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[House - contents] Foreword Harry Triandis Preface Part I 1. Introduction Robert J. House [ADD HEAD 1s] 2. Overview of GLOBE Robert J. House Mansour Javidan The Three Phases of GLOBE Major Questions Concerning the Effects of Cultures and the Practice of Leadership. The Need for Cross-Cultural Leadership Theory and Research The GLOBE Research Program Qualitative Research Construct Definitions of Leadership And Culture GLOBE Operational Definition of Culture The GLOBE Conceptual Model Two Fundamental Cross-Cultural Issues Construct Definitions The GLOBE Questionnaire Scales Questionnaire development and validation Phase 2 Hypotheses Phase 2: Universal and Culturally Contingent CLT dimensions. Strengths of the GLOBE Research Design Contributions Conclusion And Future Appendix: Structural Contingency Theory 3. A Nontechnical Summary of GLOBE Findings Mansour Javidan Robert J. House Societal Cultures Societal Culture and Organizational Culture Culture and Societal Effectiveness Culture and Leadership Leadership Profiles of Culture Clusters Culture Dimensions and Leadership CLTs References Part II Paul Hanges 4. Cultural Influences on Organizational Leadership Peter Dorfman Robert House Cultural Convergence: How Far Will It Go? Varied Perspectives of Leadership Western-Dominated Leadership Research The GLOBE Definition of Leadership Varied Perspective on Culture Prior Empirical Research: Culture and Leadership Leadership Topics Studied Within a Cross-Cultural Leadership Framework Origin of leaders Modernization Unique Role Demands of Leaders Antecedents to Preferred Leader Behavior Leader Prototypes Preferences for Leadership Styles Leadership Behavior Patterns Behavioral Impact of Leadership Non-Western Conceptualizations of Leadership Three Competing Propositions: Cultural Congruence, Cultural Difference, and/ or Near Universality of Leader Behaviors The Cultural Congruence Proposition The Cultural Difference Proposition The Near Universality of Leader Behaviors Proposition Conclusion: Cultural Influences on Leadership and GLOBE Goals Summary: Anticipated Theoretical and Practical Contributions of Project GLOBE 5. The impact of societal culture and industry on organizational culture: Theoretical explanations Marcus Dickson Renee BeShers Vipin Gupta GLOBE's Cultural Dimensions: Values And Practices Levels Of Impact On Organizational Culture Explanatory Mechanisms Additional Mechanisms Of Influence Concluding Examples and Research Agenda Part III Hanges 6. Research Design Robert House Paul Hanges Peter Dorfman Sampling Design Sampling of individuals Sampling of organizations and industries Sampling of societal cultures Summary GLOBE Measures Version Alpha and Beta Archival databases Unit of Analysis 7. The Linkage Between GLOBE Findings And Other Cross Cultural Information Mansour Javidan Markus Hauser The Human Development Report Global Competitiveness Rankings By The World Economic Forum World Development Indicators The World Values Survey Creating the relevant archival data factors Economic Health Success With Science and Technology Human Condition Societal values The Impact of National Wealth 8. The Development and Validation of the GLOBE Culture and Leadership Scales Paul Hanges Marcus Dickson Phase 1: Questionnaire Scale Development Construct Specification Dimension Specification and Item Generation Item Review Process Pilot Studies Phase 2: Final Sample and Confirmation of Measurement Scales Samples Statistical Analyses Results for Phase 2 Construct Validation Conclusions 9. Multi-source Construct Validity of GLOBE Scales Vipin Gupta Mary Sully de Luque Robert House Introduction Part I: Developing Unobtrusive Measures of GLOBE's Societal Cultural Practices Scales Archival Data and Objective Correlates Content Analysis The Research Design Applying the framework for content analysis Searching for suitable data Searching for contextual knowledge Strategy Development and Defining Measurements Testing a Coding Scheme Assessing Quality and Accuracy Assessing Generalizability Summary and Limitations of Unobtrusive Measures and Archival Data Part II: Questionnaire Validation Measures for GLOBE's Societal Value Scales The World Values Survey Methodology Hypotheses for the Development of the Questionnaire Validation Measures of the GLOBE Societal Value Constructs The GLOBE Societal Value Dimensions of Culture Data and Operational Scales Findings Summary & Limitations Conclusions 10. Regional and Climate Clustering of Societal Cultures Vipin Gupta Paul Hanges Peter Dorfman Robert House Introduction Part A: Regional Clustering of Societal Cultures Forces Influencing Regional Clustering Empirical Studies on the Clustering of Societies Developing Regional Clusters of GLOBE Societies Empirical Test of Societal Clusters Managerial Implications: Implications for Theory Building Part B: Climatic Clustering of Societal Cultures Climatic Clustering of Societies Relationship between Physical Climate and Societal Culture Dimensions Climate-Culture Relationship Hypotheses Testing of GLOBE Hypotheses on Climatic-Culture Managerial and Theoretical Implications of Climatic Clusters Conclusions 11. Rationale for GLOBE Statistical Analyses: Societal Rankings and Test of Hypotheses Paul Hanges Marcus Dickson Mina T. Sipe Ranking of GLOBE Societies and the Application of Test Banding Statistical Analyses Testing Main GLOBE Hypotheses Issue 1: Method Used to Center Data Issue 2: Assessment of Predictor Importance Summary and Conclusion Part IV Mansour Javidan 12. Performance Orientation Mansour Javidan Part I- The Concept of Performance Orientation Part II- Comparison of High versus Low Performance Oriented Societies Performance Orientation and External Adaptation Performance Orientation and Internal Integration Part III- GLOBE Measures of Performance Orientation Part IV- GLOBE Findings on Performance Orientation Overall Scores and Industry Scores The Correlation Between Overall Practices and Values Scores Part V- GLOBE Performance Orientation and Other Economic And Social Indicators Performance Orientation and Economic Health Performance Orientation and Human Condition Part VI- Performance Orientation and Society Demographics Part VII- Comparison of GLOBE Findings with Relevant Literature Part VIII- Performance Orientation as a Dimension of Organizational Culture Part IX- The Relationship Between Societal and Organizational Practices and Societal and Organizational Values Part X- Performance Orientation as a Leadership Characteristic Overall Scores and Industry Scores Part XI- Society Demographics and Leadership Performance Orientation Part XII- The Relationship Between Performance Orientation as a Societal Dimension and Performance Orientation as a Leadership Characteristic Part XIII- Interpretation of HLM's using Performance Orientation to Predict Culturally Endorsed Leadership (CLTs) HLM Analysis: Organizational and Societal Variation Part XIIII- Summary and Conclusions 13. Future Orientation Neal Ashkanasy Vipin Gupta Melinda Mayfield Edwin Trevor-Roberts Part 1 Historical and Philosophical Overview Concept of Future Orientation Correlates of Future Orientation Summary of Conceptual Overview Part II GLOBE Measures of Future Orientation GLOBE Findings on Society Future Orientation Comparison of GLOBE Findings with Previous Studies Economic and Social Correlates of GLOBE Societal Future Orientation Future Orientation and Geographical Clusters GLOBE Findings on Organizational Future Orientation GLOBE Findings on Future Orientation and Visionary Leadership GLOBE Future Orientation and Culturally Endorsed Leadership (CLTs) Part III Summary and Conclusions 14. Cross-Cultural Differences in Gender Egalitarianism: Implications for Societies, Organizations, and Leaders Cynthia Emrich Florence Denmark Deanne Den Hartog Introduction Hofstede's Masculinity/Femininity Dimension of Societal Culture Part I. The Larger Context of Gender Egalitarianism Part II. Comparison of High versus Low Gender Egalitarianism Societies Part III. GLOBE Measures of Gender Egalitarianism Part IV. GLOBE Findings on Gender Egalitarianism Part V. GLOBE Gender Egalitarianism and Other Economic and Social Indicators Part VI. Gender Egalitarianism and Society Demographics Part VII. Gender Egalitarianism and Other Gender-Related Measures Part VIII. Gender Egalitarianism as a Dimension of Organizational Culture Part IX. The Relationship Between Societal and Organizational Practices and Societal and Organizational Values Part X. Interpretation of HLMs using GLOBE Gender Egalitarianism to Predict Culturally Endorsed Leadership (CLTs) Part XI. Gender Differences on CLT Leadership Ratings and Cultural Dimension Values and Practices Summary and Conclusions 15. Assertiveness Deanne Den Hartog PART 1 Literature on the Concept of Assertiveness A Psychological Perspective Assertiveness and stereotypes Assertiveness as a dimension of culture PART 2 The GLOBE Measures of Assertiveness PART 3 The Findings: The overall and industry scores on societal Assertiveness GLOBE Assertiveness and Hofstede's (1980) Masculinity Scale The relationship with other GLOBE culture dimensions PART 4 GLOBE Assertiveness and other economic and social indicators Assertiveness and economic health Assertiveness and Human Condition PART 5 Assertiveness, Climate and Country Demographics Part 6 Assertiveness as a Dimension of Organizational Culture: Background PART 7 The Relationship Between Societal and Organizational Practices and Societal and Organizational Values PART 8 Assertiveness as a Predictor of Culturally Endorsed Leadership Theories (CLTs) Interpretation of HLM using GLOBE Assertiveness to Predict Culturally Endorsed Leadership (CLTs) CLT Summary PART 9 Assertiveness: Summary and Conclusions 16. Individualism and Collectivism Michele J. Gelfand D. P. S. Bhawuk Lisa H. Nishii David J. Bechtold I. Historical Overview II. Overview of Empirical Research on Individualism and Collectivism IIB. Individualism and Collectivism at the Organizational Level IIC. Individualism and Collectivism at the Individual Level III. Correlates of Individualism and Collectivism at the Societal Level of Analysis IV. Implications of Individualism and Collevtivism for Organizations V. Implications of Individualism and Collectivism for Leadership VI. Overview of GLOBE Research on Individualism and Collectivism VII. GLOBE Measures VIII. GLOBE Findings: Societal Level IX. GLOBE Results: Organizational Level X. GLOBE Results: Relationship Between Societal and Organizational Practices and Societal and Organizational Values XI. GLOBE Findings: Individualism and Collectivism and Implicit Theories of Effective Leadership XII. Overall Conclusion 17. Power distance Dale Carl Vipin Gupta with Mansour Javidan Roots of Power Distance Comparison of High versus Low Power Distance Societies GLOBE'S Conceptualization and Measures of Power Distance GLOBE Findings on Power Distance GLOBE Power Distance and Hofstede's Power Distance Index Power Distance and Other GLOBE Cultural Dimensions Industry and Power Distance Geographical Regions and Power Distance Climatic Regions and Societal Power Distance Power Distance and Culturally Endorsed Leaderships (CLTs) Power Distance and Archival Data Summary and Conclusions 18. Humane Orientation in Societies, Organizations and Leader Attributes Hayat Kabasakal Muzaffer Bodur Literature on the Concept of Humane Orientation Comparison of High versus Low Humane Orientation Societies GLOBE Measures of Humane Orientation GLOBE Findings: Humane Orientation Humane Orientation and Other Economic and Social Indicators Humane Orientation and Country Demographics Humane Orientation as a Dimension of Organizational Culture Humane Orientation as a Leadership Characteristic The Relationship Between Humane Orientation as a Societal Dimension and Humane Oriented Leadership Dimension Interpretation of HLMs using Humane Orientation to Predict Culturally Endorsed Leadership (CLTs) Summary and Conclusions 19. Uncertainty avoidance Mary Sully de Luque Mansour Javidan Ram Aditya PART I 1. Overview of Uncertainty Avoidance 2. Concept of Uncertainty Avoidance 3. Correlates of Uncertainty Avoidance PART II 4. GLOBE Research on Uncertainty Avoidance 5. GLOBE Findings on Uncertainty Avoidance 6. Comparison of GLOBE Findings with Previous Studies 7. Economic and Social Correlates of GLOBE Uncertainty Avoidance 8. Uncertainty Avoidance Regional Clusters 9. GLOBE Findings on Organizational Uncertainty Avoidance 10. GLOBE Findings on Uncertainty Avoidance and Leadership 11. HLM Analysis: Uncertainty Avoidance and Leadership CLTs PART III Summary and Conclusion 20. Societal Culture and Industrial Sector Influences on Organizational Culture Felix Brodbeck Paul Hanges Marcus Dickson Vipin Gupta Peter Dorfman Sampled Industries and Organizational Cultural Practices Hypotheses Hypothesis 1: Societal culture will have a significant affect on organizational cultural practices. Hypothesis 2: Industrial sector differences will have a significant main effect on organizational culture. Hypothesis 3: There is a significant industry by societal culture interaction effect on organizational culture. Method The GLOBE Dimensions of Cultural Practices and Cultural Values Sample and Procedures Analysis Results Societal Effects on Organizational Culture Industry Effects on Organizational Culture Society by Industry Interaction Effects on Organizational Culture Interpreting Industry by Society Interactions on Organizational Cultural Practices Discussion Comparing Effect Sizes: Society, Industry and Society by Industry Interactions Conclusion 21. Leadership and Cultural Variation: The Identification of Culturally Endorsed Leadership Profiles Peter Dorfman Paul Hanges Felix Brodbeck Introduction Implicit Leadership Theory: Conceptual Underpinnings Conceptual Extension of Implicit Leadership Theory (ILT) to Culturally Endorsed Implicit Leadership Theory (CLT) Research Findings for Cross-Cultural Differences in CLT Profiles The GLOBE Conceptual Model, Culturally Endorsed Implicit Leadership Theory Rationale, and Hypotheses Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 2a Hypothesis 2b Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 4 Results Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 2 Hypotheses 3 and 4 Managerial Implications Conclusions 22. Conclusions, (theoretical and practical) Implications, and future directions Mansour Javidan Robert House Peter Dorfman Vipin Gupta Paul Hanges Mary Sully de Luque Brief summary of GLOBE theoretical model and propositions GLOBE's theoretical contributions GLOBE's methodological contributions Unanswered questions and future directions Appendices Appendix A: Correlations GLOBE scales Paul Hanges Appendix B: Response bias outliers Paul Hanges Appendix C: Hierarchical Linear Modeling Paul Hanges Mina Sipe Ellen Godfrey Appendix D: Confidence interval demonstration Paul Hanges Name Index Subject Index
Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program, Leadership Research, Organizational behavior Research, Leadership Cross-cultural studies, Organizational behavior Cross-cultural studies, Social values Cross-cultural studies