Table of contents for Petrophysics : theory and practice of measuring reservoir rock and fluid transport properties / Djebbar Tiab and Erle C. Donaldson.


Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog. Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication information provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.


Counter
CONTENTS
About the Authors	xviii
Acknowledgment	xx
Preface to the First Edition	xxi
Preface to the Second Edition
	xxii
i
Units	xxv
CHAPTER 1
Introduction to Mineralogy	·	·*·· 1
Mineral Constituents of Rocks-A Review, 2
Igneous Rocks, 7
Metamorphic Rocks, 9
Sedimentary Rocks, 10 Properties of Sedimentary Particles, 14 
Development and Use of Petrophysics, 20 Objectives and Organization, 22 
Problems, 24 Glossary (Chapter 1), 24 References, 26
CHAPTER 2
Introduction to Petroleum Geology	 
29
Review of Composition of the Globe, 29
Crust, 31
Plate Tectonics, 32
Geologic Time, 34 Sedimentary Geology, 37
Basins, 37
Divergent Continental Margins, 38
Convergent Continental Margins, 39
Transform Continental Margins, 39
Transgressive-Regressive Cycles, 39
Accumulation of Sediments, 40
Hydrocarbon Traps, 44 Origin of Petroleum, 46
Transformation of Organics Into Kerogen, 47
Transformation of Kerogen Into Oil and Gas, 48 Migration and 
Accumulation of Petroleum, 49
Primary Migration, 50
Secondary Migration, 51 Properties of Subsurface Fluids, 53
Hydrostatic Pressure Gradient, 54
Lithostatic Pressure Gradient, 54
Geothermal Gradient, 55
Oilfield Waters, 58
Petroleum, 65 Petroleum Chemistry, 71 Problems, 81 Nomenclature, 83
Greek Symbols, 84
Subscripts, 84 References, 85
CHAPTER 3
Porosity and Permeability	 87
Porosity, 88
Factors Governing the Magnitude of Porosity, 89
Engineering Classification of Porosity, 91
Geological Classification of Porosity, 91
Visual Description of Porosity in Carbonate Rocks, 94
Fluid Saturation, 96
Quantitative Use of Porosity, 97 Permeability, 100
Classification of Permeability, 101
Factors Affecting the Magnitude of Permeability, 102 Permeability-Porosity 
Relationships, 105
Kozeny Correlation, 106
Concept of Flow Units, 112
Mathematical Theory of Flow Units, 114
Specific Surface Area, 116
Flow Unit Characterization Factors, 120
Effect of Packing on Permeability, 131
Effect of Water Saturation on Permeability, 132
Permeability from NMR Log, 134
Permeability-Porosity Relationships in Carbonate Rocks, 136
Directional Permeability, 147
Reservoir Heterogeneity, 159
Distribution of Rock Properties, 162
Permeability from Well Test Analysis, 167
viii
Statistical Zonation Technique, 173 Problems, 178 Nomenclature, 184
Subscripts, 185
Superscripts, 186
Greek Symbols, 186 References, 186
CHAPTER 4
Formation Resistivity and Water Saturation	 191
Formation Resistivity Factor, 192
Resistivity Measurement, 192
Determination of Formation Water Resistivity, 194
Correlation between FR and Porosity, 205
Correlations between FR and Tortuosity, 207
Correlations between FR and Cementation, 209
Theoretical Formula for FR, 212
Correlation between FR and Water Saturation, 217
Correlation between FR and Permeability, 227 Resistivity of Shaly 
(Clayey) Reservoir Rocks, 230
Water Saturation in Shaly (Clayey) Reservoir Rocks, 231
Approximate Shale Relationship, 237
Generalized Shale Relationship, 238 Flow Units for Shaly Sandstones, 240
Lab-Derived Evaluation of Shaly (Clayey) Reservoir Rocks, 244 Log-Derived 
Evaluation of Shaly (Clayey) Reservoir Rocks, 270 Formation Evaluation, 270
Core Analysis, 271
Well Log Analysis, 272 Problems, 288 Nomenclature, 292
Subscripts, 293
Greek Symbols, 294 References, 294
CHAPTER 5
Capillary Pressure	299
Capillary Pressure, 299
Derivation of the Capillary Pressure Equation, 300
Capillary Rise, 304
Capillary Pressure J-Function, 306
Semipermeable Disk Measurement of Capillary Pressure, 308 Measurement of 
Capillary Pressure by Mercury Injection, 310 Centrifuge Measurement of 
Capillary Pressure, 316
Laboratory Procedure, 316
Calculation of Centrifuge Capillary Pressure Data, 319
Limiting Centrifuge Speed, 320
ix
Approximate Calculation of the Inlet Saturation, 322 Theoretically Exact 
Calculation of the Inlet Saturation, 324
Pore Size Distribution, 328
Vertical Saturation Profile in a Reservoir, 332
Capillary Number, 338
Problems, 341
Nomenclature, 342
Greek Symbols, 343
References, 343
CHAPTER 6
Wettability	347
Wettability, 347
Interfacial Tension, 348
Contact Angle, 349
Sessile Drop Measurement of Contact Angles, 351
Wilhelmy Plate Measurement of Contact Angles, 353
Surface Chemical Properties, 354 Evaluation of Wettability, 358
Amott Wettability Index, 358
Usbm Wettability Index, 360
Combined Amott-Usbm Wettability Test, 362
Spontaneous Imbibition Wettability Test, 364
Fluid Displacement Energy, 365 Water-Oil-Rock Interfacial Activity, 369
Effect of Wettability on Oil Recovery, 371
Effect of Brine Salinity on Oil Recovery, 376 Alteration of Wettability, 377
Treatment of the Rock, 377
Addition of Fluid-soluble Compounds to Water and Oil, 378
Aging the Oil-Brine-Rock System, 381
Effects of Temperature and Pressure, 382
Restoration of Original Wettability, 384 Effect of Wettability on Electrical 
Properties, 385 Problems, 390 Nomenclature, 391
Greek Symbols, 392
Subscripts, 393 References, 393
CHAPTER 7
Applications of Darcy's Law	403
Darcy's Law, 404
Linear Flow of Incompressible Fluids, 405
Linear Flow of Gas, 408
Darcy's and Poiseuille's Laws, 412
Linear Flow through Fractures and Channels, 413
Flow through Fractures, 414
Flow through Solution Channels, 419 Radial Flow Systems, 422
Steady-state Flow, 423
Pseudosteady-state Flow, 425 Radial Laminar Flow of Gas, 435 Turbulent 
Flow of Gas, 439
Linear Turbulent Flow, 439
Friction Factor of Porous Rocks, 447
Turbulent Radial Flow, 454 Multiple-Permeability Rocks, 457
Layered Reservoirs with Crossflow, 457
Layered Reservoirs without Crossflow, 458
Composite reservoirs, 462 Problems, 467 Nomenclature, 471
Greek symbols, 472 References, 472
CHAPTER 8
Naturally Fractured Reservoirs	 477
Introduction, 477
Origin of Permeability in Carbonate Rocks, 479
Geological Classifications of Natural Fractures, 479
Engineering Classification of Naturally Featured Reservoir, 481
Indicators of Natural Fractures, 485
Visual Identification of Fractures, 488
Petrophysical Properties of Naturally Featured Rocks, 491
Fracture Porosity Determination, 491
Porosity Partitioning Coefficient, 494
Fracture Intensity Index, 498
Permeability-Porosity Relationships in Double Porosity Systems, 501
Porosity and Permeability Relationships in Type 1 Naturally Fractured 
Reservoirs, 504
Effect of Fracture Shape, 507
Hydraulic Radius of Fractures, 508
Type 2 Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, 510 Fluid Flow Modeling in 
Fractures, 512
Fracture Area, 512
Fracture Storage Capacity, 514
Fracture Conductivity, 514
Characterizing Natural Fractures from Well Test Data, 515 Problems, 523 
Nomenclature, 524
Subscripts, 525
xi
Greek Symbols, 526 References, 526
CHAPTER 9
Effect of Stress on Reservoir Rock Properties	529
Static Stress-Strain Relation, 530
Stress Analysis, 530
Strain Analysis, 533
Two-dimensional Stress-strain Systems, 535 Rock Deformation, 536
Hooke's Law, 537
Stress-strain Diagrams, 546
The Mohr Diagram, 549
Dynamic Elastic Properties, 552 Rock Strength and Hardness, 555 
Compressibility of Porous Rocks, 561
Pore Compressibility, 561
Effectiveness of Pore Pressure in Countering Stress, 566
Effect of Pore Compressibility on Reserves Calculations, 569
Converting Lab Data to Reservoir Data, 571 Effect of Stress on Core Data, 
574
Effect of Stress on Porosity, 575
Effect of Stress on Permeability, 578
Effect of Stress On Resistivity, 579 Porosity-Permeability-Stress 
Relationship, 581 Effect of Stress on Fracturing, 595
Effect of Poisson's Ratio on Fracture Gradient, 596
Effect of Poisson's Ratio on Fracture Dimensions, 607 In-Situ Stress 
Distribution, 612 Effect of Stress Change on Rock Failure, 618
Change in Stress Field due to Depletion and Repressurization, 619
Stress Relationship at the Wellbore, 620
Estimating Critical Borehole Pressure in Vertical Wells, 621
Critical Borehole Pressure in Horizontal Wells, 622
Critical Pore Pressure, 624
Example of a North Sea Reservoir, 625
Porosity as Strength Indicator to Evaluate Sand Production, 628 Problems, 
633 Nomenclature, 637
Subscripts, 638
Greek Symbols, 639 References, 639
CHAPTER 10
Fluid-Rock Interactions	645
Importance of Near-Wellbore Permeability, 645 Nature of Permeability 
Damage, 648
Origin of Permeability Damage, 649
Types of Permeability Damage, 651 Effect of Fines Migration and 
Permeability, 659
Types and Sizes of Fines, 660
Fines Migration, 669
Migration of Foreign Solids, 683 Critical Velocity Concept, 683
Entrainment and Surface Deposition, 684
Entrainment and Plugging, 688 Identification of Permeability Damage 
Mechanisms, 693
Permeability Damage from Foreign Solids, 694
Permeability Damage from Formation Fines, 700 Effect of Water Quality 
on Permeability, 705
External Filter Cake Buildup, 708
Internal Filter Cake Buildup, 710
Injectivity Decline from Plugging of Perforations, 714
Impairment From Wellbore Fillup, 716
Membrane Filtration Tests, 718
Core Filtration Tests, 721 Problems, 730 Nomenclature, 731
Subscripts, 732
Symbols, 732 References, 733
APPENDIX
Measurement of Rock and Fluid Properties	737
EXPERIMENT 1
Fluid Content of Rocks by the Retort Method	738
Introduction, 738
Equipment and Procedures, 739
Equipment, 739
Retort Specimen, 739
Retort Calibration, 740
Retorting, 740 Sample Calculations, 740
Retort Calibration, 740
Results from the Test Specimen, 741
Saturation Calculations, 741 Questions and Problems, 741 References, 742
EXPERIMENT 2
Measurement of Saturation by Extraction	743
Introduction, 743
Equipment and Procedures, 744 Sample Calculations, 745 Questions and 
Problems, 745 References, 746
EXPERIMENT 3
Density, Specific Gravity, and API Gravity	747
Introduction, 747
Equipment and Procedures, 748
Measurement of API Gravity, 748
Westphal Balance, 749 Questions and Problems, 750 References, 750
EXPERIMENT 4
Specific Gravity of Gases	751
Introduction, 751 Equipment and Procedures, 751 Sample Calculations, 753 
Questions and Problems, 753 References, 753
EXPERIMENT 5
Viscosity	754
Introduction, 754 Equipment and Procedures, 754 Cannon-Fenske Viscometer, 
755 Questions and Problems, 757 References, 757
EXPERIMENT 6
Fluorescence	758
Introduction, 758 Equipment and Procedures, 759 Questions and Problems, 
760 References, 760
EXPERIMENT 7
Absolute and Effective Porosity	761
Introduction, 761
Equipment and Procedures, 762
Absolute Porosity from Grain Volume, 762
Grain and Bulk Volumes, 763
Effective Porosity, 764
Summary, 764
Porosity Measurement by Mercury Injection, 764
Porosity Measurement by Gas Compression/Expansion, 765
Statistical Evaluation of Porosity Data, 768 Questions and Problems, 771 
References, 771
EXPERIMENT 8
Particle Size Distribution	772
Introduction, 772
Equipment and Procedures, 772
Sieve Analysis Procedure, 775 Questions and Problems, 777 References, 777
EXPERIMENT 9
Surface Area of Sediments	 778
Introduction, 778 Equipment and Procedure, 779 Questions and Problems, 785 
References, 785
EXPERIMENT 10
Absolute Permeability	787
Introduction, 787
Equipment and Procedures, 788
Absolute Permeability Using a Liquid, 788
Absolute Permeability Using a Gas, 789
Effect of Overburden Pressure on Absolute Permeability, 791 Sample Calculations, 
791
Run 1, 792
Run 2, 792
Sample Calculation 1, 793
Sample Calculation 2, 794 Questions and Problems, 794 References, 795
EXPERIMENT 11
Verification of the Klinkenberg Effect	796
Introduction, 796
Equipment and Procedures, 796
Sample Calculations, 797
Experimental Data, 797 Questions and Problems, 799 References, 799
EXPERIMENT 12
Relative Permeability	800
Introduction, 800 Steady-State Method, 801 Unsteady-State Method, 802 Equipment and 
Procedures, 802 Questions and Problems, 807 References, 808
EXPERIMENT 13
Basic Well Log Petrophysical Parameters	809
Introduction, 809
Equipment and Procedures, 811
Resistivity of the Formation Water, 811
Rock Resistivity Saturated with Brine, 811 Sample Calculations, 813 Questions and 
Problems, 814 References, 814
EXPERIMENT 14
Surface and Interfacial Tensions	815
Introduction, 815 Equipment and Procedures, 815 Sample Calculations, 818 Questions 
and Problems, 818 References, 819
EXPERIMENT 15
Capillary Pressure	820
Introduction, 820
Equipment and Procedures, 821
Core Preparation for Capillary Pressure Measurement, 821
Mercury Injection Method, 822
Porous Diaphragm Method, 822
Centrifuge Method, 824 Sample Calculations, 830 Questions and Problems, 832 
References, 835
EXPERIMENT 16
Pore Size Distribution	836
Introduction, 836 Equipment and Procedures, 837 Sample Calculations, 838 Questions 
and Problems, 838 References, 839
EXPERIMENT 17
Determination of Z-Factors for Imperfect Gases	840
Introduction, 840
Van Der Waals' Equation, 842 Equipment and Procedures, 843 Questions and 
Problems, 843 References, 844
EXPERIMENT 18
Basic Sediment and Water (Bs&W)	845
Introduction, 845 Equipment and Procedures, 845 Questions and Problems, 
846 References, 846
EXPERIMENT 19
Point-Load Strength Test	847
Introduction, 847 Equipment and Procedures, 847 Sample Calculations, 848 Questions 
and Problems, 849 References, 849
EXPERIMENT 20
Utilities	850
Preservation of Cores, 850 Dead-Weight Tester, 851 Procedure, 852 References, 852
ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Djebbar Tiab is the Senior Professor of Petroleum Engineering at the 
University of Oklahoma, and Petroleum Engineering consultant. He received his 
B.Sc. (May 1974) and M.Sc. (May 1975) degrees from the New Mexico Institute of 
Mining and Technology, and his Ph.D. degree (July 1976) from the University 
of Oklahoma-all in petroleum engineering. He is the Director of the University 
of Oklahoma Graduate Program in Petroleum Engineering in Algeria.
At the University of Oklahoma, he taught fifteen different petroleum and 
general engineering courses including: well test analysis, petrophysics, oil 
reservoir engineering, natural gas engineering, and properties of reservoir fluids. 
Dr. Tiab has consulted for a number of oil companies and offered training 
programs in petroleum engineering in the USA and overseas. He worked for over 
two years in the oilfields of Algeria for Alcore, S.A., an association of Sonatrach 
and Core Laboratories. He has also worked and consulted for Core Laboratories 
and Western Atlas in Houston, Texas, for four years as a Senior Reservoir Engineer 
Advisor.
As a researcher at the University of Oklahoma, he received several research 
grants and contracts from oil companies and various U.S. agencies. He supervised 
23 Ph.D. and 94 M.S. students at the University of Oklahoma. He is the author of 
over 150 conference and journal technical papers. In 1975 (M.S. thesis) and 1976 
(Ph.D. dissertation) he introduced the pressure derivative technique, which 
revolutionized the interpretation of pressure transient tests. He developed two 
patents in the area of reservoir characterization (identification of flow units). 
Dr. Tiab is a member of the U.S. Research Council, Society of Petroleum 
Engineers, Core Analysis Society, Pi Epsilon Tau, Who is Who, and American Men 
and Women of Science. He served as a technical editor of various SPE, Egyptian, 
Kuwaiti and U.A.E. journals, and as a member of the SPE Pressure Analysis 
Transaction Committee. He is a member of the SPE Twenty-Five Year Club.
He has received the Outstanding Young Men of America Award, the SUN Award 
for Education Achievement, the Kerr-McGee Distinguished Lecturer Award, 
the College of Engineering Faculty Fellowship of Excellence, the Halliburton 
Lectureship Award, the UNOCAL Centennial Professorship, and the P&GE 
Distinguished Professor. Dr. Tiab has been elected in October 2002 to the Russian 
Academy of Natural Sciences as a foreign member because of "his outstanding 
work in petroleum engineering." He was also awarded in October 2002 the
Kapista gold Medal of Honor for "his outstanding contributors to the field of 
engineering." He received the prestigious 1995 SPE Distinguished Achievement 
Award for Petroleum Engineering Faculty. The citation read, "He is recognized for 
his role in student development and his excellence in classroom instruction. He 
pioneered the pressure derivative technique of well testing and has contributed 
considerable understanding to petrophysics and reservoir engineering through 
his research and writing."
Erle C. Donaldson began his career as a pilot plant project manager for Signal 
Oil and Gas Research in Houston, Texas. Later he joined the U.S. Bureau of Mines 
Petroleum Research Center in Bartlesville, Oklahoma, as a project manager of 
subsurface disposal and industrial wastes and reservoir characterization; when 
the laboratory was transferred to the U.S. Department of Energy, Dr. Donaldson 
continued as chief of petroleum reservoir characterization. When the laboratory 
shifted to private industry for operations, he joined the faculty of the School of 
Petroleum and Geological Engineering at the University of Oklahoma as associate 
professor. Since retiring from the university in 1990, he has consulted for various 
oil companies, universities, and U.S. agencies including: the Environmental 
Protection Agency, the U.S. Navy Ordinance Center, King Fahd Research Institute 
of Saudi Arabia, and companies in the U.S., Brazil, Venezuela, Bolivia, and 
Thailand.
Dr. Donaldson has earned four degrees: a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from 
the University of Tulsa, an M.S. in organic chemistry from the University of South 
Carolina, a B.Sc. in chemical engineering from the University of Houston, and 
a B.Sc. in chemistry from The Citadel. He has served as chairman of committees 
and sessions for the Society of Petroleum Engineers and the American Chemical 
Society, as well as other national and international conferences. He is a member 
of the SPE Twenty-Five Year Club, and is currently the managing editor of the 
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors are especially indebted to Academician George V. Chilingar, Professor of 
Civil and Petroleum Engineering at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 
who acted as the technical, scientific, and consulting editor.
We can never thank him enough for his prompt and systematic editing of this book. 
He is forever our friend.
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
This book presents the developed concepts, theories, and laboratory 
procedures as related to the porous rock properties and their interactions with 
fluids (gases, hydrocarbon liquids, and aqueous solutions). The properties of 
porous subsurface rocks and the fluids they contain govern the rates of fluid flow 
and the amounts of residual fluids that remain in the rocks after all economical 
means of hydrocarbon production have been exhausted. It is estimated that the 
residual hydrocarbons locked in place after primary and secondary production, 
on a worldwide scale, is about 40% of the original volume in place. This 
is a huge hydrocarbon resource target for refined reservoir characterization 
(using the theories and procedures of petrophysics) to enhance the secondary 
recovery or implement tertiary (EOR) recovery. The use of modern methods for 
reservoir characterization with a combination of petrophysics and mathematical 
modeling is bringing new life into many old reservoirs that are near the point of 
abandonment. This book brings together the theories and procedures from the 
scattered sources in the literature.
In order to establish the basis for the study of rock properties and rock-fluid 
interactions, the first two chapters are devoted to a review of mineralogy, 
petrology, and geology. Next, the two rock properties that are perhaps the 
most important for petroleum engineering, i.e., porosity and permeability, are 
presented in detail in Chapter 3. Finally, the problem of porosity-permeability 
correlation has been solved. The subjects of Chapter 4 are the electrical resistivity 
and water saturation of rocks which are the basis for well logging techniques. 
The next chapter takes up the theories and applications of capillary pressure and 
wettability to various phenomena associated with fluid-saturated rocks, such as 
residual saturations due to fluid trapping, variations of relative permeabilities, 
effects on production, and the measurements and use of capillary pressure for 
determination of pore size distributions and wettability. Chapter 6 is devoted 
exclusively to the applications of Darcy's Law to linear, radial, laminar, and 
turbulent flows, and multiple variations of permeability and porosity in rocks.
Chapter 7 presents an introduction to the important topic of rock mechanics 
by considering rock deformation, compressibility, and the effects of stress 
on porosity and permeability. The book ends with a discussion of rock-fluid 
interactions associated with various types of formation damage. Finally, a set 
of 19 laboratory procedures for determination of the rock and fluid properties,
scxi
and 
rock-
fluid 
interac
tions-
which 
are 
present
ed in 
the 
eight 
chapter
s of the 
book-
are 
include
d in an 
Appen
dix.
In 
additio
n to 
detaile
d 
experi
mental 
proced
ures, 
the 
authors 
have 
include
d 
exampl
es for 
each 
experi
ment. 
Althou
gh this 
book 
was 
primari
ly 
organiz
ed and 
prepar
ed for 
use as 
a 
textbo
ok and 
laborat
ory 
manual
, it also 
will 
serve 
as a 
referen
ce 
book 
for 
petrole
um 
engine
ers and 
geologi
sts, and 
can be 
used in 
petroph
ysical 
testing 
laborat
ories. It 
is the 
first 
compre
hensive 
book 
publish
ed on 
the 
subject 
since 
I960 (J. 
W. 
Amyx, 
D. M. 
Bass, 
Jr., and 
R. L. 
Whitin
g, 
Petrole
um 
Reserv
oir 
Engine
ering, 
McGra
w-Hill, 
New 
York, 
NY). 
The 
book 
also 
can 
serve 
as the 
basis 
for the 
advanc
ement 
of 
theorie
s and 
applica
tions of 
petroph
ysics as 
the 
technol
ogy of 
petrole
um 
engine
ering 
continu
es to 
improv
e and 
evolve. 
This 
unique 
book 
belong
s on 
the 
booksh
elf of 
every 
petrole
um 
engine
er and 
petrole
um 
geologi
st.
Djebba
r Tiab
Erle C. 
Donald
son
George 
V. 
Chiling
ar
PREF
ACE 
TO 
THE 
SECO
ND 
EDITI
ON
This 
second 
edition 
of 
Petrop
hysics 
has 
been 
design
ed to 
amplif
y the 
first 
volume 
(from 8 
to 10 
chapter
s) and 
comply 
with 
suggest
ions 
from 
colleag
ues and 
numero
us 
readers 
who 
were 
genero
us in 
taking 
time to 
convey 
their 
advice.
Read
ers will 
find 
that the 
first 
chapter
, an 
introdu
ction 
to 
minera
logy, 
has 
been 
conside
rably 
amplifi
ed to 
assist 
in 
better 
recogni
tion of 
the 
multitu
de of 
mineral
s and 
rocks. 
There 
was no 
noticea
ble 
change 
to 
Chapte
r 2 
(Introd
uction 
to 
Petrole
um 
Geolog
y), 
Chapte
r 7 
(Applic
ations 
of 
Darcy's 
Law), 
or 
Chapte
r 10 
(Fluid-
Rock 
Interact
ions).
Cha
pter 3 
(Porosi
ty and 
Permea
bility) 
underw
ent 
major 
change
s. The 
followi
ng 
topics 
were 
added: 
concep
t of 
flow 
units, 
directi
onal 
permea
bility, 
correlat
ions 
betwee
n 
horizon
tal and 
vertical 
permea
bility, 
averagi
ng 
techniq
ues, 
Dykstr
a-
Parson
s 
coeffici
ent of 
permea
bility 
variatio
n, 
effectiv
e 
permea
bility 
from 
cores 
and 
well 
test 
data, 
and 
several 
more 
examp
les. 
Chapte
r 4 
(Format
ion 
Resistiv
ity and 
Water 
Saturati
on) was 
amplifi
ed, 
mainly 
to 
include 
the 
charact
erizatio
n and 
identifi
cation 
of flow 
units in 
shaly 
formati
ons, 
and 
more 
exampl
es. 
Chapte
r 5 of 
the 
first 
edition 
was 
divided 
into 
two 
new 
chapter
s: 
Chapte
r 5 
(Capill
ary 
Pressur
e) and 
Chapte
r 6 
(Wetta
bility), 
becaus
e of the 
large 
amount 
of 
work 
that has 
been 
conduc
ted on 
wettabi
lity 
since 
the 
publica
tion of 
the first 
edition. 
Capilla
ry 
pressur
e and 
wettabi
lity are, 
howeve
r, 
bound 
togethe
r 
becaus
e much 
of the 
basis 
for 
various 
tests 
and 
theorie
s of 
wettabi
lity and 
its 
impact 
on oil 
recover
y is 
based 
on 
capillar
y 
pressur
e 
behavi
or as a 
functio
n of 
fluid 
saturati
on. It 
seems 
natural, 
therefo
re, that 
a 
thorou
gh 
underst
anding 
of 
capillar
y 
pressur
e is 
necessa
ry for 
the 
study 
of 
wettabi
lity.
Chap
ter 8 
(Natura
lly 
Fractur
ed 
Reserv
oirs) is 
a new 
chapter
. 
Practic
ally all 
readers 
who 
contact
ed us 
suggest
ed that 
we 
include 
a more 
detaile
d 
discuss
ion of 
the 
petrop
hysical 
aspects 
of 
natural
ly 
fractur
ed 
rocks. 
The 
main 
topics 
covere
d in 
this 
chapter 
are: 
geologi
cal and 
enginee
ring 
classifi
cations 
of 
natural 
fractur
es, 
indicat
ors of 
natural 
fractur
es, 
determ
ination 
of 
fractur
e 
porosit
y and 
permea
bility, 
fracture 
intensit
y 
index, 
porosit
y 
partitio
ning 
coeffici
ent, 
and 
effect 
of 
fractur
e shape 
on 
permea
bility. 
A new 
concep
t of 
hydraul
ic 
radius 
of 
fractur
e is 
introdu
ced in 
this 
chapter
. 
Metho
ds for 
determ
ining 
the 
fractur
e 
storage 
capacit
y and 
inter-
porosit
y from 
well 
test 
data 
are 
briefly 
discuss
ed.
Seve
ral 
import
ant 
topics 
were 
added 
to 
Chapte
r 9 
(Effect 
of 
Stress 
on 
Reserv
oir 
Rock 
Proper
ties): 
the 
effect 
of 
change 
in the 
stress 
field 
due to
depleti
on and 
repress
urizatio
n, 
stress 
and 
critical 
borehol
e 
pressur
e in 
vertical 
and 
horizon
tal 
wells, 
critical 
pore 
pressur
e, and 
estimat
ion of 
unconfi
ned 
compre
ssive 
rock 
strengt
h from 
porosit
y data.
The 
Appen
dix, 
coverin
g 
petroph
ysics 
laborat
ory 
experi
ments, 
is 
essenti
ally the 
same 
becaus
e the 
basic 
method
s for 
the 
experi
mental 
study 
of 
petroph
ysics 
have 
not 
change
d very 
much. 
A 
recentl
y 
develo
ped 
general 
metho
d for 
calcula
tion 
of.relat
ive 
permea
bility, 
howev
er, was 
include
d in 
Experi
ment 
12. The 
proced
ure is 
applica
ble to 
both 
constan
t rate 
and 
constan
t 
pressur
e 
unstead
y state 
displac
ement.
Djebba
r Tiab 
Erle C. 
Donald
son
UNITS
Units of 
Area
acre = 
43,540 
ft2 = 
4046.9 
m2
ft2 
= 
0.0929 
m2 
hectare 
= 
10,000 
m2
Constan
ts
Darcy 
= 
0.9869 
mm2
Gas 
constan
t = 
82.05 
(atm x 
cm3)/(g 
mol x 
K) = 
10.732 
(psi x 
ft3)/(lb 
mol x 
°R) = 
0.729 
(atm x 
ft3)/(lb 
mol x 
°R) 
Mol. 
wt. of 
air = 
28.97
Units of 
Length
Angstrom = 1 
x 10
8 
cm cm 
= 
0.3937 
in. ft = 
30.481 
cm in. 
= 
2.540 
cm km 
= 
0.6214 
mile m 
= 
39.370 
in. = 
3.2808 
ft
Units of 
Pressur
e
atm = 
760 
mm Hg 
(0°C) = 
29.921 
in. Hg 
= 
14.696 
psi atm 
= 
33.899 
ft 
water 
at 4°C 
bar = 
14.503
3 psi = 
0.987 
atm = 
0.1 
MPa 
dyne/c
m2 = 
6.895 
kPa 
(kilopa
scal)
f
t water 
= 
0.4912 
psi 
kg(forc
e)/cm2 
= 
14.223 
psi
psi = 
2.036 
in. Hg 
(0°C) = 
6.895 
kPa
XXV
Units of Temperature
Degrees Fahrenheit (°F) = 1.8°C + 32 Degrees Rankine (°R) = 459.7 +°F Degrees Kelvin(K) = 273.16 
+°C
Units of Volume
acre-ft = 43,560 ft3 = 7,758.4 bbl = 1.2335 x 103 m3
bbl = 42 US gal = 5.6145 ft3 = 0.1590 m3 cu ft (ft3) = 7.4805 gal = 0.1781 bbl = 0.028317 m3 cu 
in. (in3) = 16.387 cm3 cu m (m3) = 6.2898 bbl
gal = 231 in3 = 3785.43 cm3 molarity = mass of solute equal to the molecular ·weight per
1,000 grams of solvent normality = equivalent weight of solute per 1,000 grams
of solvent (mass of solute equal to the molecular weight divided by the valence per 1,000 g of solvent)
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.	Donaldson, E. C., Ewall, N. and Singh, B. "Characteristics of Capillary Pressure 
Curves." JPSE, No. 6, Nov. 1991, pp. 249-261.
2.	Donaldson, E. C., Kendall, R. F., Baker, B. A. and Manning, F. S. "Surface Area 
Measurement of Geologic Materials. "JPSE, No. 15, Apr. 1975, pp. 111-116.
3.	Worthington, A. E., Hedges, J. H. and Pallatt, N. "SCA Guidelines for Sample 
Preparation and Porosity Measurement of Electrical Resistivity Samples, 
Part I." The Log Analyst, Jan-Feb. 1990, pp. 20-28.
4.	Lerner, D. B., Dacy, J. M., Raible, C. J., Rathmell, J. J., Swanson, G. 
and Walls, J. D. "SCA Guidelines for Sample Preparation and Porosity 
Measurement of Electrical Resistivity Samples, Part II." The Log Analyst, 
Mar-Apr. 1990, pp. 57-63.




Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Petroleum Geology, Petrology