Table of contents for Zoology / Stephen A. Miller, John P. Harley.


Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog. Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication information provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


Counter
EXPANDED CONTENTS
PART ONE 
BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES 1
Chapter 1 
ZOOLOGY: AN EVOLUTIONARY AND ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE 2
Outline 2
Concepts 2
Zoology: An Evolutionary Perspective 3
Zoology: An Ecological Perspective 5
WILDLIFE ALERT+AN OVERVIEW OF THE PROBLEMS 7
Summary 8
Selected Key Terms 8
Critical Thinking Questions 8
Online Learning Center 8
Chapter 2 
CELLS, TISSUES, ORGANS, AND 
ORGAN SYSTEMS OF ANIMALS 9
Outline 9
Concepts 9
What Are Cells? 9
Why Are Most Cells Small? 10
Cell Membranes 10
Movement Across Membranes 13
Cytoplasm, Organelles, and Cellular Components 16
The Nucleus: Information Center 22
Tissues 22
Organs 27
ORGAN SYSTEMS 27
WILDLIFE ALERT+KEY DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS CLAVIUM) 28
Summary 29
Selected Key Terms 29
Critical Thinking Questions 29
Online Learning Center 30
Chapter 3
CELL DIVISION AND INHERITANCE 31
Outline 31
Concepts 31
Eukaryotic Chromosomes 32
Mitotic Cell Division 33
Meiosis: The Basis of Sexual Reproduction 35
DNA: The Genetic Material 37
Inheritance Patterns in Animals 41
WILDLIFE ALERT+PRESERVING GENETIC DIVERSITY 48
Summary 48
Selected Key Terms 49
Critical Thinking Questions 49
Online Learning Center 49
Chapter 4 
EVOLUTION: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 51
Outline 51
Concepts 51
Evidence of Evolution 52
Pre-Darwinian Theories of Change 56
Darwin's Early Years and His Journey 57
Early Development of Darwin's Ideas of Evolution 58
The Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection 59
WILDLIFE ALERT+THE IOWA PLEISTOCENE SNAIL (DISCUS MACCLINTOCKI) 62
Summary 62
Selected Key Terms 63
Critical Thinking Questions 63
Online Learning Center 63
Chapter 5 
EVOLUTION AND GENE FREQUENCIES 64
Outline 64
Concepts 64
The Modern Synthesis: A Closer Look 65
Must Evolution Happen? 65
Evolutionary Mechanisms 65
Species and Speciation 69
Rates of Evolution 71
Molecular Evolution 72
Mosaic Evolution 72
WILDLIFE ALERT+THE EAST AFRICAN BLACK RHINOCEROS (DICEROS BICORNIS MICHAELI) 73
Summary 74
Selected Key Terms 74
Critical Thinking Questions 74
Online Learning Center 74
Chapter 6
ECOLOGY: PRESERVING THE ANIMAL KINGDOM 75
Outline 75
Concepts 75
Animals and Their Abiotic Environment 76
Populations 77
Interspecific Interactions 78
Communities 80
Trophic Structure of Ecosystems 83
CYCLING WITHIN ECOSYSTEMS 84
Ecological Problems 85
WILDLIFE ALERT+KIRTLAND'S WARBLER (DENDROICA KIRTLANDII) 87
Summary 88
Selected Key Terms 88
Critical Thinking Questions 88
Online Learning Center 88
PART TWO 
ANIMAL-LIKE PROTISTS AND ANIMALIA 89
Chapter 7 
ANIMAL CLASSIFICATION, PHYLOGENY, AND ORGANIZATION 90
Outline 90
Concepts 90
Classification of Organisms 91
Evolutionary Relationships and Tree Diagrams 96
Patterns of Organization 97
Higher Animal Taxonomy 100
WILDLIFE ALERT+OZARK BIG-EARED BAT (PLECOTUS TOWNSENDII INGENS) 103
Summary 104
Selected Key Terms 104
Critical Thinking Questions 104
Online Learning Center 104
Chapter 8 
ANIMAL-LIKE PROTISTS: THE PROTOZOA 105
Outline 105
Concepts 105
Evolutionary Perspective 105
Life Within a Single Plasma Membrane 106
Symbiotic Lifestyles 107
Protozoan Taxonomy 108
Phylum Sarcomastigophora 108
Phylum Labyrinthomorpha 113
Phylum Apicomplexa 113
Phylum Microspora 115
Phylum Acetospora 115
Phylum Myxozoa 116
Phylum Ciliophora 116
Further Phylogenetic Considerations 118
WILDLIFE ALERT+THE KENTUCKY CAVE SHRIMP (PALAEMONIAS GANTERI) 119
Summary 120
Selected Key Terms 120
Critical Thinking Questions 120
Online Learning Center 120
Chapter 9 
MULTICELLULAR AND TISSUE LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION 121
Outline 121
Concepts 121
Evolutionary Perspective 121
Phylum Porifera 122
Phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterata) 127
Phylum Ctenophora 137
Further Phylogenetic Considerations 138
WILDLIFE ALERT+CORAL REEFS 139
Summary 140
Selected Key Terms 140
Critical Thinking Questions 140
Online Learning Center 140
Chapter 10 
THE TRIPLOBLASTIC, ACOELOMATE BODY PLAN 141
Outline 141
Concepts 141
Evolutionary Perspective 141
Phylum Platyhelminthes 142
Phylum Nemertea 152
Phylum Gastrotricha 154
Further Phylogenetic Considerations 154
WILDLIFE ALERT+AMERICAN CROCODILE 
(CROCODYLUS ACUTUS) 155
Summary 156
Selected Key Terms 156
Critical Thinking Questions 156
Online Learning Center 156
Chapter 11
THE PSEUDOCOELOMATE BODY PLAN: ASCHELMINTHS 157
Outline 157 
Concepts 157
Evolutionary Perspective 157
General Characteristics 158
Phylum Rotifera 159
Phylum Kinorhyncha 162
Phylum Nematoda 162
Phylum Nematomorpha 167
Phylum Acanthocephala 168
Phylum Loricifera 169
Phylum Priapulida 169
Further Phylogenetic Considerations 170
WILDLIFE ALERT+INDIANA BAT (MYOTIS SODALIS) 171
Summary 172
Selected Key Terms 172
Critical Thinking Questions 172
Online Learning Center 172
Chapter 12 
MOLLUSCAN SUCCESS 173
Outline 173
Concepts 173
Evolutionary Perspective 173
Molluscan Characteristics 174
Class Gastropoda 176
Class Bivalvia 180
Class Cephalopoda 182
Class Polyplacophora 186
Class Scaphopoda 186
Class Monoplacophora 187
Class Caudofoveata 187
Class Aplacophora 187
Further Phylogenetic Considerations 187
WILDLIFE ALERT+FAT POCKETBOOK MUSSEL (POTAMILUS CAPAX) 189
Summary 190
Selected Key Terms 190
Critical Thinking Questions 190
Online Learning Center 190
Chapter 13 
ANNELIDA: THE METAMERIC BODY FORM 191
Outline 191
Concepts 191
Evolutionary Perspective 191
Class Polychaeta 194
Class Oligochaeta 199
Class Hirudinea 201
Further Phylogenetic Considerations 203
WILDLIFE ALERT+THE HINE'S EMERALD DRAGONFLY (STOMATOCHLORA HINEANA) 204
SUMMARY 205
Selected Key Terms 205
Critical Thinking Questions 205
Online Learning Center 205
Chapter 14 
THE ARTHROPODS: BLUEPRINT FOR SUCCESS 206
Outline 206
Concepts 206
Evolutionary Perspective 206
Metamerism and Tagmatization 207
The Exoskeleton 207
Metamorphosis 208
Subphylum Trilobitomorpha 209
Subphylum Chelicerata 210
Subphylum Crustacea 216
Further Phylogenetic Considerations 222
WILDLIFE ALERT+A CAVE CRAYFISH (CAMBARUS ACULABRUM) 223
Summary 224
Selected Key Terms 224
Critical Thinking Questions 224
Online Learning Center 224
Chapter 15 
THE HEXAPODS AND MYRIAPODS: TERRESTRIAL TRIUMPHS 225
Outline 225
Concepts 225
Evolutionary Perspective 225
Class Diplopoda 226
Class Chilopoda 226
Classes Pauropoda and Symphyla 226
Class Hexapoda 227
Further Phylogenetic Considerations 237
WILDLIFE ALERT+THE KARNER BLUE BUTTERFLY (LYCAEIDES MELISSA SAMUELIS) 238
Summary 239
Selected Key Terms 240
Critical Thinking Questions 240
Online Learning Center 240
Chapter 16 
THE ECHINODERMS 241
Outline 241
Concepts 241
Evolutionary Perspective 241
Echinoderm Characteristics 242
Class Asteroidea 243
Class Ophiuroidea 246
Class Echinoidea 247
Class Holothuroidea 248
WILDLIFE ALERT+IMPERILED SEA CUCUMBERS (ISOTICHOPUS FUSCUS) 250
Class Crinoidea 251
Class Concentricycloidea 252
Further Phylogenetic Considerations 252
Summary 253
Selected Key Terms 254
Critical Thinking Questions 254
Online Learning Center 254
Chapter 17 
HEMICHORDATA AND INVERTEBRATE CHORDATES 255
Outline 255
Concepts 255
Evolutionary Perspective 255
Phylum Hemichordata 256
Phylum Chordata 258
FURTHER PHYLOGENETIC CONSIDERATIONS 262
WILDLIFE ALERT+THE GILA TROUT (ONCHORHYNCUS GILAE) 264
Summary 264
Selected Key Terms 265
Critical Thinking Questions 265
Online Learning Center 265
Chapter 18 
THE FISHES: VERTEBRATE SUCCESS IN WATER 266
Outline 266
Concepts 266
Evolutionary Perspective 266
Survey of Fishes 267
Evolutionary Pressures 275
Further Phylogenetic Considerations 281
WILDLIFE ALERT+THE PALLID STURGEON (SCAPHIRHYNCHUS ALBUS) 282
Summary 283
Selected Key Terms 283
Critical Thinking Questions 283
Online Learning Center 283
Chapter 19 
AMPHIBIANS: THE FIRST TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES 284
Outline 284
Concepts 284
Evolutionary Perspective 284
Survey of Amphibians 285
Evolutionary Pressures 287
Amphibians in Peril 296
Further Phylogenetic Considerations 296
WILDLIFE ALERT+RED HILLS SALAMANDER (PHAEOGNATHUS HUBRICHTI) 298
Summary 298
Selected Key Terms 299
Critical Thinking Questions 299
Online Learning Center 299
Chapter 20 
REPTILES: THE FIRST AMNIOTES 300
Outline 300
Concepts 300
Evolutionary Perspective 300
Survey of the Reptiles 302
Evolutionary Pressures 306
WILDLIFE ALERT+KEMP'S RIDLEY SEA TURTLE (LEPIDOCHELYS KEMPII) 312
Further Phylogenetic Considerations 313
Summary 313
Selected Key Terms 313
Critical Thinking Questions 313
Online Learning Center 314
Chapter 21 
BIRDS: FEATHERS, FLIGHT, AND ENDOTHERMY 315
Outline 315
Concepts 315
Evolutionary Perspective 315
Evolutionary Pressures 317
WILDLIFE ALERT+RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER (PICOIDES BOREALIS) 329
Summary 330
Selected Key Terms 330
CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS 330
Online Learning Center 330
Chapter 22 
MAMMALS: SPECIALIZED TEETH, 
ENDOTHERMY, HAIR, AND VIVIPARITY 331
Outline 331
Concepts 331
Evolutionary Perspective 331
Diversity of Mammals 332
Evolutionary Pressures 334
WILDLIFE ALERT+THE SOUTHERN (CALIFORNIA) SEA OTTER (ENHYDRA LUTRIS NEREIS) 345
Summary 347
Selected Key Terms 347
Critical Thinking Questions 347
Online Learning Center 347
PART THREE 
FORM AND FUNCTION: A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE 349
Chapter 23 
PROTECTION, SUPPORT, AND MOVEMENT 350
Outline 350
Concepts 350
Protection: Integumentary Systems 350
Movement and Support: Skeletal Systems 355
Movement: Nonmuscular Movement and Muscular Systems 359
Summary 367
Selected Key Terms 367
Critical Thinking Questions 368
Online Learning Center 368
Chapter 24 
COMMUNICATION I: NERVOUS AND SENSORY SYSTEMS 369
Outline 369
Concepts 369
Neurons: The Basic Functional Units of the Nervous System 370
Neuron Communication 371
Invertebrate Nervous Systems 373
Vertebrate Nervous Systems 376
Sensory Reception 381
Invertebrate Sensory Receptors 381
Vertebrate Sensory Receptors 385
Summary 394
Selected Key Terms 395
Critical Thinking Questions 395
Online Learning Center 395
Chapter 25 
COMMUNICATION II: THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM AND CHEMICAL MESSENGERS 396
Outline 396
Concepts 396
Chemical Messengers 397
Hormones and Their Feedback Systems 397
Mechanisms of Hormone Action 398
Some Hormones of Invertebrates 399
An Overview of the Vertebrate Endocrine System 402
Endocrine Systems of Vertebrates Other Than Birds or Mammals 402
Endocrine Systems of Birds and Mammals 405
Summary 412
Selected Key Terms 413
Critical Thinking Questions 413
Online Learning Center 413
Chapter 26 
CIRCULATION AND GAS EXCHANGE 414
OUTLINE 414
Concepts 414
Internal Transport and Circulatory Systems 414
Gas Exchange 423
Summary 431
Selected Key Terms 431
Critical Thinking Questions 431
Online Learning Center 431
Chapter 27 
NUTRITION AND DIGESTION 433
Outline 433
Concepts 433
Evolution of Nutrition 434
The Metabolic Fates of Nutrients in Heterotrophs 434
Digestion 436
Animal Strategies for Getting and Using Food 436
Diversity in Digestive Structures: Invertebrates 439
Diversity in Digestive Structures: Vertebrates 442
The Mammalian Digestive System 446
Summary 453
Selected Key Terms 453
Critical Thinking Questions 453
Online Learning Center 454
Chapter 28 
TEMPERATURE AND BODY FLUID 
REGULATION 455
Outline 455
Concepts 455
Homeostasis and Temperature Regulation 455
Control of Water and Solutes (Osmoregulation and Excretion) 461
Invertebrate Excretory Systems 463
Vertebrate Excretory Systems 465
Summary 472
Selected Key Terms 473
Critical Thinking Questions 473
Online Learning Center 473
Chapter 29 
REPRODUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT 474
Outline 474
Concepts 474
Asexual Reproduction in Invertebrates 474
Sexual Reproduction in Invertebrates 476
Sexual Reproduction in Vertebrates 478
Examples of Reproduction among Various Vertebrate Classes 478
The Human Male Reproductive System 479
The Human Female Reproductive System 483
Prenatal Development and Birth 487
Summary 491
Selected Key Terms 491
Critical Thinking Questions 491
Online Learning Center 491
Chapter 30 
THE CHEMICAL BASIS OF ANIMAL LIFE*
Outline
Concepts
Atoms and Elements: Building Blocks of All Matter
Compounds and Molecules: Aggregates of Atoms
Acids, Bases, and Buffers
The Molecules of Animals
Summary
Selected Key Terms
Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 31 
ENERGY AND ENZYMES: LIFE'S 
DRIVING FORCES*
Outline
Concepts
What is Energy?
The Laws of Energy Transformations
ACTIVATION ENERGY
Enzymes: Biological Catalysts
Cofactors and Coenzymes
ATP: The Cell's Energy Currency
Summary
Selected Key Terms
Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 32 
HOW ANIMALS HARVEST ENERGY STORED IN NUTRIENTS*
Outline
Concepts
Glycolysis: The First Phase of Nutrient Metabolism 
Aerobic Respiration: The Major Source of ATP
Metabolism of Fats and Proteins: Alternative Food Molecules
Control of Metabolism
The Metabolic Pool
Summary
Selected Key Terms
Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 33 
EMBRYOLOGY*
Outline
Concepts
Fertilization
Embryonic Development, Cleavage, and Egg Types
The Primary Germ Layers and Their Derivatives
Echinoderm Embryology
Vertebrate Embryology
Summary
Selected Key Terms
Critical Thinking Questions
Chapter 34 
ANIMAL BEHAVIOR*
Outline
Concepts
Four Approaches to Animal Behavior
Proximate and Ultimate Causes
Anthropomorphism
Development of Behavior
Learning
Control of Behavior
Communication
Behavioral Ecology
Social Behavior
Summary
Selected Key Terms
Critical Thinking Questions
Glossary 493
Credits 521
Index 525




Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Zoology