Calculator, II: Fractions91Problem Set 	293
Chapter 3
Decimal Numbers
Preview 	397
Addition and Subtraction of Decimals	99
Place Value of Decimal Numbers	99
Expanded Form	101
Decimal Digits	102
Subtraction	106
Multiplication and Division of Decimal Numbers	110
Multiplication	111
Division	114
Rounding Decimal Numbers	119
Rounding During Division	121
Averages	121
Decimal Fractions	125
Repeating Decimals	128
Terminating Decimals	129
Decimal-Fraction Equivalents	130
Problem Set 3	135
Using a Calculator, III: Decimals139
Chapter 4
Ratio, Proportion, and Percent
Preview 4	141
Ratio and Proportion	145
Ratio	145
Simple Equations	148
Proportions	149
Problem Solving Using Proportions	153
Introduction to Percent	157
Changing Decimal Numbers to Percents	159
Changing Fractions to Percents	160
Changing Percents to Decimal Numbers	162
Changing Percents to Fractions	163
Percent Problems	166
When P Is Unknown	166
When R Is Unknown	169
When B Is Unknown	170
Applications of Percent Calculations	174
Discount	174
Sales Tax	179
Interest	180
Commission	182
Efficiency	185
Tolerances	185
Percent Change	188
Applications of Ratio and Proportion	194
Scale Drawings	195
Similar Figures	197
Direct and Inverse Proportion	198
Gears and Pulleys	201
Problem Set 4	209
Chapter 5
Measurement
Preview 5	215
Working with Measurement Numbers	217
Units	217
Significant Digits	218
Precision and Accuracy	219
Addition and Subtraction of Measurement Numbers	221
Multiplication and Division of Measurement Numbers	223
Rounding Products and Quotients	226
Decimal Equivalents	227
English Units and Unit Conversion	231
Unity Fractions	233
Compound Units	237
Area	238
Volume	239
Speed	242
Metric Units	245
Length	245
Weight	249
Area	252
Volume	253
Speed	255
Temperature	256
Direct Measurements	262
Length Measurements	262
Micrometers	266
Vernier Micrometers	270
Vernier Calipers	272
Protractors	275
Meters	277
Gauge Blocks	279
Problem Set 5	285
Chapter 6
Pre-Algebra
Preview 6	289
The Meaning of Signed Numbers	291
Absolute Value	295
Subtraction of Signed Numbers	300
Opposites	300
Subtraction of Signed Numbers	300
Multiplication and Division of Signed Numbers	305
Multiplication of Signed Numbers	305
Rules for Multiplication	305
Division of Signed Numbers	306
Exponents and Square Roots	309
Exponents	309
Order of Operations with Exponents	312
Square Roots	313
Problem Set 6	319
Chapter 7
Basic Algebra
Preview 7	323
Algebraic Language and Formulas	327
Multiplication	327
Parentheses	328
Division	328
Algebraic Expressions	329
Evaluating Formulas	330
Adding and Subtracting Algebraic Expressions	338
Combining Like Terms	338
Expressions with Parentheses	340
Solving Simple Equations	345
Solution	345
Equivalent Equations	346
Solving Equations	347
Solving Equations Involving Two Operations	355
Solving More Equations and Formulas	363
Parentheses in Equations	363
Variable on Both Sides	367
Solving Formulas	372
Solving Word Problems	379
Translating English to Algebra	379
Translating Sentences to Equations	382
General Word Problems	384
Multiplying and Dividing Algebraic Expressions	389
Multiplying Simple Factors	389
Rule for Multiplication	390
Dividing Simple Factors	391
Negative Exponents	392
Scientific Notation	394
Definition of Scientific Notation	394
Converting to Scientific Notation	395
Converting from Scientific Notation to Decimal Form	396
Multiplying and Dividing in Scientific Notation	397
Problem Set 7	403
Chapter 8
Practical Plane Geometry
Preview 8	409
Angle Measurement	411
Labeling Angles	411
Measuring Angles	413
Classifying Angles	413
Drawing Angles	415
Angle Facts	416
Area and Perimeter of Polygons	423
Polygons	423
Perimeter	424
Rectangles	427
Squares	430
Parallelograms	431
Trapezoids	434
Triangles, Hexagons, and Irregular Polygons	438
Types of Triangles	438
Pythagorean Theorem	440
Area of a Triangle	443
Hexagons	448
Irregular Polygons	452
Circles	458
Circumference	458
Parts of Circles	460
Area of a Circle	462
Rings	464
Problem Set 8	471
Chapter 9
Solid Figures
Preview 9	477
Prisms	479
Surface Area and Volume	481
Volume Conversion	483
Pyramids and Frustums of Pyramids	489
Pyramids	489
Frustum of a Pyramid	493
Cylinders and Spheres	497
Cylinders	497
Spheres	501
Cones and Frustums of Cones	505
Cones	505
Frustum of a Cone	508
Problem Set 9	515
Chapter 10
Triangle Trigonometry
Preview 10	519
Angles and Triangles	523
Angle Measurement	524
Sectors	527
Linear and Angular Speed	528
Right Triangles	529
Pythagorean Theorem	530
Special Right Triangles	531
Trigonometric Ratios	537
Sine Ratio	539
Cosine Ratio	541
Tangent Ratio	542
Finding Values of Trigonometric Functions	544
Angles in Degrees and Minutes	545
Finding the Angle	545
Solving Right Triangles	547
Oblique Triangles (Optional)	555
Oblique Triangles	555
Law of Sines	556
Law of Cosines	562
Problem Set 10	569
Chapter 11
Preview 11	573
Systems of Equations	575
Solution by Substitution	577
Dependent and Inconsistent Systems	580
Solution by Elimination	582
Multiplication with the Elimination Method	585
Multiplying Both Equations	589
Word Problems	591