Table of contents for Leadership, culture, and organizations : the GLOBE study of 62 societies / edited by Robert J. House ... [et al.].


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[House - contents]
Foreword
Harry Triandis
Preface
Part I
1. Introduction
Robert J. House
[ADD HEAD 1s]
2. Overview of GLOBE
Robert J. House
Mansour Javidan
The Three Phases of GLOBE
Major Questions Concerning the Effects of Cultures and the Practice of Leadership. 
The Need for Cross-Cultural Leadership Theory and Research 
The GLOBE Research Program 
Qualitative Research 
Construct Definitions of Leadership And Culture 
GLOBE Operational Definition of Culture 
The GLOBE Conceptual Model 
Two Fundamental Cross-Cultural Issues
Construct Definitions 
The GLOBE Questionnaire Scales 
Questionnaire development and validation 
Phase 2 Hypotheses 
Phase 2: Universal and Culturally Contingent CLT dimensions.
Strengths of the GLOBE Research Design
Contributions
Conclusion And Future 
Appendix: Structural Contingency Theory 
3. A Nontechnical Summary of GLOBE Findings
Mansour Javidan
 Robert J. House
Societal Cultures
Societal Culture and Organizational Culture
Culture and Societal Effectiveness
Culture and Leadership
Leadership Profiles of Culture Clusters
Culture Dimensions and Leadership CLTs References
Part II
Paul Hanges
4. Cultural Influences on Organizational Leadership
Peter Dorfman
Robert House
Cultural Convergence: How Far Will It Go?
Varied Perspectives of Leadership
Western-Dominated Leadership Research
The GLOBE Definition of Leadership
Varied Perspective on Culture
Prior Empirical Research: Culture and Leadership
Leadership Topics Studied Within a Cross-Cultural Leadership Framework
Origin of leaders 
Modernization
Unique Role Demands of Leaders 
Antecedents to Preferred Leader Behavior
Leader Prototypes 
Preferences for Leadership Styles
Leadership Behavior Patterns 
Behavioral Impact of Leadership
Non-Western Conceptualizations of Leadership 
Three Competing Propositions: Cultural Congruence, Cultural Difference, and/ or Near Universality of Leader Behaviors 
	The Cultural Congruence Proposition 
	The Cultural Difference Proposition
	The Near Universality of Leader Behaviors Proposition
Conclusion: Cultural Influences on Leadership and GLOBE Goals
Summary: Anticipated Theoretical and Practical Contributions of Project GLOBE
5. The impact of societal culture and industry on organizational culture: Theoretical explanations
Marcus Dickson
Renee BeShers
Vipin Gupta
GLOBE's Cultural Dimensions: Values And Practices
Levels Of Impact On Organizational Culture
Explanatory Mechanisms
Additional Mechanisms Of Influence
Concluding Examples and Research Agenda
Part III
Hanges
6. Research Design 
Robert House
Paul Hanges
Peter Dorfman
Sampling Design
Sampling of individuals
Sampling of organizations and industries 
Sampling of societal cultures
Summary 
GLOBE Measures
Version Alpha and Beta 
Archival databases 
Unit of Analysis 
7. The Linkage Between GLOBE Findings And Other Cross Cultural Information
Mansour Javidan
Markus Hauser
The Human Development Report
Global Competitiveness Rankings By The World Economic Forum
World Development Indicators
The World Values Survey
Creating the relevant archival data factors 
	Economic Health
	Success With Science and Technology
	Human Condition
	Societal values
The Impact of National Wealth
8. The Development and Validation of the GLOBE Culture and Leadership Scales
Paul Hanges
Marcus Dickson
Phase 1: Questionnaire Scale Development
Construct Specification
Dimension Specification and Item Generation
Item Review Process
Pilot Studies
Phase 2: Final Sample and Confirmation of Measurement Scales
Samples
Statistical Analyses
Results for Phase 2
Construct Validation
Conclusions
9. Multi-source Construct Validity of GLOBE Scales
Vipin Gupta
Mary Sully de Luque
Robert House
Introduction
Part I: Developing Unobtrusive Measures of GLOBE's Societal Cultural Practices Scales
Archival Data and Objective Correlates
Content Analysis
The Research Design
Applying the framework for content analysis
Searching for suitable data
Searching for contextual knowledge
Strategy Development and Defining Measurements
Testing a Coding Scheme
Assessing Quality and Accuracy
Assessing Generalizability
Summary and Limitations of Unobtrusive Measures and Archival Data
Part II: Questionnaire Validation Measures for GLOBE's Societal Value Scales
The World Values Survey Methodology
Hypotheses for the Development of the Questionnaire Validation Measures of the GLOBE Societal Value Constructs
The GLOBE Societal Value Dimensions of Culture
Data and Operational Scales
Findings
Summary & Limitations
Conclusions
10. Regional and Climate Clustering of Societal Cultures
Vipin Gupta
Paul Hanges
Peter Dorfman
Robert House
Introduction
Part A: Regional Clustering of Societal Cultures
Forces Influencing Regional Clustering
Empirical Studies on the Clustering of Societies
Developing Regional Clusters of GLOBE Societies
Empirical Test of Societal Clusters 
Managerial Implications:
Implications for Theory Building
Part B: Climatic Clustering of Societal Cultures 
Climatic Clustering of Societies Relationship between Physical Climate and Societal Culture Dimensions 
Climate-Culture Relationship Hypotheses
Testing of GLOBE Hypotheses on Climatic-Culture
Managerial and Theoretical Implications of Climatic Clusters
Conclusions
11. Rationale for GLOBE Statistical Analyses: Societal Rankings and Test of Hypotheses 
Paul Hanges
Marcus Dickson
Mina T. Sipe
Ranking of GLOBE Societies and the Application of Test Banding
Statistical Analyses Testing Main GLOBE Hypotheses
Issue 1: Method Used to Center Data
Issue 2: Assessment of Predictor Importance
Summary and Conclusion
Part IV
Mansour Javidan
12. Performance Orientation	
Mansour Javidan
Part I- The Concept of Performance Orientation
Part II- Comparison of High versus Low Performance Oriented Societies
Performance Orientation and External Adaptation
Performance Orientation and Internal Integration
Part III- GLOBE Measures of Performance Orientation
Part IV- GLOBE Findings on Performance Orientation
Overall Scores and Industry Scores
The Correlation Between Overall Practices and Values Scores
Part V- GLOBE Performance Orientation and Other Economic And Social Indicators
Performance Orientation and Economic Health 
Performance Orientation and Human Condition
Part VI- Performance Orientation and Society Demographics
Part VII- Comparison of GLOBE Findings with Relevant Literature
Part VIII- Performance Orientation as a Dimension of Organizational Culture
Part IX- The Relationship Between Societal and Organizational Practices and Societal and Organizational Values
Part X- Performance Orientation as a Leadership Characteristic
Overall Scores and Industry Scores
Part XI- Society Demographics and Leadership Performance Orientation
Part XII- The Relationship Between Performance Orientation as a Societal Dimension and Performance Orientation as a Leadership Characteristic
Part XIII- Interpretation of HLM's using Performance Orientation to Predict Culturally Endorsed Leadership (CLTs)
HLM Analysis: Organizational and Societal Variation
Part XIIII- Summary and Conclusions
13. Future Orientation
Neal Ashkanasy
Vipin Gupta
Melinda Mayfield
Edwin Trevor-Roberts
Part 1
Historical and Philosophical Overview
Concept of Future Orientation
Correlates of Future Orientation
Summary of Conceptual Overview
Part II
GLOBE Measures of Future Orientation
GLOBE Findings on Society Future Orientation
Comparison of GLOBE Findings with Previous Studies
Economic and Social Correlates of GLOBE Societal Future Orientation 
Future Orientation and Geographical Clusters
GLOBE Findings on Organizational Future Orientation
GLOBE Findings on Future Orientation and Visionary Leadership
GLOBE Future Orientation and Culturally Endorsed Leadership (CLTs)
Part III 
Summary and Conclusions
14. Cross-Cultural Differences in Gender Egalitarianism: Implications for Societies, Organizations, and Leaders
Cynthia Emrich
Florence Denmark
Deanne Den Hartog
Introduction
Hofstede's Masculinity/Femininity Dimension of Societal Culture
Part I. The Larger Context of Gender Egalitarianism
Part II. Comparison of High versus Low Gender Egalitarianism Societies
Part III. GLOBE Measures of Gender Egalitarianism
Part IV. GLOBE Findings on Gender Egalitarianism
Part V. GLOBE Gender Egalitarianism and Other Economic and Social Indicators
Part VI. Gender Egalitarianism and Society Demographics
Part VII. Gender Egalitarianism and Other Gender-Related Measures
Part VIII. Gender Egalitarianism as a Dimension of Organizational Culture
Part IX. The Relationship Between Societal and Organizational Practices and Societal and Organizational Values
Part X. Interpretation of HLMs using GLOBE Gender Egalitarianism to Predict Culturally Endorsed Leadership (CLTs)
Part XI. Gender Differences on CLT Leadership Ratings and Cultural Dimension Values and Practices 
Summary and Conclusions 
15. Assertiveness 
Deanne Den Hartog
PART 1
Literature on the Concept of Assertiveness
A Psychological Perspective
Assertiveness and stereotypes
Assertiveness as a dimension of culture
PART 2
The GLOBE Measures of Assertiveness
PART 3
The Findings: The overall and industry scores on societal Assertiveness 
GLOBE Assertiveness and Hofstede's (1980) Masculinity Scale
The relationship with other GLOBE culture dimensions
PART 4
GLOBE Assertiveness and other economic and social indicators
Assertiveness and economic health
Assertiveness and Human Condition
PART 5
Assertiveness, Climate and Country Demographics
Part 6
Assertiveness as a Dimension of Organizational Culture: Background
PART 7
The Relationship Between Societal and Organizational Practices and Societal and Organizational Values
PART 8
Assertiveness as a Predictor of Culturally Endorsed Leadership Theories (CLTs)
Interpretation of HLM using GLOBE Assertiveness to Predict Culturally Endorsed Leadership (CLTs)
CLT Summary
PART 9
Assertiveness: Summary and Conclusions
16. Individualism and Collectivism
Michele J. Gelfand
D. P. S. Bhawuk
Lisa H. Nishii
David J. Bechtold
I. Historical Overview
II. Overview of Empirical Research on Individualism and Collectivism
IIB. Individualism and Collectivism at the Organizational Level
IIC. Individualism and Collectivism at the Individual Level
III. Correlates of Individualism and Collectivism at the Societal Level of Analysis
IV. Implications of Individualism and Collevtivism for Organizations
V. Implications of Individualism and Collectivism for Leadership
VI. Overview of GLOBE Research on Individualism and Collectivism 
VII. GLOBE Measures
VIII. GLOBE Findings: Societal Level
IX. GLOBE Results: Organizational Level
X. GLOBE Results: Relationship Between Societal and Organizational Practices and Societal and Organizational Values
XI. GLOBE Findings: Individualism and Collectivism and Implicit Theories of Effective Leadership
XII. Overall Conclusion
17. Power distance 
Dale Carl
Vipin Gupta
with Mansour Javidan
Roots of Power Distance
Comparison of High versus Low Power Distance Societies
GLOBE'S Conceptualization and Measures of Power Distance
GLOBE Findings on Power Distance
GLOBE Power Distance and Hofstede's Power Distance Index
Power Distance and Other GLOBE Cultural Dimensions
Industry and Power Distance
Geographical Regions and Power Distance
Climatic Regions and Societal Power Distance
Power Distance and Culturally Endorsed Leaderships (CLTs)
Power Distance and Archival Data
Summary and Conclusions
18. Humane Orientation in Societies, Organizations and Leader Attributes
Hayat Kabasakal
Muzaffer Bodur
Literature on the Concept of Humane Orientation
Comparison of High versus Low Humane Orientation Societies
GLOBE Measures of Humane Orientation
GLOBE Findings: Humane Orientation
Humane Orientation and Other Economic and Social Indicators
Humane Orientation and Country Demographics
Humane Orientation as a Dimension of Organizational Culture 
Humane Orientation as a Leadership Characteristic
The Relationship Between Humane Orientation as a Societal Dimension and Humane Oriented Leadership Dimension
Interpretation of HLMs using Humane Orientation to Predict Culturally Endorsed Leadership (CLTs)
Summary and Conclusions
19. Uncertainty avoidance
Mary Sully de Luque
Mansour Javidan
Ram Aditya
PART I
1. Overview of Uncertainty Avoidance
2. Concept of Uncertainty Avoidance
3. Correlates of Uncertainty Avoidance
PART II
4. GLOBE Research on Uncertainty Avoidance
5. GLOBE Findings on Uncertainty Avoidance
6. Comparison of GLOBE Findings with Previous Studies
7. Economic and Social Correlates of GLOBE Uncertainty Avoidance 
8. Uncertainty Avoidance Regional Clusters
9. GLOBE Findings on Organizational Uncertainty Avoidance
10. GLOBE Findings on Uncertainty Avoidance and Leadership
11. HLM Analysis: Uncertainty Avoidance and Leadership CLTs
PART III
Summary and Conclusion
20. Societal Culture and Industrial Sector Influences on Organizational Culture 
Felix Brodbeck
Paul Hanges
Marcus Dickson
Vipin Gupta
Peter Dorfman
Sampled Industries and Organizational Cultural Practices
Hypotheses
Hypothesis 1: Societal culture will have a significant affect on organizational cultural practices.
Hypothesis 2: Industrial sector differences will have a significant main effect on organizational culture.
Hypothesis 3: There is a significant industry by societal culture interaction effect on organizational culture.
Method
The GLOBE Dimensions of Cultural Practices and Cultural Values 
Sample and Procedures
Analysis
Results
Societal Effects on Organizational Culture 
Industry Effects on Organizational Culture 
Society by Industry Interaction Effects on Organizational Culture 
Interpreting Industry by Society Interactions on Organizational Cultural Practices
Discussion
Comparing Effect Sizes: Society, Industry and Society by Industry Interactions 
Conclusion
21. Leadership and Cultural Variation: The Identification of Culturally Endorsed Leadership Profiles 
Peter Dorfman
Paul Hanges
Felix Brodbeck
Introduction
Implicit Leadership Theory: Conceptual Underpinnings
Conceptual Extension of Implicit Leadership Theory (ILT) to Culturally Endorsed Implicit Leadership Theory (CLT)
Research Findings for Cross-Cultural Differences in CLT Profiles
The GLOBE Conceptual Model, Culturally Endorsed Implicit Leadership Theory Rationale, and Hypotheses
Hypothesis 1 
Hypothesis 2a
Hypothesis 2b 
Hypothesis 3
Hypothesis 4
Results
Hypothesis 1
Hypothesis 2 
Hypotheses 3 and 4
Managerial Implications
Conclusions
22. Conclusions, (theoretical and practical) Implications, and future directions 
Mansour Javidan
Robert House
Peter Dorfman
Vipin Gupta
Paul Hanges 
Mary Sully de Luque
Brief summary of GLOBE theoretical model and propositions
GLOBE's theoretical contributions
GLOBE's methodological contributions
Unanswered questions and future directions
Appendices 
Appendix A: Correlations GLOBE scales
Paul Hanges
Appendix B: Response bias outliers
Paul Hanges
Appendix C: Hierarchical Linear Modeling
Paul Hanges
Mina Sipe
Ellen Godfrey
Appendix D: Confidence interval demonstration
Paul Hanges
Name Index
Subject Index




Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program, Leadership Research, Organizational behavior Research, Leadership Cross-cultural studies, Organizational behavior Cross-cultural studies, Social values Cross-cultural studies