Table of contents for National security for a new era : globalization and geopolitics / Donald M. Snow.


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Contents
Preface	xi
		Introduction: Framing the Problem 
of National Security	1
The Nature of Change	2
How Much Has Changed?	2
New Dynamics in the Environment	4
Globalization and Geopolitics	9
Conclusions: Quo Vadis?	11
Selected Bibliography	12
PART I THE CONTEXT 13
	CHAPTER 1	Fault Lines: World Politics in a 
New Millennium	15
The First Fault Line: The World after the Cold War	18
Undeniable Benefits	20
Debatable Changes	22
The Second Fault Line: The World after September 11	26
AMPLIFICATION 1.1: The Rules of War: Who is a POW?	30
The Nature of the System: A World of Tiers	31
The First Tier	32
The Second Tier	35
Intersecting the Tiers	37
Dynamics of the New System: Globalization and/
or Geopolitics	37
AMPLIFICATION 1.2: System Changes and 
Continuity, 1900 and 2000	38
The American Role in the New World System	39
Conclusion: The Continuing Role of Force	42
Selected Bibliography	43
	CHAPTER 2	Geopolitics: America and the 
Realist Paradigm	45
Realism and the Realist Paradigm	48
Basic Concepts and Relationships	49
Sovereignty	50
Vital Interests	51
AMPLIFICATION 2.1: Finding the Boundary between Vital and Less-Than-Vital 
Interests	53
Power Politics	54
Challenge!: Justifying the U.S. Invasion of Afghanistan	55
AMPLIFICATION 2.2: Measuring Power	57
Paradigm Summary	59
Critiques and Anomalies of the Realist Paradigm	60
Critiques	61
AMPLIFICATION 2.3: The Limits of Power: 
Dealing with Saddam	62
Anomalies	66
Conclusion: The Realist Paradigm Today	68
Selected Bibliography	70
	CHAPTER 3	The American Experience	71
Conditioning Factors in the American Tradition	72
American Ahistoricism	72
Accident of Geography	74
AMPLIFICATION 3.1: Dealing with Dependence 
on Persian Gulf Oil	75
The Anglo-Saxon Heritage	76
Evolution of the American Experience	77
The Formative Period: 1789/1945	77
Antimilitary Bias	78
The Citizen-Soldier	79
The Myth of Invincibility	79
Mobilization and Demobilization	80
AMPLIFICATION 3.2: Readiness and Pearl Harbor	81
Total War Preference	81
The Cold War: 1945/89	83
The Role of the Media	85
AMPLIFICATION 3.3: The Media and the Persian Gulf War	87
The Impact of Democratic Institutions	88
Conclusion: The Contemporary Period: 1989/Present	89
Challenge!: How Much Has Changed?	91
Selected Bibliography	92
	CHAPTER 4	The Nature and End of the Cold War	93
The Cold War System	95
Characteristics	97
AMPLIFICATION 4.1: Better Dead than Red? 
Better Red than Dead?	99
Sources of Change	100
Forms of Military Competition	102
Conventional Forces	104
Nuclear Forces	106
AMPLIFICATION 4.2: The Capitalist Bomb	108
Deadlock of the Competition	109
The Economic Dimension	110
The Military Dimension	111
Convergence	112
Cold War Residues	115
Russia and the Successor States	115
AMPLIFICATION 4.3: Chechnya and the Pipeline	117
The European Security Problem	118
Challenge!: The Former Soviet Union and the War on 
Terrorism	119
Conclusion: The End of the Cold War in Perspective	121
Selected Bibliography	122
	CHAPTER 5	The Rise of Globalization	123
The Bretton Woods System, 1945/71	125
The Setting	125
The Bretton Woods Institutions	127
AMPLIFICATION 5.1: The ITO and the Anti/Free Traders	129
The Breakdown of Bretton Woods	131
The Transitional Period, 1971/90	133
American Decline	134
Amplification 5.2: The Declinist Thesis	135
American Revival	136
The Globalizing Economy, 1990/Present	138
Characteristics and Values	139
The Mechanics of Globalization	143
Challenge!: How Important Are Balanced 
Budgets and Free Trade?	144
Barriers to Globalization	147
AMPLIFICATION 5.3: The Rejectionists	148
Conclusion: Globalization and American Security	150
Selected Bibliography	151
PART II THE CHANGING WORLD 153
	CHAPTER 6	Security, Interests, and Power	155
Thinking about Security	156
Military and Nonmilitary Elements of Security	157
Challenge!: Defining Terrorism as a Security Threat	159
AMPLIFICATION 6.1: Israel, Syria, the Golan 
Heights, and Water	161
Levels of Security	162
Changing Concepts of Security	165
Thinking about Interests	166
Levels of Interests	166
Security and Interests in the Contemporary Environment	170
AMPLIFICATION 6.2: Should the United States Be in Kosovo?	173
Applying Instruments of Power	174
Using the Instruments	174
The Contemporary Balance of Instruments of Power	176
Conclusion: The Changing Nature of Influence	178
Selected Bibliography	179
	CHAPTER 7	The Foreign and Domestic Environments	181
Competing Images of the International Environment	183
Kaplan: The Coming Anarchy	183
Friedman: Globalization	185
Reconciling Worldviews	187
The Impact of Domestic Politics	188
The Executive Branch	190
AMPLIFICATION 7.1: The President, the Constitution, and 
National Security	192
The Congress	196
AMPLIFICATION 7.2: The Congress, the Constitution, and 
National Security	198
Applications: Responding to the Environment	202
The Department of Homeland Security	202
Military Manpower	204
Military Reform and the QDR	206
Challenge!: Military Service after September 11, 2001	207
AMPLIFICATION 7.3: The Goldwater-Nichols Act	209
Conclusion: The Environment since September 11, 2001	210
Selected Bibliography	211
	CHAPTER 8	Traditional Military Problems	212
Nuclear Forces and Deterrence	214
Seminal Events of the Nuclear Age	214
The Nature of the Competition	218
Theories of Deterrence	219
Nuclear Residues	223
AMPLIFICATION 8.1: The Chinese Threat	225
Conventional Forces and the Future	227
Challenge!: Taking Out Saddam	228
Traditional Roles	229
Military Reform	231
AMPLIFICATION 8.2: Light and Heavy Forces?	232
Force Modernization and the 2001 QDR	233
Conclusion: The Continuing Relevance of the 
Traditional Forces	236
AMPLIFICATION 8.3: Creighton Abrams and the Role of the Reserves	237
Selected Bibliography	239
PART III NEW CHALLENGES 241
	CHAPTER 9	The "New Kind of War"	243
Symmetrical and Asymmetrical War	246
Evolution of Asymmetrical Warfare	247
AMPLIFICATION 9.1: Sun Tzu on Asymmetrical Warfare	249
The Contemporary Setting	250
Asymmetrical Futures?	257
Fourth-Generation Warfare	257
New Internal Wars	261
Amplification 9.2: The "Battle" for Sierra Leone	263
Conclusion: New Form or New Face of War?	266
Challenge!: Is There a New Kind of War?	267
Selected Bibliography	267
	CHAPTER 10	Nontraditional and Other Security Threats	269
Regional Conflicts	270
The Israeli/Palestinian Conflict	272
The Indian/Pakistani Conflict	277
Terrorism	282
Challenge!: Dealing with Irresolvable Differences	283
Characteristics of Terrorism	284
AMPLIFICATION 10.1: Schools for Terrorists: The Madrassas System	289
Dealing with Terrorism	290
Terrorism and National Security	293
AMPLIFICATION 10.2: Should Force Be Used to Root Out Terrorism?	295
The Problem of Drugs	295
Drugs as a Security Problem	296
The War on Drugs	296
Ongoing Problems	298
Conclusion: Expanded Roles and Means	299
Selected Bibliography	300
	CHAPTER 11	Peacekeeping and State-Building: 
The New Dilemma	302
Failed and Failing States: The Context	305
What Is a Failed State?	306
AMPLIFICATION 11.1: Indonesia as a Potentially Failing State	308
Failed States and National Security	311
Concepts and Forms of Intervention	313
Basic Distinctions	314
Peacekeeping	317
State-Building	319
Amplification 11.2: The Talk-Shoot Relationship in Peacekeeping	320
AMPLIFICATION 11.3: KFOR and UNMIK	326
Conclusion: The New World Order?	328
Challenge!: What Should We Do in Afghanistan?	329
Selected Bibliography	330
	CHAPTER 12	The Geopolitics of Globalization	332
Globalization as a Geopolitical Phenomenon	333
Globalization and the American Decade of the 1990s	335
AMPLIFICATION 12.1: China, Taiwan, Guns, and Butter	336
Challenges to American Leadership from the 1990s	338
AMPLIFICATION 12.2: The S&L and Corporate Scandals	339
The Impact of September 11, 2001	341
Globalization and Terrorism	341
Short-Term Incompatibilities	343
Long-Term Compatibilities	348
AMPLIFICATION 12.3: The Israeli Campaign against Palestinian "Terrorism"	350
The Case of Afghanistan	351
Conclusion: Reconciling Globalization and Terrorism	354
Challenge!: Will Globalization Really Work?	356
Selected Bibliography	356
PART IV THE FUTURE 359
	CHAPTER 13	Globalization and Geopolitics	361
The Future of Geopolitics and National Security	363
AMPLIFICATION 13.1: The SECDEF on Future Force	364
The Future of Globalization	369
Where Globalization and Geopolitics Meet	373
AMPLIFICATION 13.2: Friedman and Kaplan Reprised	374
Conclusion: What Makes Us Secure? What Makes Us Prosperous?	377
Challenge!: Visions of the Violent Future	380
Selected Bibliography	380 
Index	381




Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: National security United States, United States Military policy, World politics 1995-2005