Table of contents for Historical archaeology / Charles E. Orser, Jr.


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Contents
Preface	xi
Acknowledgments	xiii
Chapter 1. What is Historical Archaeology?	1
		Archaeology of the Recent Past	3
		Three Past Definitions of Historical Archaeology	7
			Historical Archaeology as the Study of a Period	8
			Historical Archaeology as a Method	12
			Historical Archaeology as the Study of the Modern World	18
		Defining Today's Historical Archaeology	22
			Historical Archaeology Is Multidisciplinary	22
			Historical Archaeology Focuses on the Post-prehistoric Past	25
Historical Archaeology Seeks to Understand the Global Nature of Modern Life	27
	Time Travel: La Isabella, Hispaniola, 1493-1498	31
CHAPTER 2. A BRIEF HISTORY OF HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY	35
		The Important and the Famous (1855 to the 1960s)	36
			Theoretical Foundations	42
				Fort Necessity, Pennsylvania	44
				Signal Hill, Newfoundland	46
		Historical Archaeology of People (1960s to Today)	47
			Theoretical Foundations	48
			People Without History	53
				Yaughan and Curriboo Plantations, South Carolina	55
				Gold Bar Camp, Nevada	56
		Today's Historical Archaeology	57
			Theoretical Foundations	58
				The Paca Mansion, Annapolis, Maryland	59
				Boott Mill, Lowell, Massachusetts	60
				The Chesapeake	62
				The Blue Mountains, Jamaica	64
	Time Travel: Smith's Fort, Bermuda, 1613	66
CHAPTER 3. HISTORICAL CULTURE, SOCIETY, AND HISTORICAL SITES	70
		Anthropology		71
		Culture and Society	74
		Human Behavior in the Past: Analogies and Direct Historical Approaches	77
		Cultural Systems	80
		Cultural Change	84
		Goals of Historical Archaeology	86
			Preservation and Site Interpretation	87
			Undocumented Lifeways	88
			The Process of Globalization	90
		Historic-Period Sites	91
			Domestic Sites	92
			Industrial Sites	95
			Military Sites	99
			Burial Sites	103
			Special-Purpose Sites	106
			Multipurpose Sites	108
			Maritime Sites	109
	Time Travel: Palmares, Brazil, c. 1650	111
CHAPTER 4. HISTORICAL ARTIFACTS	115
		Artifacts and Material Culture	116
		Interpreting Artifacts	120
		Artifacts as Historical Documents	122
			The Coca-Cola Bottle	124
			Ceramic Makers' Marks	125
			Bottle Makers' Marks	128
			Technological Attributes	129
		Artifacts as Commodities	132
			Using Historical Records in Commodity Research	133
			Using Artifacts in Commodity Research	137
		Artifacts as Ideas	141
			Different Interpretations of the Ideas Behind Artifacts	143
		Time Travel: Mobile, Alabama, 1702-1711	148
CHAPTER 5. TIME AND SPACE	152
		Time	152
			Relative Dating	154
			Dating with Objects of Known Age	160
			Formula Dating	164			Dendrochronology	168
		Space		170
			Space at Archaeological Sites	173
				Activity Areas	174
				Households	176
				Neighborhoods	178
				Communities	181
			Settlement Patterns	182
	Time Travel: Limehouse Porcelain Manufactory, 1745-1748	187
CHAPTER 6. HISTORICAL SITE SURVEY AND LOCATION	191
		Known Sites		192
		Accidental Discoveries	195
		Finding Historical Sites	197
			Using Maps and Other Sources to Find Historical Sites	197
			Archaeological Survey	201
				Pedestrian Survey	202
				Sampling	204
			Subsurface surveying	206
				Metal Detectors	206
				Proton Magnetometers	208
				Soil Resistivity Surveying	209
				Ground-Penetrating Radar	210
				Sonar		212
				Soil Phosphate Analysis	213
				The Paranormal?	215
		Time Travel: Pribilof Islands, Alaska, 1780s	217
CHAPTER 7. PRE-EXCAVATION FIELDWORK: DOCUMENTS, INTERVIEWS, BUILDINGS	221
		Historical Fieldwork and Documents	221
			The Historian's Craft	226
		Oral Interviewing	233
		Architectural Fieldwork	238
			Detailed Architectural Surveys	240
			Other Architectural Surveys	242
		Time Travel: La Surveillante wreck, Bantry Bay, Ireland, 1797	245
CHAPTER 8. ARCHAEOLOGICAL FIELDWORK: FIELD AND LABORATORY	249
		Archaeological Procedures	250
			The Process of Archaeological Excavation	252
				Research Design	252
				Implementation	255
				Fieldwork	255
				Analysis	256
				Interpretation	260
				Publication	263
			Excavation	264
				Contexts of Space and Time	264
				Methods	266
				Tools		268
				Field Recording	270
			Conservation	272
		Back to the Laboratory	275
			Classifying and Grouping Historical Artifacts	275
		Time Travel: Fresh Water Pond, New York City, 1810-1834	280
CHAPTER 9. INTERPRETING THE HISTORICAL PAST	284
		Humanistic Historical Archaeology	285
			Humanistic Archaeology at Kingsmill	288
		Scientific Historical Archaeology	290
			Scientific Historical Archaeology at Camden	292
		Humanistic Science in Historical Archaeology	294
			Historical Structuralism	294
			Critical Materialism	301
		Time Travel: Ross Female Factory, Tasmania, 1803-1854	309
CHAPTER 10. THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF GROUPS	313
		Cultural Complexity and Social Stratification	315
			Social Class	319
			Gender			323
			Ethnicity		331
			Race	337
			Social Class, Gender, Ethnicity, and Race	341
		Time Travel: Nain, Labrador, 1820-1880	348
CHAPTER 11. GLOBAL HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY	352
		Cultural Contacts	354
		The Dutch Empire	357
			Africa		358
			North America	367
			The Caribbean and South America	372
			Asia	374
		Time Travel: Dolly's Creek, Australia, 1860s-1890s	377
CHAPTER 12. HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY AND CULTURE RESOURCE MANAGEMENT	381
		The Changing Face of Historical Archaeology	381
		Some Pros and Cons of CRM Archaeology	389
		Some Ethical Issues in CRM Archaeology	395
		Time Travel: Hacienda Tabi, Mexico, 1876-1911	399
CHAPTER 13. THE PAST IN THE PRESENT	402
		Living Archaeology	403
		Politics and Historical Archaeology	407
		Plundered History	412
			The Antiquities Market	414
			Who Owns the Past?	417
		The Future of Historical Archaeology	419
		Historical Archaeology and the Local Historical Society	421
		Being Educated in Historical Archaeology	424
		Jobs in Historical Archaeology	427
		Useful Addresses	427
		Time Travel: John Russell Cutlery Company, Massachusetts, 1833-1933	429
Guide to Further Reading	432
Glossary	469




Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Archaeology and history