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Contents Acknowledgments Introduction 1 English Language Learners in United States' Schools Introduction Diversity within the English Language Learners' School Population The "Typical" ELL Student ELLs in All-English Classrooms Are All ELLs Identified? Challenges of English Language Learners in Meeting School Academic Standards Linguistic and Academic Demands Language Assistance Programs Bilingual Education Programs English as a Second Language Programs Sources of Funding for English Language Development Programs for ELLs "Struggling" English Language Learners Conclusion 2 English Literacy Development and English Language Learners: A Theoretical Overview Introduction The Nature of First Language Literacy and Its Development The Psycholinguistic Dimension of Literacy The Cognitive-Interactive Dimension of Literacy The Sociocultural Dimension of Literacy The Nature of Second Language Acquisition Comprehensible Input and the Affective Filter Interpersonal and Academic Language Issues Involved in Planning Instruction for English Language Learners Conclusion 3 Moving Beyond the Transition: Struggling English Literacy Learners in the Regular/Mainstream Classroom Introduction Varied Backgrounds, Varied Abilities, and Varied Needs Monolingual and Bilingual Literacy Learners: Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed . . . Emergent, Transitional, and Developmental Issues for English Literacy Learners Literacy Demands in the Upper Elementary Grades Conclusion 4 Instructional Writing Strategies for Struggling English Language Learners Introduction Mediating and Scaffolding Writing Development Teacher Writing Shared Writing Choral Writing Guided Writing Paired Writing Independent Writing Writing in the Disciplines: Moving Beyond Personal Experiences and Narratives Helping Students Organize Text Structures Helping Students Organize Text Meanings Conclusion 5 Instructional Practices to Promote Reading Development in English Language Learners Introduction Instructional Frameworks to Scaffold English Language Learners' Reading Development Reading Aloud Shared Reading Guided Reading Paired Reading Making Use of Reading Strategies to Construct Meaning Visualization Monitoring Inferencing and Predicting Identifying Important Information Generating and Answering Questions Summarizing Instructional Strategies to Facilitate English Language Learners' Construction of Meaning Helping ELLs to Activate and Develop Prior Knowledge Knowledge about Text Structures and Text Content Strategies to Foster Independence in Activating Prior Knowledge Supporting English Language Learners' Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary Instructional Strategies Questioning That Supports Comprehension Use of Native Language Knowledge in English Reading Conclusion 6 English Literacy Across the Curriculum Introduction Integration of Language and Content Content Learning Social Studies: Learning Challenges and Instructional Modifications Learning Challenges Instructional Modifications Science: Learning Challenges and Instructional Modifications Learning Challenges Instructional Modifications Mathematics: Learning Challenges and Instructional Modifications Learning Challenges The Language of Mathematics Instructional Recommendations Conclusion 7 A Framework for the Assessment of English Literacy Among Struggling English Language Learners Introduction The Assessment of English Language Learners Assessment of Literacy for Instructional Purposes A Profile of ELLs' English Language Proficiency and Development Assessing ELLs' Academic Oral Language Development Assessing Reading Development and Proficiency Assessing Academic Writing Development and Proficiency Monitoring Writing Progress Through a Portfolio Using Standardized Test Data to Inform Instruction Factors to Consider in Evaluating ELLs Achievement Through Standardized Assessment Using Standardized Tests Results with ELLs Conclusion 8 Developing Collaborative Literacy Relationships With Parents Introduction Parents' Influence on Children's Literacy Development and Achievement Parents' Barriers to Effective School Involvement Strategies for Parents' Involvement in their Children's Education Improving Parents' Involvement Through Family Literacy Programs Conclusion Resources for Teachers of ELL Students References Author Index Subject Index
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