Table of contents for Literature : an introduction to fiction, poetry, and drama / [compiled by] X.J. Kennedy, Dana Gioia.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog. Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication information provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.

Preface	000
To the Instructor	000
About the Authors	000
Fiction	1
Reading a Story	3
Fable, Parable, and Tales	4
W. Somerset Maugham,
The Appointment in Samarra	4
A servant tries to gallop away from Death in this brief sardonic fable retold in memorable form by a popular storyteller.
The Fox and the grapes	5
Ever wonder where the phrase "sour grapes" comes from? Find out in this classic fable.
Bid pai,
The Camel and His Friends	6
With friends like these, you can guess what the camel doesn't need.
Chuang Tzu,
Independence	6
The Prince of Ch'u asks the philosopher Chuang Tzu to become his advisor and gets a surprising reply in this classic Chinese fable.
Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm,
Godfather Death	9
Neither God nor the Devil came to the christening. In this stark folk tale, a young man receives magical powers with a string attached.
Plot	12
The Short Story	13
John Updike,
A & P	15
In walk three girls in nothing but bathing suits, and Sammy finds himself no longer an aproned checkout clerk but an armored knight.
Writer's Perspective
John Updike on Writing,
Why Write	20
Writing Critically
What's the Plot?	21
Writing Assignment	22
Further Suggestions For Writing	22
Point of View	23
William Faulkner,
A Rose for Emily	29
Proud, imperious Emily Grierson defied the town from the fortress of her mansion. Who could have guessed the secret that lay within?
Jhumpa Lahiri,
Interpreter of Malbies	37
Mr. Kapasi's life had settled into a quiet pattern-and then Mrs. Das and her family came into it.
James Baldwin,
Sonny's Blues	53
Two brothers in Harlem see life differently. The older brother is the sensible family man, but Sonny wants to be a jazz musician.
Eudora Welty,
Why I Live at the P.O.	77
Since no one appreciated Sister, she decides to live at the Post Office. After meeting her family, you won't blame her.
Writer's Perspective
James Baldwin on Writing,
Race and the African American Writer	87
Writing Critically
How Point of View Shapes a Story	89
Writing Assignment	??
Further Suggestions For Writing	90
Character	91
Katherine Anne Porter,
The Jilting of Granny Weatherall	94
For sixty years Ellen Weatherall has fought back the memory of that terrible day, but now once more the priest waits in the house.
Alice Walker,
Everyday Use	102
When successful Dee visits from the city, she has changed her name. Her mother and sister notice other things have changed, too.
Raymond Carier
Cathedral	109
He had never expected to find himself crying to describe a cathedral to a blind man. He hadn't even wanted to meet this odd, old friend of his wife.
Writer's Perspective
Raymond Carier on Writing,
Common place but precise language	121
Writing Critically
How Character Creates Action	122
Writing Assignment	123
Further Suggestions For Writing	123
Setting	124
Kate Chopin,
The Storm	127
Even with her husband away, Calixta feels happily, securely married. Why then should she not shelter an old admirer from the rain?
Jack London,
To Build a Fire	132
Seventy-five degrees below zero. Alone except for one mistrustful wolf dog, a man finds himself battling a relentless force.
T. Coraghessan Boyle,
Greasy Lake	143
Murky and strewn with beer cans, the lake appears a wasteland. On its shore three "dangerous characters" learn a lesson one grim night.
Amy Tan,
A Pair of Tickets	157
A young woman flies with her father to China to meet two half sisters she never knew existed.
Writer's Perspective
Amy Tan on Writing,
Setting the Voice	167
Writing Critically
How Time and Place Set a Story	168
Writing Assignment	169
Further Suggestions For Writing	169
Tone and Style	170
Ernest Hemingway,
A Clean, Well-Lighted Place	174
All by himself each night, the old man lingers in the bright cafÄ. What does he need more than brandy? One other knew.
William Faulkner,
Barn Burning	178
This time when Ab Snopes wields his blazing torch, his son Sarty faces a dilemma: whether to obey or defy the vengeful old man.
Irony	192
Guy de Maupassant,
The Necklace	193
Having no jewels to wear to the ball, a young woman borrows her rich friend's diamond necklace-with disastrous results.
Ha Jin,
Saboteur	200
When the police unfairly arrest Mr. Chiu, he hopes for justice. After witnessing their brutality, he quietly plans revenge.
Writer's Perspective
Ernest Hemingway on Writing,
The Direct Style	209
Writing Critically
Be Style-Conscious	210
Writing Assignment	211
Further Suggestions For Writing	211
Theme	212
Stephen Crane,
The Open Boat	215
In a lifeboat circled by sharks, tantalized by glimpses of land, a reporter scrutinizes Fate and learns about comradeship.
Alice ??uafo,
Day of the Butterfly	234
A sixth-grader is surprised by some of her own reactions when one of her classmates becomes seriously ill.
Luke 15: 11-32,
The Parable of the Prodigal Son	241
A father has two sons. One demands his inheritance now and leaves to spend it with ruinous results.
Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.,
Harrison Bergeron	242
Are you handsome? Off with your eyebrows! Are you brainy? Let a transmitter sound thought-shattering beeps inside your ear.
Writer's Perspective
Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. on Writing,
The Themes of Science Fiction	248
Writing Critically
Stating the Theme	249
Writing Assignment	250
Further Suggestions For Writing	250
Symbol	251
John Steinbeck,
The Chrysanthemums	253
Fenced-in Elisa feels emotionally starved-then her life promises to blossom with the arrival of the scissors-grinding man.
Shirley Jackson,
The Lottery	262
Splintered and faded, the sinister black box had worked its annual terror for longer than anyone in town could remember.
Elizabeth Tallent,
No one is a mystery	269
A two-page story speaks volumes about an open-hearted girl and her married lover.
Ursula K. Le Guin,
The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas	272
Omelas is the perfect city. All of its inhabitants are happy. But everyone's prosperity depends on a hidden evil.
Writer's Perspective
Ursula K. Le Guin on Writing,
Note on "The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas"	278
Writing Critically
Recognizing Symbols	279
Writing Assignment	279
Student Essay
An Analysis of The Symbolism in Steinbeck's "The Chrysanthemums"	280
Further Suggestions For Writing	283
Evaluating a Story	284
Writing Critically
Know What You're Judging	286
Writing Assignment	287
Further Suggestions For Writing	287
Reading Long Stories and Novels	288
Leo Tolstoy,
The Death of Ivan Ilych	294
The supreme Russian novelist tells how a petty, ambitious judge, near the end of his wasted life, discovers a harrowing truth.
Franz Kafka,
The Metamorphosis	336
"As Gregor Samsa awoke one morning from uneasy dreams he found himself transformed in his bed into a gigantic insect." Kafka's famous opening sentence introduces one of the most chilling stories in world literature.
Writer's Perspective
Franz Kafka on Writing,
Discussing The Metamorphosis	371
Writing Critically
Leaving Things Out	373
Writing Assignment-Research Paper	373
Student Essay
Kafka's Greatness	374
Further Suggestions For Writing	380
Two Critical Casebooks: Edgar Alian Poe and Flannery O'Connor	381
Edgar Allan Poe	381
The Tell-Tale Heart	382
The smoldering eye at last extinguished, a murderer finds that, despite all his attempts at a cover-up, his victim will be heard.
The Masque of the Red Death	386
The uninvited guest at Prince Prospero's masquerade ball changes the life of everyone present, in this masterpiece of mood and effect.
The Fall of the House of Usher	391
A letter from a boyhood friend turns out to be an invitation to a world of horror and doom.
Edgar Allan Poe on Edgar Allan Poe
The Tale and Its Effect	405
On Imagination	406
The Philosophy of Composition	406
Critics on Edgar Allan Poe
Daniel Hoffman, The Father-Figure in "The Tell-Tale Heart"	408
Marie Bonaparte,
A Psychoanalytic Reading of "The Masque of the Red Death"	410
Charies Baudelaire,
On Pre?? Genius	412
James Tuttleton,
Poe's Quest for Supernal Beauty	413
Flannery O'Connor	415
Good Country People	416
Joy's mother thought the Bible salesman was a nice young man, but Joy will soon discover otherwise.
A Good Man Is Hard to Find	431
Wanted: The Misfit, a cold-blooded killer. An ordinary family vacation leads to horror-and one moment of redeeming grace.
Revelation	443
Mrs. Turpin thinks herself Jesus' favorite child, until she meets a troubled college girl. Soon violence flares in a doctor's waiting room.
Flannery O'Connor on Flannery O'Connor
Excerpt from "On Her Own Work"	459
On Her Catholic Faith	462
Excerpt from "The Grotesque in Southern Fiction": The Serious Writer and the Tired Reader	462
Yearbook Cartoons	464
Critics on Flannery O'Connor
Robert Brinkmeyer Jr.,
Flannery O'Connor and Her Readers	465
J. O. Tate,
A Good Source Is Not So Hard to Find: The Real Life Misfit	468
Mary Jane Schenck,
Deconstructing "A Good Man Is Hard to Find"	470
Kathleen Feeley,
Comic Perversion in "Good Country People"	472
Writing Critically
How One Story Imaging ?? Another	473
Writing Assignment	473
Further Suggestions for Writing on Edgar Allan Poc	473
Further Suggestions for Writing on Flannery O'Connor	474
Stories for Further Reading	475
Chinua Achebe,
Dead Men's Path	475
The new headmaster of the village school was determined to fight superstition, but the villagers did not agree.
Isabel Allende,
The Judge's Wife	478
Anjana Appachana,
The Prophecy	485
Seventeen years old and pregnant, Amrita doesn't know what to do, but before she visits the gynecologist, she consults a fortune teller.
Margaret Atwood,
Happy Endings	497
John and Mary meet. What happens next? This witty experimental story offers five different outcomes.
Ambrose Bierce,
An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge	501
At last, Peyton Farquhar's neck is in the noose. Reality mingles with dream in this classic story of the American Civil War.
Jorge Luis Borges,
The Gospel According to Mark	505
A young man from Buenos Aires is trapped by a flood on an isolated ranch. To pass the time he reads the Gospel to a family with unforeseen results.
I sabel allende,
The Judge's Wife	478
Revenge can take many different forms, but few are as strange as the revenge taken in this passionate tale..
Willa Cather,
Paul's Case	??
Paul's teachers can't understand the boy. Then one day, with stolen cash, he boards a train for New York and the life of his dreams.
John Cheever,
The Five-Forty-Eight	528
After their brief affair, Blake fired his secretary. He never expected she would seek revenge.
Anton Chekhov,
The Lady with the Pet Dog	539
Lonely and bored at a seaside resort, they had sought a merely casual affair. How could they know it might deepen and trouble their separate marriages?
Kate Chopin,
The Story of an Hour	552
"There was something coming to her and she was waiting for it, fearfully. What was it? She did not know; it was too subtle and elusive to name."
Sandra Cisneros,
The House on Mango Street	554
Does where we live tell what we are? A little girl dreams of a new house, but things don't always turn out the way we want them to.
Ralph Ellison,
Battle Royal	555
A young black man is invited to deliver his high school graduation speech to a gathering of a Southern town's leading white citizens. What promises to be an honor turns into a nightmare of violence, humiliation, and painful self-discovery.
Gabriel GarcÆa Mçrquez,
The Handsomest Drowned Man in the World	566
Even in death, a mysterious stranger has a profound effect on all of the people in the village.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman,
The Yellow Wallpaper	571
Her husband the doctor prescribed complete rest in the isolated and mysterious country house they rented for the summer. The cure proves worse than the disease in this gothic classic.
Nathaniel Hawthorne,
Young Goodman Brown	584
Urged on through deepening woods, a young Puritan sees-or dreams he sees-good villagers hasten toward a diabolic rite.
Zora Neale Hurston,
Sweat	594
Delia's hard work paid for her small house. Now her drunken husband, Sykes, has promised it to another woman.
Kazuo Ishiguro,
A Family Supper	604
Something very odd lurks beneath the surface of this family supper, and it might prove fatal.
James Joyce,
Araby	612
If only he can find her a token, she might love him in return. As night falls, a Dublin boy hurries to make his dream come true.
Jamaica Kincaid,
Girl	617
"Try to walk like a lady, and not like the slut you are so bent on becoming." An old-fashioned mother tells her daughter how to live.
D. H. Lawrence,
The Rocking-Horse Winner	619
Wild-eyed "as if something were going to explode in him," the boy predicts each winning horse, and gamblers rush to bet a thousand pounds.
Bernard Malamud,
Angel Levine	631
Broke, ill, and desperate, the tailor Manischevitz begs God for help. But when he discovers a black man in his living room who claims to be a Jewish angel, the tailor refuses to believe. A comic classic of how grace and need overcome prejudice.
Katherine Mansfield,
Miss Brill	639
Sundays had long brought joy to solitary Miss Brill, until one fateful day when she happened to share a bench with two lovers in the park.
Bobbie Ann Mason,
Shiloh	643
After the accident Leroy could no longer work as a truck driver. He hoped to make a new life with his wife, but she seemed strangely different.
Joyce Carol Oates,
Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?	650
Alone in the house, Connie finds herself helpless before the advances of a spellbinding imitation teenager, Arnold Friend.
Tim O'Brien,
The Things They Carried	667
What each soldier carried into the combat zone was largely determined by necessity, but each man's necessities differed.
Frank O'Connor,
First Confession	680
A sympathetic Irish priest cross-examines a boy who takes a bread knife to his sister and wants to chop up his grandmother besides.
Tillie Olsen,
I Stand Here Ironing	687
Deserted by her husband, forced to send away her child, a woman remembers how both she and her daughter managed to survive.
Leslie Marmon Silko,
The Man to Send Rain Clouds	693
When old Teofilo dies, his friends give him a tribal burial to ensure that the rains will come for the pueblo. But can they also convince Father Paul to take part in the pagan ceremony?
Poetry	697
Reading a Poem	701
William Butler Yeats,
The Lake Isle of Innisfree	703
Lyric Poetry	706
D. H. Lawrence,
Piano	706
Adrienne Rich,
Aunt Jennifer's Tigers	707
Narrative Poetry	708
Sir Patrick Spence	708
Robert Frost,
"Out, Out-"	710
Dramatic Poetry	711
Robert Browning,
My Last Duchess	712
Writer's Perspective
Adrienne Rich on Writing,
Recalling "Aunt Jennifer's Tigers"	714
Writing Critically
Can a Poem be Paraphrased?	715
William Stafford,
Ask Me	715
William Stafford,
A Paraphrase of "Ask Me"	716
Writing Assignment	716
Listening to a Voice	717
Tone	717
Theodore Roethke,
My Papa's Waltz	718
Countee Cullen,
For a Lady I Know	719
Anne Bradstreet,
The Author to Her Book	719
Walt Whitman,
To a Locomotive in Winter	720
Emily Dickinson,
I like to see it lap the Miles	721
Benjamin Alire Sçenz,
To the Desert	722
Weldon Kees,
For My Daughter	723
The Person in the Poem	723
Natasha The then??,
White Lies	724
Edwin Arlington Robinson,
Luke Havergal	725
Ted Hughes,
Hawk Rodsting	726
William Wordsworth,
I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud	727
Dorothy Wordsworth,
Journal Entry	728
James Stephens,
A Glass of Beer	729
Anne Sexton,
Her Kind	730
William Carlos Williams,
The Red Wheelbarrow	731
Irony	731
Robert Creeley,
Oh No	732
W. H. Auden,
The Unknown Citizen	733
Sharon Olds,
Rites of Passage	734
John Betjeman,
In Westminster Abbey	735
Sarah N. Cleghorn,
The Golf Links	736
Josephiae Wiles,
Civilian	737
Co??hic Beh??ley,
The Covetous Cat	737
Thomas Hardy,
The Workbox	738
For Review and Further Study	739
William Blake,
The Chimney Sweeper	739
Robert McDow??,
At Home with Dollface	740
William Stafford,
At the Un-National Monument Along the Canadian Border	740
H. L. Hix,
I Love the World, As Does Any Dancer	741
Richard Lovelace,
To Lucasta	741
Wilfred Owen,
Dulce et Decorum Est	742
Writer's Perspective
Wilfred Owen on Writing,
War Poetry	742
Writing Critically
Paying Attention to the Obvious	744
Writing Assignment	744
Student Essay
Word Choice, Tone, and Point of View in Roethke's "My Papa's Waltz"	745
Further Suggestions For Writing	748
Words	749
Literal Meaning: What a Poem Says First	749
William Carlos Williams,
This Is Just to Say	750
Marianne Moore,
Silence	751
Robert Graves,
Down, Wanton, Down!	752
John Donne,
Batter my heart, three-personed God, for You	753
The Value of a Dictionary	754
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow,
Aftermath	755
John Clare,
Mouse's Nest	756
J. V. Cunningham,
Friend, on this scaffold Thomas More lies dead	757
Kelly Cherry,
Advice to a Friend Who Paints	758
Carl Sandburg,
Grass	758
Word Choice and Word Order	758
Robert Herrick,
Upon Julia's Clothes	761
Kay Ryan,
Blandeur	763
Thomas Hardy,
The Ruined Maid	764
Richard Eberhart,
The Fury of Aerial Bombardment	765
Wendy Cope,
Lonely Hearts	766
For Review and Further Study	767
anyone lived in a pretty how town	767
Billy Collins,
The Names	768
Carnation Milk	770
William Wordsworth,
My heart leaps up when I behold	770
William Wordsworth,
Mutability	770
Scottsboro	771
Lewis Carroll,
Jabberwocky	771
Writer's Perspective
Lewis Carroll on Writing,
Humpty Dumpty Explicates "Jabberwocky"	773
Writing Critically
How Much Difference Does a Word Make?	774
Writing Assignment	775
Further Suggestions For Writing	775
Saying and Suggesting	776
John Masefield,
Cargoes	777
William Blake,
London	778
Wallace Stevens,
Disillusionment of Ten O'Clock	780
awchaolyn Brooks,
The Independent Man	781
Timothy Steele,
Epitaph	781
Geoffrey Hill,
Merlin	782
Walter de la Mare,
The Listeners	782
Robert Frost,
Fire and Ice	784
Clare Rossini,
Final Love Note	784
Alfred, Lord Tennyson,
Tears, Idle Tears	785
Richard Wilbur,
Love Calls Us to the Things of This World	786
Writer's Perspective
Richard Wilbur on Writing,
Concerning "Love Calls Us to the Things of This World"	787
Writing Critically
The Ways a Poem Suggests	788
Writing Assignment	789
Further Suggestions For Writing	789
Imagery	790
Ezra Pound,
In a Station of the Metro	790
Taniguchi Buson,
The piercing chill I feel	790
T.S. Eliot,
The winter evening settles down	792
Theodore Roethke,
Root Cellar	792
Elizabeth Bishop,
The Fish	793
Anne Stevenson,
The Victory	795
Charles Simic,
Fork	796
Emily Dickinson,
A Route of Evanescence	796
Jean Toomer,
Reapers	797
Gerard Manley Hopkins,
Pied Beauty	797
About Haiku	798
Arakida Moritake,
The Falling Flower	798
Matsuo Basho,
Heat-lightning streak	799
Matsuo Basho,
In the old stone pool	799
Taniguchi Buson,
On the one-ton temple bell	799
Taniguchi Buson,
I go	799
Kobayashi Issa,
only one guy	799
Kobayashi Issa,
Cricket	799
Suiko Matsushita,
Rain shower from mountain	800
Suiko Matsushita,
Cosmos in bloom	800
Neiji Ozawa,
War forced us from California	800
Neigi Ozawa,
The war	800
Hakuro Wada,
Even the croaking of frogs	800
Etheridge Knight, Lee Gurga, Penny Haerter, John Ridland, Adelle Foley, Jennifer Brutschy, Connie Bensley,
A Selection of Haiku	800-801
For Review and Further Study	801
John Keats,
Bright star! would I were steadfast as thou art	801
Walt Whitman,
The Runner	802
T. E. Hulme,
Image	802
Chana Bloch,
Tired Sex	802
Robert Bly,
Driving to Town Late to Mail a Letter	803
Gary Snyder,
Piute Creek	803
H. D.,
Heat	804
Louise Glƒck,
Mock Orange	804
Billy Collins,
Embrace	805
John Haines,
Winter News	805
Stevie Smith,
Not Waving but Drowning	806
Writer's Perspective
Ezra Pound on Writing,
The Image	807
Writing Critically
Analyzing Images	808
Writing Assignment	809
Student Essay
Elizabeth Bishop's Use of Imagery in "The Fish"	809
Further Suggestions For Writing	813
Figures of Speech	814
Why Speak Figuratively?	814
Alfred, Lord Tennyson,
The Eagle	815
William Shakespeare,
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?	815
Howard Moss,
Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer's Day?	816
Metaphor and Simile	817
Emily Dickinson,
My Life had stood - a Loaded Gun	818
Alfred, Lord Tennyson,
Flower in the Crannied Wall	819
William Blake,
To see a world in a grain of sand	820
Sylvia Plath,
Metaphors	820
N. Scott Momaday,
Simile	820
Emily Dickinson,
It dropped so low - in my Regard	821
Craig Raine,
A Martian Sends a Postcard Home	821
Other Figures	824
James Stephens,
The Wind	825
Chidiock Tichborne,
Elegy, Written with His Own Hand in the Tower Before His Execution	827
Margaret Atwood,
You fit into me	828
John Ashberry,
The Cathedral Is	829
George Herbert,
The Pulley	829
Louis Macneice,
Plain Speaking	829
For Review and Further Study	??
Robert Frost,
The Silken Tent	830
Denise Levertov,
Leaving Forever	831
Jane Kenyon,
The Suitor	831
Robert Frost,
The Secret Sits	832
H. D.,
Love That I Bear	832
A. R. Ammons,
Coward	832
Kay Ryan,
Turtle	832
Robinson Jeffers,
Hands	833
Robert Burns,
Oh, my love is like a red, red rose	833
Writer's Perspective
Robert Frost on Writing,
The Importance of Poetic Metaphor	834
Writing Critically
How Metaphors Enlarge a Poem's Meaning	835
Writing Assignment	836
Further Suggestions For Writing	836
Song	837
Singing and Saying	837
Ben Jonson,
To Celia	838
The Cruel Mother	839
William Shakespeare,
Take, O, take those lips away	841
Edwin Arlington Robinson,
Richard Cory	842
Paul Simon,
Richard Cory	843
Ballads	844
Bonny Barbara Allan	844
Dudley Randall,
Ballad of Birmingham	847
Blues	848
Bessie Smith with Clarence Williams,
Jailhouse Blues	849
W. H. Auden,
Funeral Blues	850
Rap	850
Rsh D.M. Cog. From
Peter Piser	852
For Review and Further Study	853
John Lennon and Paul Mccartney,
Eleanor Rigby	853
Bob Dylan,
The Times They Are a-Changin'	854
??endolyn Brooks,
Queen of the Blues	856
Writer's Perspective
Paul McCartney on Writing,
Creating "Eleanor Rigby"	858
Writing Critically
Is There a Difference Between Poetry and Song?	859
Writing Assignment	860
Further Suggestions For Writing	860
Sound	861
Sound as Meaning	861
Alexander Pope,
True Ease in Writing comes from Art, not Chance	862
William Butler Yeats,
Who Goes with Fergus?	864
John Updike,
Recital	863
William Wordsworth,
A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal	865
Emanuel di Pasquale,
Rain	866
Aphra Behn,
When maidens are young	866
Alliteration and Assonance	866
A. E. Housman,
Eight O'Clock	868
Robert Herrick,
Upon Julia's Voice	868
Alfred, Lord Tennyson,
The splendor falls on castle walls	869
Rime	869
William Cole,
On my boat on Lake Cayuga	870
James Reeves,
Rough Weather	872
Hilaire Belloc,
The Hippopotamus	873
William Butler Yeats,
Leda and the Swan	874
Gerard Manley Hopkins,
God's Grandeur	875
Fred Chappell,
Narcissus and Echo	875
Robert Frost,
Desert Places	876
Reading and Hearing Poems Aloud	877
Michael Stillman,
In Memoriam John Coltrane	879
William Shakespeare,
Full fathom five thy father lies	879
Chryss Yost,
Lai with Sounds of Skin	880
T. S. Eliot,
Virginia	880
Writer's Perspective
T. S. Eliot on Writing,
The Music of Poetry	881
Writing Critically
Is it Possible to Write about Sound?	882
Writing Assignment	882
Further Suggestions For Writing	882
Rhythm	884
Stresses and Pauses	884
Gwendolyn Brooks,
We Real Cool	889
Alfred, Lord Tennyson,
Break, Break, Break	889
Ben Jonson,
Slow, slow, fresh fount, keep time with my salt tears	890
Alexander Pope,
Atticus	891
Sir Thomas Wyatt,
With serving still	892
Dorothy Parker,
RÄsumÄ	892
Meter	892
Max Beerbohm,
On the imprint of the first English edition of The Works of Max Beerbohm	893
Thomas Campion,
Rose-cheeked Laura, come	899
Vachel Lindsay,
Factory Windows Are Always Broken	900
Edna St. Vincent Millay,
Counting-out Rhyme	901
A. E. Housman,
When I was one-and-twenty	902
William Carlos Williams,
Heel & toe to the end	902
Walt Whitman,
Beat! Beat! Drums!	903
David Mason,
Song of the Powers	904
Langston Hughes,
Dream Boogie	904
Writer's Perspective
Gwendolyn Brooks on Writing,
Hearing "We Real Cool"	905
Writing Critically
Freeze-Framing the Sound	906
Writing Assignment	907
Further Suggestions For Writing	907
Closed Form	908
Formal Patterns	909
John Keats,
This living hand, now warm and capable	910
Robert Graves,
Counting the Beats	912
John Donne,
Song ("Go and catch a falling star")	913
Phillis Levin,
Brief Bio	914
Ronald Gross,
Yield	915
The Sonnet	917
William Shakespeare,
Let me not to the marriage of true minds	917
Michael Drayton,
Since there's no help, come let us kiss and part	918
Edna St. Vincent Millay,
What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why	919
Robert Frost,
Acquainted with the Night	919
Kim Addonizio,
First Poem for You	920
Mark Jarman,
Unholy Sonnet?? After the Praying	920
R. S. Gwynn,
Scenes from the Playroom	921
Timothy Steele,
Summer	922
A. E. Stallings,
Sine Qua Non	922
The Epigram	923
Alexander Pope, Sir John Harrington, Robert Herrick, William Blake, E. E. Cummings, Langston Hughes, J. V. Cunningham, John Frederick Nims, Stevie Smith, Brad Leithauser, Dick Davis, Anonymous, Hilaire Belloc, Wendy Cope,
A Selection of Epigrams	923-925
W. H. Auden, Edmund Clerihew Bentley, Cornelius J. Ter Maat,
Clerihews	925-926
Other Forms	926
Robert Pinsky,
Abc	926
Dylan Thomas,
Do not go gentle into that good night	927
Robert Bridges,
Triolet	927
Elizabeth Bishop,
Sestina	928
Writer's Perspective
Robert Graves on Writing,
Poetic Inspiration and Poetic Form	930
Writing Critically
Turning Points	931
Writing Assignment	932
Further Suggestions For Writing	932
Open Form	933
Denise Levertov,
Ancient Stairway	933
E. E. Cummings,
Buffalo Bill 's	938
W. S. Merwin,
For the Anniversary of My Death	938
William Carlos Williams,
The Dance	939
Stephen Crane,
The Heart	940
Walt Whitman,
Cavalry Crossing a Ford	940
Ezra Pounds,
The Barret	941
Carolyn ForchÄ,
The Colonel	944
Wallace Stevens,
Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird	941
Visual Poetry	944
George Herbert,
Easter Wings	945
John Hollander,
Swan and Shadow	946
Terry Ehret,
from Papyrus	947
Dorthi Charles,
Concrete Cat	948
Seeing the Logic of Open Form Verse	949
e. e. cummings,
in Just-	949
Lucille Clifton,
Homage to my hips	950
Carole Satyamurti,
I Shall Paint My Nails Red	951
Alice Fulton,
What I Like	951
Writer's Perspective
Walt Whitman on Writing,
The Poetry of the Future	952
Writing Critically
Lining Up for Free Verse	953
Writing Assignment	953
Further Suggestions For Writing	954
Symbol	955
T.S. Eliot,
The Boston Evening Transcript	951
Emily Dickinson,
The Lightning is a yellow Fork	957
Thomas Hardy,
Neutral Tones	959
Matthew 13: 24-30,
The Parable of the Good Seed	960
George Herbert,
The Word	960
John Ciardi,
Most Like an Arch This Marriage	961
Robert Frost,
The Road Not Taken	962
Christina Rossetti,
Uphill	963
Gjertrud Schnackenberg,
Supernatural Love	963
For Review and Further Study	965
Robinson Jeffers,
The Beaks of Eagles	965
Sara Teasdale,
The Flight	966
William Carlos Williams,
The Term	967
Ted Kooser,
Carrie	968
Rafael Campo,
What the Body Told	968
John Stallworthy,
An Evening Walk	969
Lorine Niedecker,
Popcorn-can cover	970
Wallace Stevens,
Anecdote of the Jar	970
Writer's Perspective
William Butler Yeats On Writing,
Poetic Symbols	971
Writing Critically
How to Read a Symbol	972
Writing Assignment	972
Further Suggestions For Writing	973
Myth and Narrative	974
Robert Frost,
Nothing Gold Can Stay	976
D. H. Lawrence,
Bavarian Gentians	977
Thomas Hardy,
The Oxen	977
William Wordsworth,
The World Is Too Much with Us	978
H. D.,
Helen	979
Archetype	979
Louise Bogan,
Medusa	980
Personal Myth	981
William Butler Yeats,
The Second Coming	982
Jenathan Helden,
The Names of the Rapids	983
James Dickey,
The Heaven of Animals	984
Diane Thiel,
Memento Mori in Middle School	985
Myth and Popular Culture	987
Charles Martin,
Taken Up	988
A. D. Hope,
Imperial Adam	989
Anne Sexton,
Cinderella	990
Writer's Perspective
Anne Sexton on Writing,
Transforming Fairy Tales	994
Writing Critically
Demystifying Myth	995
Writing Assignment	996
Student Essay
The Bonds Between Love and Hatred In H. D.'S "Helen"	997
Further Suggestions For Writing	1001
Poetry and Personal Identity	1002
Sylvia Plath,
Lady Lazarus	1003
Julia Alvarez,
The women on my mother's side were known	1006
Culture, Race, and Ethnicity	1007
Claude Mckay,
America	1007
Rhina Espaillat,
Bilingual/Bilingƒe	1008
Samuel Menashe,
The Shrine Whose Shape I Am	1010
Francisco X. Alarcùn,
The X in My Name	1010
Wendy Rose,
For the White Poets Who Would Be Indian	1011
Shermin Alexie,
Indian Boy Love Song (A1)	1012
Yusef Komunyakaa,
Facing It	1012
Gender	1013
Anne Stevenson,
Sous-Entendu	1014
Emily Grosholz,
Listening	1014
Donald Justice,
Men at Forty	1015
Adrienne Rich,
Women	1016
For Review and Further Study	1016
Shirley Geok-Lin Lim,
Learning To Love America	1016
Andrew Hudgins,
Elegy for My Father, Who Is Not Dead	1017
Judith Ortiz Cofer,
Quinceaûera	1018
Alastair Reid, Speaking a Foreign Language	1019
Philip Larkin,
Aubade	1019
Writer's Perspective
Rhina Espaillat,
Being a Bilingual Writer	1021
Writing Critically
Poetic Voice and Personal Identity	1022
Writing Assignment	1023
Further Suggestions For Writing	1023
Translation	1024
Is Poetic Translation Possible?	1024
Rainier Maria Ri??ke,
Einban?? Raiging Macia Rilke, Translated by Dana Gjoja, Entrance	1025
World Poetry	1025
Li Po,
Drinking Alone Beneath the Moon (Chinese text)	1026
Li Po,
Yueh Hsia Tu Cho, Moon-beneath Alone Drink(literal translation)	1027
Li Po, translated by Arthur Waley,
Drinking Alone by Moonlight	1027
Odes I (11) (Carpa Dien)	1028
Horace, translated by Edwin Arlington Robinson, James Michie, A. E. Stallings,
Odes I	1027-1030
Omar Khayyam,
Rubai	1031
Omar Khayyam, translated by Edward FitzGerald, Robert Graves and Omar Ali-Shah, Dick Davis,
Rubai	1031
Parody	1032
We four lads from Liverpool are	1033
Wendy Cope,
A Nursery Rhyme (as it might hare been written by william ??)	1034
Hugh Kingsmill,
What, still alive at twenty-two?	1034
Bruce Bennett,
The Lady Speaks Again	1035
Gene Fehler,
If Richard Lovelace Became a Free Agent	1035
Aaron Abeyta,
thirteen ways of looking at a tortilla	1036
Writer's Perspective
Arthu?? Waley on Writing,
The Method of Translation	1038
Writing Critically
Parody Is the Sincerest Form of Flattery	1039
Writing Assignment	1039
Further Suggestions For Writing	1040
Critical Casebook: Latin American Poetry	1041
Sor Juana	1043
Asegura la Confianza de que Oculturç de todo un Secreto	1044
Translated by Diane Thiel, She Promises to Hold a Secret in Confidence	1044
Presente en que el Cariûo Hace Regalo la Llaneza	1044
Translated by Diane Thiel, A Simple Gift Made Rich by Affection	1044
Pablo Neruda	1045
Muchos Somos	1046
Translated by Alastair Reid, We Are Many	1046
Cien Sonetos de Amor (V)	1047
Translated by Stephen Tapscott, One Hundred Love Sonnets (V)	1048
Jorge Luis Borges	1049
Amorosa Anticipaciùn	1050
Translated by Roibert Fitzgerald, Anticipation of Love	1050
Los Engimas	1051
Translated by John Updike, The Enigmas	1051
Octavio Paz	1052
Con los Ojos Cerrados	1053
Translated by John Felstiner, With Our Eyes Shut	1053
Certeza	1053
Translated by Charles Tomlinson, Certainty	1053
Surrealism in Latin American Poetry	1053
Frida Kahlo,
Two Tiedas	1055
CÄsar Vallejo,
La Cùlera que Quiebra al Hombore en Niûos	1055
CÄsar Vallejo, Translated by Thomas Merton,
Anger	1055
Olga Orozco,
La Realidad y el Deseo	1056
Olga Orozco, Translated by Stephen Tapscott,
Reality and Desire	1056
For Review and Further Study	1058
Alfonsina Storni,
Peso Ancestral	1058
Alfonsina Stoni, Translated by Diane Thiel,
Ancestral Burden	1058
JosÄ Emilio Pacheco,
Alta Traiciùn	1058
JosÄ Emilio Pacheco, Translated by Alastair Reid,
High Treason	1058
Latin American Poets on Poetry
So Juana,
La Respuesta (Response)	1059
Pablo Neruda,
Towards the Splendid City	1060
Jorge Luis Borges,
The Riddle of Poetry	1060
Octavio Paz,
In Search of the Present	1061
Critics on Latin American Poetry
Stephanie Merrim,
Endgames: Sor Juana InÄs de la Cruz	1062
Alastair Reid,
Translating Neruda	1063
Emir Rodriguez Monegal,
Borges and Paz	1063
Suggestions for Writing	1065
Recognizing Excellence	1066
O Moon, when I gaze on thy beautiful face	1068
Grace Treasone,
Life	1068
Emily Dickinson,
A Dying Tiger-moaned for Drink	1069
Rod McKuen,
Thoughts on Capital Punishment	1072
William Stafford,
Traveling Through the Dark	1072
Wallace McRae,
Reincarnation	1073
Recognizing Excellence	1075
William Butler Yeats,
Sailing to Byzantium	1075
Arthur Guiterman,
On the Vanity of Earthly Greatness	1078
Percy Bysshe Shelley,
Ozymandias	1078
Robert Hayden,
The Whipping	1079
Elizabeth Bishop,
One Art	1080
?? Auden,
September 1,	1081
Walt Whitman,
O Captain! My Captain!	1084
Carl Sandburg,
Fog	1086
Emma Lazarus,
The New Colossus	1087
Edgar Allan Poe,
Annabel Lee	1087
Writer's Perspective
Edgar Allan Poe on Writing,
A Long Poem Does Not Exist	1089
Writing Critically
How to Begin Evaluating a Poem	1089
Writing Assignment	1090
Further Suggestions For Writing	1091
What Is Poetry?	1092
Archibald MacLeish,
Ars Poetica	1092
Dante, Samuel Johnson, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth, Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Hardy, Emily Dickinson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, Robert Frost, Wallace Stevens, Mina Loy, T. S. Eliot, W. H. Auden, J. V. Cunningham, Elizabeth Bishop, Jorge Luis Borges, Octavio Paz, William Stafford, Gwendolyn Brooks, Robert Bly,
Some Definitions of Poetry	1093-1094
Ha Jin,
Missed Time	1096
Two Critical Casebooks: Emily Dickinson and Langston Hughes	1097
Emily Dickinson	1097
Success is counted sweetest	1098
Wild Nights - Wild Nights!	1098
Therezs a Certain Slant of Light	1099
I Felt a Funeral, in my Brain	1099
I'm Nobody! Who are you?	1100
The Soul selects her own Society	1100
Some keep the Sabbath going to Church	1100
After great pain, a formal feeling comes	1101
This is my letter to the World	1101
I heard a Fly buzz - when I died	1102
I started Early - Took my Dog	1102
Because I could not stop for Death	1103
The bustle in a House	1104
Tell all the Truth but tell it slant	1104
Emily Dickinson on Emily Dickinson
Recognizing Poetry	1105
Self-Description	1106
Critics on Emily Dickinson
Thomas Wentworth Higginson,
Meeting Emily Dickinson	1108
Thomas H. Johnson,
The Discovery of Emily Dickinson's Manuscripts	1109
Richard Wilbur,
The Three Privations of Emily Dickinson	1111
Cynthia Griffin Wolff,
Dickinson and Death (A Reading of "Because I could not stop for Death")	1112
Judith Farr,
A Reading of "My Life had stood-a Loaded Gun"	1114
Langston Hughes	1116
The Negro Speaks of Rivers	1117
Mother to Son	1117
Dream Variations	1118
I, Too	1118
The Weary Blues	1119
Song for a Dark Girl	1120
Desire Prayer	1120
End Island	1121
Battle of the Landlord	1121
Theme for English B	1122
Subway Rush Hour	1123
Sliver	1123
Harlem [Dream Deferred]	1124
Langston Hughes on Langston Hughes
The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain	1125
The Harlem Renaissance	1126
Critics on Langston Hughes
Arnold Rampersad,
Hughes as an Experimentalist	1128
Rita Dove and Marilyn Nelson,
Langston Hughes and Harlem	1129
Darryl Pinckney,
Black Identity in Langston Hughes	1131
Peter Townsend,
Langston Hughes and Jazz	1132
Onwuchekwa Jemie,
A Reading of "Dream Deferred"	1132
For Further Reading	1136
Suggestions for Writing	1136
Poems for Further Reading	1137
Load Randall	1138
The Three Ravens	1139
The Twa Corbies	1140
Western Wind	1140
Last Words of the Prophet	1141
Matthew Arnold,
Dover Beach	1141
John Ashbery,
At North Farm	1142
Margaret Atwood,
Romantic	1143
W. H. Auden,
As I Walked Out One Evening	1144
W. H. Auden,
MusÄe des Beaux Arts	1146
Elizabeth Bishop,
Filling Station	1147
William Blake,
The Tyger	1149
William Blake,
The Sick Rose	1150
Eavan Boland,
Anorexic	1151
Gwendolyn Brooks,
The Mother	1152
Gwendolyn Brooks,
The Preacher Runi??: Behind the sermon	1153
Elizabeth Barrett Browning,
How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count the Ways	1154
Robert Browning,
Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister	1154
Geoffrey Chaucer,
Merciless Beauty	1157
G. K. Chesterton,
The Donkey	1157
Samuel Taylor Coleridge,
Kubla Khan	1158
Billy Collins,
Care and Feeding	1159
Hart Crane,
My Grandmother's Love Letters	1160
E. E. Cummings,
somewhere i have never travelled, gladly beyond	1161
John Donne,
Death be not proud	1162
John Donne,
The Flea	1163
John Donne,
A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning	1164
Rita Dove,
Summit Beach	1165
John Dryden,
To the Memory of Mr. Oldham	1166
T.S. Eliot,
Journey of the Magi	1167
T.S. Eliot,
The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock	1169
Louise Erdrich,
Indian Boarding School: The Runaways	1173
Bohd Fairchild,
A Starli??t Night	1174
Robert Frost,
Birches	1175
Robert Frost,
Mending Wall	1176
Robert Frost,
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening	1177
Allen Ginsberg,
A Supermarket in California	1178
Dana Gioia,
California Hills in August	1179
Thom Gunn,
The Man with Night Sweats	1180
Donald Hall,
Names of Horses	1181
Thomas Hardy,
The Convergence of the Twain	1182
Thomas Hardy,
The Darkling Thrush	1183
Thomas Hardy,
Hap	1184
Robert Hayden,
Those Winter Sundays	1185
Seamus Heaney,
Digging	1186
Seamus Heaney,
Mother of the Groom	1187
Anthony Hecht,
Adam	1188
George Herbert,
Love	1190
Robert Herrick,
To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time	1191
Gerard Manley Hopkins,
Spring and Fall	1191
Gerard Manley Hopkins,
No worst, there is nine	1192
Gerard Manley Hopkins,
The Windhover	1193
A. E. Housman,
Loveliest of trees, the cherry now	1193
A. E. Housman,
To an Athlete Dying Young	1194
Randall Jarrell,
The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner	1195
Robinson Jeffers,
To the Stone-cutters	1196
Ben Jonson,
On My First Son	1196
Donald Justice,
Counting the Mad	1197
John Keats,
Ode on a Grecian Urn	1197
John Keats,
On First Looking into Chapman's Homer	1199
John Keats,
When I have fears that I may cease to be	1200
John Keats,
To Autumn	1201
Philip Larkin,
Home is so Sad	1202
Philip Larkin,
Poetry of Departures	1203
Irving Layton,
The Bull Calf	1204
Philip Levine,
They Feed Trey Lion	1205
Adrian Louis,
Looking For Judas	1206
Robert Lowell,
Skunk Hour	1206
Andrew Marvell,
To His Coy Mistress	1208
James Merrill,
Kite Poem	1209
Charlotte Mew,
The Farmer's Bride	1200
Edna St. Vincent Millay,
Recuerdo	1211
John Milton,
How soon hath time	1212
John Milton,
When I consider how my light is spent	1212
Marianne Moore,
Poetry	1213
Frederick Morgan,
The Master	1214
Marilyn Nelson,
A Strange Beautiful Woman	1215
Howard Nemerov,
The War in the Air	1216
Lorine Niedecker,
Sorrow Moves in Wide Waves	1217
Yone Noguchi,
A Selection of Hokku	1218
Sharon Olds,
The One Girl at the Boys' Party	1219
Wilfred Owen,
Anthem for Doomed Youth	1220
Linda Pastan,
Ethics	1220
Robert Phillips,
Running on Empty	1221
Sylvia Plath,
Daddy	1222
Edgar Allan Poe,
A Dream within a Dream	1225
Alexander Pope,
A little Learning is a dang'rous Thing	1226
Ezra Pound,
The River-Merchant's Wife: a Letter	1226
Dudley Randall,
A Different Image	1228
John Crowe Ransom,
Piazza Piece	1229
Henry Reed,
Naming of Parts	1229
Adrienne Rich,
Living in Sin	1230
Adrienne Rich,
Power	1231
Edwin Arlington Robinson,
Miniver Cheevy	1232
Theodore Roethke,
Elegy for Jane	1233
Mary Jo Salter,
Welcome to Hiroshima	1234
William Shakespeare,
When, in disgrace with Fortune and men's eyes	1236
William Shakespeare,
Not marble nor the gilded monuments	1237
William Shakespeare,
Weary with toll, I Haste me to my bed	1237
William Shakespeare,
That time of year thou mayst in me behold	1238
William Shakespeare,
My Mistress eyes are nothing like the sun	1238
Louis Simpson,
American Poetry	1239
David R. Slavitt,
Titanic	1239
Christopher Smart,
For I will consider my Cat Jeoffry	1240
William Jay Smith,
American Primitive	1242
Cathy Song,
Stamp Collecting	1243
William Stafford,
The Farm on the Great Plains	1244
Wallace Stevens,
Peter Quince at the Clavier	1245
Wallace Stevens,
The Emperor of Ice-Cream	1247
Ruth Stone,
Second Hand Coat	1248
Jonathan Swift,
A Description of the Morning	1248
Alfred, Lord Tennyson,
Dark house, by which once more I stand	1248
Alfred, Lord Tennyson,
Ulysses	1250
Dylan Thomas,
Fern Hill	1252
John Updike,
Ex-Basketball Player	1253
Amy Uyematsu,
The Ten Million Flames of los Angeles	1255
Derek Walcott,
The Virgins	1257
Edmund Waller,
Go, Lovely Rose	1258
Walt Whitman,
A Noiseless Patient Spider	1258
Walt Whitman,
I Hear America Singing	1259
Richard Wilbur,
The Writer	1260
C. K. Williams,
Elms	1261
William Carlos Williams,
Spring and All	1261
William Carlos Williams,
To Waken an Old Lady	1262
William Wordsworth,
Composed upon Westminster Bridge	1263
James Wright,
A Blessing	1264
James Wright,
Autumn Begins in Martins Ferry, Ohio	265
Mary Sidney Wroth,
In this strange labyrinth	1265
Sir Thomas Wyatt,
They flee from me that sometime did me sekæ	1266
William Butler Yeats,
Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop	1267
William Butler Yeats,
The Magi	1267
William Butler Yeats,
When You Are Old	1267
Lives of the Poets	1269
Drama	1317
Reading a Play	1321
A Play in Its Elements	1323
Susan Glaspell,
Trifles	1323
Was Minnie Wright to blame for the death of her husband? While the menfolk try to unravel a mystery, two women in the kitchen turn up revealing clues.
Tragedy	1338
John Millington Synge,
Riders to the Sea	1339
From her island home off the west coast of Ireland, Maurya has already lost seven loved ones to the sea. How can she stop her youngest son from venturing forth?
Comedy	1349
David Ives,
Sure Thing	1351
Bill wants to pick up Betty in a cafe, but he makes every mistake in the book. Luckily, he not only gets a second chance, but a third and a fourth as well.
Jare Martin,
We've all wanted to be someone else at one time or another. But what would happen if we got our wish?
Writer's Perspective
Susan Glaspell on Drama,
Creating Trifles	1367
Writing Critically
Conflict Resolution	1368
Writing Assignment	1369
Student Essay
Outside Trifles	1369
Further Suggestions for Writing	1374
Critical Casebook: Sophocles	1375
The Theater of Sophocles	1375
Staging	1375
The Civic Role of Greek Drama	1379
Aristotle's Concept of Tragedy	1380
Sophocles	1382
The Origins of Oedipus the King	1382
Oedipus the King (Translated by ?? Fagles)	1383
"Who is the man proclaimed / by Delphi's prophetic rock / as the bloody handed murderer, / the doer of deeds that none dare name? / . . . Terribly close on his heels are the Fates that never miss."
The Background of AntigonÉ	1424
AntigonÉ (Translated by Richart Fagles)	1425
In one of the great plays of classical Greek drama, a daughter of Oedipus strives to give the body of her slain brother a proper burial. Soon she finds herself in conflict with a king.
Robert Fitzgerald on Sophocles
Robert Fitzgerald,
Translating Sophocles	1456
Critics on Sophocles
Defining Tragedy	1457
Sigmund Freud,
The Destiny of Oedipus	1458
E. R. Dodds,
On Misunderstanding Oedipus	1459
A. E. Haigh,
The Irony of Sophocles	1460
Patricia M. Lines,
AntigonÉ's Flaw	1462
Writing Critically
Some Things Change, Some Things Don't	1464
Writing Assignment	1465
Further Suggestions For Writing	1465
Critical Casebook: Shakespeare	1466
The Theater of Shakespeare	1466
William Shakespeare	1468
A Note on Othello	1468
William Shakespeare,
Othello, the Moor of Venice	1469
Here is a story of jealousy, that "green-eyed monster which doth mock / The meat it feeds on"-of a passionate, suspicious man and his blameless wife, of a serpent masked as a friend.
The Background of Hamlet	1568
William Shakespeare,
Hamlet, Prince of Denmark	1569
In perhaps the most celebrated play in English, a ghost demands that young Prince Hamlet avenge his father's "most foul and unnatural murder." But how can Hamlet be sure that the apparition is indeed his father's spirit?
The Background of A Midsummer Night's Dream	1682
William Shakespeare,
A Midsummer Night's Dream	1683
"The course of true love never did run smooth" is the right motto for this romantic comedy in which love, magic, and mistaken identity combine for madcap results.
Ben Jonson on Shakespeare
Ben Jonson,
On His Friend and Rival William Shakespeare	1742
Critics on Shakespeare
A. C. Bradley,
Hamlet's Melancholy	1743
Rebecca West,
Hamlet and Ophelia	1744
Jan Kott,
Producing Hamlet	1745
Joel Wingard,
Reader-Response Issues in Hamlet	1747
W. H. Auden,
Iago as a Triumphant Villain	1748
Maud Bodkin,
Lucifer in Shakespeare's Othello	1749
Virginia Mason Vaughan,
Black and White in Othello	1749
Anthony Burgess,
An Asian Culture Looks at Shakespeare	1750
John Russell Brown,
Recognizing Love in A Midsummer Night's Dream	1751
Germaine Greece,
Shakespeareis "Honest Mirth"
Linda Bamber,
Female Power in A Midsummer Night's Dream	1754
Writing Critically
Breaking the Language Barrier	1755
Writing Assignment	1755
Student Essay
Othello: Tragedy or Soap Opera?	1756
Further Suggestions For Writing	1761
The Modern Theater	1762
Realism and Naturalism	1762
Henrik Ibsen,
A Doll's House (Translated by James McFarlane)	1765
The founder of modern drama portrays a troubled marriage. Helmer, the bank manager, regards his wife Nora as a chuckleheaded pet-not knowing the truth may shatter his smug world.
Writer's Perspective
George Bernard Shaw on Drama,
Ibsen and the Familiar Situation	1822
Tragicomedy and the Absurd	1823
Tom Stoppard,
The Real Inspector Hound	1826
An isolated mansion, an escaped madman roaming the countryside, a drawing room full of suspects, and murder most foul. Who is the culprit? Perhaps Moon should never have asked.
Milcha Sanchez-Scatt,
The Cuban Swimmer	2023
Nineteen-year-old Margarita Sudrez wants to ?? a Southern California distance swimming race. Is her family behind her? Quire biterally!
Writer's Perspective
Milcha Sanchez-Scott on Drama,
Writing The Cuban Swimmer	2037
Writing Critically
What's So Realistic About Realism?	1867
Writing Assignment	1867
Student Essay
Helmer vs. Helmer	1868
Further Suggestions For Writing	1871
Evaluating a Play	1872
Writing Critically
Critical Performance	1873
Writing Assignment	1874
Further Suggestions For Writing	1874
Plays for Further Reading	1876
Arthur Miller,
Death of a Salesman	1877
Willy Loman has bright dreams for himself and his two sons, but he is an aging salesman whose only assets are a shoeshine and a smile. A modern classic about the downfall of an ordinary American.
Writer's Perspective
Arthur Miller on Drama,
Tragedy and the Common Man	1948
Tennessee Williams,
The Glass Menagerie	1951
Painfully shy and retiring, shunning love, Laura dwells in a world as fragile as her collection of tiny figurines-until one memorable night a gentleman comes to call.
Writer's Perspective
Tennessee Williams on Drama,
How to Stage The Glass Menagerie	2000
New Voices in American Drama	2003
Beth Henley,
Am I Blue Writer's Per Spective
Beth Henley,
A Playwright Is Born
His friends want to give John Polk a good time for his eighteenth birthday, but he finds something much more valuable instead.
David Henry Hwang,
The Sound of a Voice	2003
A strange man arrives at a solitary woman's home in the remote countryside. As they fall in love, they discover disturbing secrets about one another's past.
Writer's Perspective
David Henry Hwang on Drama,
Multicultural Theater	2018
Terrence McNally,
Andre's Mother	2019
After Andre's funeral the four people who loved him most walk into Central Park together. Three of them talk about their grief, but Andre's mother remains silent about her son, dead of AIDS.
Writer's Perspective
Terrence McNally on Drama,
How to Write a Play	2022
August Wilson,
Joe Turner's Come and Gone	2038
When Herald Loomis turns up at Seth Holly's boardinghouse, he arouses suspicion. And why is the voodoo man out in the garden burying a pigeon and praying over its blood?
Writer's Perspective
August Wilson on Drama,
Black Experience in America	2087
Writing	2089
Writing About Literature	2091
Beginning	2091
Keeping a Journal
Using Sources and Maintaining Academic Integrity
Taking Notes and Documenting Researched Material
Discovering Essay Ideas
Drafting and Revising, or Creativity vs. Analysis
The Form of Your Finished Paper
Using Spell-Check and Grammer-Check Programs
Anonymous, after a poem by Jerrold H. Zar,
A Little Poem Regarding Computer S?? heckers
Writing About a Story	2116
Explicating	2116
Sample Student Essay (Explication)	2117
Analyzing	2121
Sample Student Essay (Analysis)	2122
Sample Student Card Report	2126
Comparing and Contrasting	2128
Suggestions for Writing	2130
Writing About a Poem	2134
Explicating	2135
Robert Frost,
Design	2136
Sample Student Essay (Explication)	2136
Analyzing	2141
Sample Student Essay (Analysis)	2142
Comparing and Contrasting	2144
Abbie Huston Evans,
Wing-Spread	2144
Sample Student Essay (Comparison)	2145
How to Quote a Poem	2147
Before You Begin	2150
Suggestions for Writing	2151
Robert Frost,
In White (early draft of "Design")	2153
Writing About a Play	2155
Methods	2155
How to Quote a Play	2157
Writing a Card Report	2158
Sample Student Card Report	2160
Reviewing a Play	2162
Sample Student Drama Review	2163
Suggestions for Writing	2165
Writing a Research Paper
Doing Research for an Essay
Evaluating and Using Internet Sources
Guarding Academic Integrity
Acknowledging and Documenting Sources
Concluding Thoughts
Reference Guide for Citations
Critical Approaches to Literature	2168
Formalist Criticism	2169
Cleanth Brooks,
The Formalist Critic	2170
Michael Clark,
Light and Darkness in "Sonny's Blues"	2171
Robert Langbaum,
On Robert Browning's "My Last Duchess"	2172
Biographical Criticism	2174
Virginia Llewellyn Smith,
Chekhov's Attitude to Romantic Love	2175
Brett C. Millier,
On Elizabeth Bishop's "One Art"	2177
Emily Toth,
The Source for AlcÄe LaballiÅre in "The Storm"
Historical Criticism	2180
Hugh Kenner,
Imagism	2181
Joseph Moldenhauer,
"To His Coy Mistress" and the Renaissance Tradition	2182
Barbara T. Christian,
"Everyday use" and the Black Power Movement
Psychological Criticism	2185
Sigmund Freud,
The Nature of Dreams	2186
Gfetchen Sa??uiz and R. T. R. Rockwood,
Fairy Jale Motifs in "Where Are You Gazy, Where Have You Been?"
Harold Bloom,
Poetic Influence	2189
Mythological Criticism	2189
C. J. Jung,
The Collective Unconscious and Archetypes	2190
Northrop Frye,
Mythic Archetypes	2191
Edmond Volpe,
Myth in Faulkner's "Barn Burning"	2192
Sociological Criticism	2194
Georg Lukacs,
Content Determines Form	2195
Daniel P. Watkins,
Money and Labor in "The Rocking-Horse Winner"	2196
Alfred Kazin,
Walt Whitman and Abraham Lincoln	2197
Gender Criticism	2198
Elaine Showalter,
Toward a Feminist Poetics	2199
Juliann Fleenor,
Gender and Pathology in "The Yellow Wallpaper"	2200
Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar,
The Freedom of Emily Dickinson	2201
Reader-Response Criticism	2202
Stanley Fish,
An Eskimo "A Rose for Emily"	2203
Robert Scholes,
"How Do We Make a Poem?"	2204
Michael J. Colacurcio,
The End of Young Goodman Brown	2206
Deconstructionist Criticism	2207
Roland Barthes,
The Death of the Author	2208
Barbara Johnson,
Rigorous Unreliability	2209
Geoffrey Hartman,
On Wordsworth's "A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal"	2210
Cultural Studies	2212
Vincent b. Leitch,
Poststructuralist Cultural Critique	2214
Mark Bauerlein,
What is Cultural Studies?	2215
Heather Glen,
The Stance of Observation in William Blake's "London"	2216
Glossary of Literary Terms	G1
Acknowledgments	A1
Index of First Lines of Poetry	I8
Index of Authors and Titles	I13
List of Authors (front endpapers)
Index of Literary Terms (back endpapers)

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Literature Collections