Table of contents for Balancing water for humans and nature : the new approach in ecohydrology / Malin Falkenmark and Johan Rockstrom.


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
SUMMARY Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION
PART 1. WATER FUNCTIONS IN THE LIFE-SUPPORT SYSTEM
Chapter 1. Water - The bloodstream of the biosphere
Chapter 2. Water availability - Expanding the perspective
Chapter 3. Human water requirements
Chapter 4. Incorporating water for ecosystem "services"
Chapter 5. Regional Differences
PART II. CLOSING UP ON THE VULNERABLE SAVANNA ZONE
Chapter 6. Vulnerability of the Savanna zone
Chapter 7. Water perspectives on feeding humanity
Chapter 8. Closing the yield gap on the savannna - The real world perspective
PART III. SOCIO-ECOHYDROLOGICAL BALANCING
Chapter 9. Finding the balance between water for humans and nature
Chapter 10. Towards hydro-solidarity through integrated land/water/ecosystem management
Outline Table of Contents
0	INTRODUCTION	7
0.1	THERE IS A LIMITED UNDERSTANDING OF CONSTRAINTS	7
0.2	A NEW OR OTHER KIND OF KNOWLEDGE IS NEEDED	7
0.3	THE FUNDAMENTAL DILEMMA	7
0.4	BLUE AND GREEN WATER FLOWS	7
0.5	THE BOOK	7
PART I WATER FUNCTIONS IN THE LIFE -SUPPORT SYSTEM
1	WATER - THE BLOODSTREAM OF THE BIOSPHERE	7
1.1	WATER IS THE LIQUID OF LIFE	7
1.1.1	THE WATER CYCLE LINKS HUMAN SOCIETY WITH THE ECOSYSTEMS	7
1.1.2	NEED TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN GREEN AND BLUE WATER FLOWS	7
1.1.3	SOCIETY AND ECOSYSTEMS SHARE THE SAME WATER	7
1.2	NEW FOCUS ON INVISIBLE WATER	7
1.2.1	PAST FOCUS: VISIBLE WATER	7
1.2.2	HUGE AMOUNTS OF WATER TAKE PART IN PLANT PRODUCTION	7
1.2.3	GREEN FLOW SUSTAINS RAINFALL	7
1.3	WATER/PLANT INTERACTIONS ON DIFFERENT SCALES	7
1.3.1	BASIC INTERACTION BETWEEN WATER AND PLANTS	7
1.3.2	PLANTS AND WATER IN TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS	7
1.3.3	PLANTS AND WATER IN WETLANDS	7
1.3.4	WATER/PLANT/BIOTA IN AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS	7
1.4	HUMAN LANDSCAPE INTERVENTIONS	7
1.4.1	LANDSCAPE MANIPULATIONS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES	7
1.4.2	KEY FUNCTIONS AND LINKS IN THE NEW FLOW-BASED APPROACH	7
1.4.3	LESSON FOR THE POLICY MAKER: SECURE, AVOID, FORESEE	7
1.5	SUMMARY	7
2	WATER AVAILABILITY - EXPANDING THE PERSPECTIVE	7
2.1	A CONCEPTUAL SHIFT TO INCORPORATE WATER FOR ECOSYSTEMS	7
2.2	INTRODUCING SOIL WATER INTO THE WATER BALANCE EQUATION	7
2.2.1	RAINWATER PARTITIONING	7
2.2.2	ROOT ZONE PARTITIONING OF WATER FLOWS	7
2.2.3	TWO RETURN FLOWS TO THE ATMOSPHERE	7
2.2.4	THE EXAMPLE OF THE SAVANNA ZONE	7
2.2.5	INFLUENCE OF EVAPORATIVE DEMAND AND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS	7
2.3	WATER RESOURCE ESTIMATES	7
2.3.1	CONVENTIONAL WATER RESOURCE ASSESSMENTS	7
2.3.2	UPSTREAM BLUE WATER RESOURCE	7
2.3.3	WATER FLOWS, STOCKS AND RESIDENCE TIME	7
2.3.4	DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MAJOR BIOMES	7
2.3.5	INTER-ANNUAL FLUCTUATIONS	7
2.4	SUMMARY	7
3	HUMAN WATER REQUIREMENTS	7
3.1	HOUSEHOLD AND INDUSTRIAL WATER NEEDS	7
3.2	DISTINGUISHING WATER USE AND CONSUMPTIVE WATER USE	7
3.3	CURRENT GREEN WATER REQUIREMENTS FOR FOOD PRODUCTION	7
3.3.1	WATER AND DIETS	7
3.3.2	PRODUCTIVE GREEN WATER REQUIREMENTS FAIRLY SIMILAR FOR MOST CEREALS	7
3.3.3	NON - PRODUCTIVE GREEN WATER FLOW IS MUCH HIGHER IN TROPICAL REGIONS	7
3.3.4	PLANT-RELATED WATER PRODUCTIVITY AND LOCALITY-RELATED WATER REQUIREMENTS	7
3.4	GENERIC HUMAN WATER REQUIREMENTS	7
3.4.1	CALORIE-BASED ESTIMATE	7
3.4.2	ADDING DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL WATER REQUIREMENTS	7
3.4.3	ULTIMATE WATER REQUIREMENTS - A FUNCTION OF DIETS AND WATER LOSSES	7
3.5	ADDITIONAL WATER REQUIREMENTS TO FEED HUMANITY BY 2050	7
3.5.1	WHERE WILL THE ADDITIONAL WATER COME FROM?	7
3.6	SUMMARY	7
4	INCORPORATING WATER FOR ECOSYSTEM "SERVICES"	7
4.1	EXPANDING THE WATER PARADIGM	7
4.1.1	DIRECT AND INDIRECT WATER USE	7
4.1.2	THE BENEFICIAL ROLE OF GREEN WATER FLOW	7
4.1.3	FOUR WATER FLOW DOMAINS	7
4.2	WATER FLOWS TO SUSTAIN FOOD PRODUCTION	7
4.2.1	RELATIVE ROLE OF FOOD PRODUCED BY IRRIGATION	7
4.2.2	MOST FOOD ORIGINATES FROM NATURAL GREEN WATER FLOW	7
4.2.3	RELATIVE CONTRIBUTIONS TO PRESENT DIETS	7
4.3	GREEN WATER FLOWS ARE SUSTAINING MAJOR BIOMES	7
4.3.1	WATER FLOWS IN DIRECT AND INDIRECT USE	7
4.3.2	RELATIVE PROPORTIONS BETWEEN BLUE AND GREEN WATER USE	7
4.4	COMMITTED AND UNCOMMITTED WATER FLOWS	7
4.5	THE BLUE WATER BIAS IS UNWARRANTED	7
4.5.1	THE VALUE OF GREEN AND BLUE WATER FLOWS	7
4.5.2	POLICY IMPLICATIONS OF BLUE WATER BIAS	7
4.6	SUMMARY	7
5	REGIONAL DIFFERENCES	7
5.1	THE GREEN WATER PERSPECTIVE	7
5.1.1	LIVING WITH DIFFERENCES IN HYDROCLIMATE	7
5.1.2	UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF SEASONALITY	7
5.1.3	HYDROLOGICAL REFLECTIONS ON PLANT-WATER STRATEGIES	7
5.2	THE BLUE WATER PERSPECTIVE	7
5.2.1	INTENSITY OF BLUE WATER UTILIZATION	7
5.2.2	WATER-CROWDING AND THE SOCIAL ASPECT OF WATER STRESS	7
5.3	THE COMBINED PERSPECTIVE	7
5.3.1	REGIONAL CHALLENGES	7
5.3.2	BLUE WATER SCARCITY CLUSTERS	7
5.3.3	ADDING CAPABILITY TO COPE	7
5.4	SUMMARY	7
PART II CLOSING UP ON THE VULNERABLE SAVANNA ZONE
6	VULNERABILITY OF THE SAVANNA ZONE	7
6.1	DRYLANDS - THE CRADLE OF MANKIND	7
6.1.1	ARE THE "DRYLANDS" REALLY DRY?	7
6.1.2	PRONOUNCED REGIONAL CONTRASTS	7
6.2	SAVANNA AGRO-ECOSYSTEMS - A MOST DIFFICULT CHALLENGE	7
6.2.1	DROUGHT-RELATED LAND DEGRADATION	7
6.2.2	SAVANNA VEGETATION IS ADAPTED TO THE AVAILABILITY OF SOIL WATER	7
6.2.3	PHYSICAL AND PERCEIVED WATER SCARCITY	7
6.2.4	CHALLENGES ARE GREATEST IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA	7
6.3	HYDRO-CLIMATIC CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES	7
6.3.1	SHORT HYDROLOGICALLY ACTIVE LIFE CYCLES	7
6.3.2	HIGHLY ERRATIC AND VARIABLE RAINFALLS	7
6.3.3	LARGE RAINFALL VOLUMES	7
6.3.4	HOW MUCH RAINFALL IS ACTUALLY USED?	7
6.3.5	SURFACE RUNOFF - A FOE AND A FRIEND ON THE SAVANNA	7
6.4	NEED TO DISTINGUISH DROUGHTS AND DRY SPELLS	7
6.4.1	METEOROLOGICAL DROUGHTS	7
6.4.2	HUMAN-INDUCED OR AGRICULTURAL DROUGHTS	7
6.4.3	DRY SPELLS	7
6.4.4	COPING WITH DROUGHTS AND DRY SPELLS	7
6.5	SUMMARY	7
7	WATER PERSPECTIVES ON FEEDING HUMANITY	7
7.1	MORE CROP PER DROP	7
7.1.1	THREE OVERARCHING QUESTIONS	7
7.1.2	THREE MAIN WAYS OF INCREASING PRODUCTION	7
7.1.3	CALL FOR MORE CROP PER DROP	7
7.2	CAN IRRIGATION EXPANSION SOLVE THE FOOD CHALLENGE?	7
7.2.1	REMAINING DEGREES OF FREEDOM	7
7.2.2	FOOD SELF SUFFICIENCY SUPPORTED BY IRRIGATION IS FAR FROM REALISTIC	7
7.3	POTENTIAL TO INCREASE RAIN-FED PRODUCTION	7
7.3.1	A FUTURE EVEN MORE CHALLENGING THAN THE LAST GREEN REVOLUTION	7
7.3.2	PRESENT YIELD GAP	7
7.3.3	THREE BIOPHYSICAL DEFICIENCIES	7
7.3.4	CAN ON-FARM YIELDS BE DOUBLED OVER THE NEXT TWENTY-FIVE YEARS?	7
7.4	MORE CROP PER DROP BY REDUCING NON-PRODUCTIVE GREEN WATER LOSSES	7
7.4.1	INCREASING GREEN WATER PRODUCTIVITY	7
7.4.2	VAPOUR SHIFT	7
7.4.3	DECLINING EVAPORATION MEANS INCREASING PRODUCTIVE GREEN WATER FLOW	7
7.4.4	MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS	7
7.5	GLOBAL ASSESSMENT OF THE WATER THAT CAN BE GAINED	7
7.5.1	TO WHAT EXTENT CAN VAPOUR SHIFT CONTRIBUTE TO MORE FOOD?	7
7.5.2	HOW MUCH WATER MAY THE DYNAMIC CHARACTER OF WATER PRODUCTIVITY SAVE?	7
7.6	REMAINING WATER REQUIREMENT TO FEED HUMANITY	7
7.7	SUMMARY	7
8	CLOSING THE YIELD GAP ON THE SAVANNA - THE REAL WORLD PERSPECTIVE	7
8.1	CHANGING THE FARMERS' RISK PERCEPTION	7
8.1.1	MIXING INDIGENOUS AND NEW IDEAS	7
8.1.2	WAYS TO UPGRADE RAIN-FED AGRICULTURE	7
8.1.3	SYNERGY EFFECTS OF WATER AND NUTRIENTS	7
8.2	BROADENING THE NARROW APPROACHES OF THE PAST	7
8.2.1	THE CONSERVATION FOCUS OF THE PAST	7
8.2.2	FUNDAMENTAL ROLE OF DRY SPELL MITIGATION	7
8.2.3	LINKING FARM AND CATCHMENT SCALES	7
8.2.4	CONSUMPTIVE WATER USE BY CROPS AND DOWNSTREAM ECOSYSTEMS	7
8.3	WATER SOURCES FOR DRY SPELL MITIGATION	7
8.3.1	WATER HARVESTING	7
8.3.2	GROUNDWATER FOR BRIDGING DRY SPELLS	7
8.3.3	UPSTREAM BLUE WATER - AN UNTAPPED RESOURCE	7
8.4	THE UPSTREAM-DOWNSTREAM PERSPECTIVE	7
8.4.1	EFFECTIVE USE OF SMALL VOLUMES OF BLUE WATER	7
8.4.2	THE WATER PRODUCTIVITY PERSPECTIVE	7
8.4.3	AN ECOHYDROLOGICAL WIN-WIN SOLUTION	7
8.5	SUMMARY	7
PART III SOCIO-ECO-HYDROLOGICAL BALANCING
9	FINDING A BALANCE BETWEEN WATER FOR HUMANS AND FOR NATURE	7
9.1	HUMANS AND ECOSYSTEMS DEPEND ON THE SAME WATER	7
9.1.1	THE GRAND, UNRESOLVED ISSUE	7
9.1.2	WATER AND ECOSYSTEMS	7
9.1.3	THREE ENTRY POINTS FOR ALTERATIONS OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM CAUSED BY WATER	7
9.1.4	TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS, CHANGES IN LAND USE AND LAND COVER	7
9.1.5	UPSTREAM-DOWNSTREAM LINKAGES - LAKE VICTORIA AS AN ILLUSTRATION	7
9.2	LEARNING TO LIVE WITH CHANGE	7
9.2.1	CO-EVOLUTION	7
9.2.2	RESILIENCE AND BIODIVERSITY	7
9.2.3	THREE EXAMPLES OF RESILIENCE REDUCTION	7
9.3	THE CHALLENGE OF FEEDING HUMANITY	7
9.3.1	LEARNING FROM HISTORY	7
9.3.2	THE UNAVOIDABLE LAND USE CHANGES	7
9.4	IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT OF CATCHMENTS	7
9.4.1	THE CATCHMENT AS A MOSAIC OF ECOSYSTEMS AND HYDRONOMIC AREAS	7
9.4.2	WHAT DOES ECOSYSTEM PROTECTION MEAN?	7
9.4.3	ECOLOGICAL CRITERIA	7
9.4.4	OPEN VERSUS CLOSED BASINS	7
9.5	SUMMARY	7
10	TOWARDS HYDROSOLIDARITY THROUGH INTEGRATED LAND/WATER/ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT	7
10.1	HUMAN LIFE SUPPORT AND THE MILLENNIUM DECLARATION	7
10.1.1	INCREASING EXPECTATIONS ON A DECLINING LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM	7
10.1.2	TRADE-OFFS WILL BE UNAVOIDABLE	7
10.1.3	CATCHMENT SCALE TRADE-OFF BETWEEN PEOPLE AND ECOSYSTEMS	7
10.2	PRESENT SHIFTS IN THINKING AND CHALLENGES TO THE "SANCTIONED DISCOURSE"	7
10.2.1	TOOLS FROM THE RECENT PAST	7
10.2.2	CONSIDERING WATER AS AN ECONOMIC GOOD IS ABOUT INTEGRATED CHOICES	7
10.2.3	THE "SANCTIONED DISCOURSE" IS SEVERELY DELAYING A REAL POLICY DEBATE.	7
10.3	COMBINING SOCIAL, ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC APPROACHES	7
10.3.1	THE SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE: WATER-RELATED THREATS THAT MUST BE AVERTED	7
10.3.2	THE ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE: APPROACHING A REALISTIC VIEW	7
10.3.3	THE ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE: INCORPORATING THE FULL VALUE OF WATER	7
10.4	THE ROAD TOWARDS HYDROSOLIDARITY	7
10.4.1	GETTING AWAY FROM SECTOR PAROCHIALISM	7
10.4.2	SCARCITY DRIVES MANAGEMENT SHIFTS	7
10.4.3	BALANCING WATER FOR MAN AND NATURE THROUGH A "SOCIO-ECOHYDROLOGICAL" APPROACH	7
10.5	CONCLUSIONS	7
10.5.1	WATER AS A COMMON DENOMINATOR	7
10.5.2	INTEGRATED LAND/WATER/ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT	7
10.5.3	URGENT SCIENTIFIC RENEWAL	7
11	BIBLIOGRAPHY	7
12	INDEX	7




Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Ecohydrology, Human ecology, Water use