Table of contents for Energy economics and international energy markets / by Carol A. Dahl.

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog. Note: Contents data are machine generated based on pre-publication information provided by the publisher. Contents may have variations from the printed book or be incomplete or contain other coding.

List of Figures	
List of Tables	
1 Introduction	
2 Energy Lessons from the Past for the Future	
	Energy Geological History	
	Energy's Human History	
	Energy Forecasting	
3 Perfect Competition and the Coal Industry	
	Perfect Competition and the Coal Industry	
	Energy Demand and Supply	
	Demand and Supply Elasticities	
	Energy Taxation	
4 Natural Monopoly and Electricity Generation	
	Modeling Electricity Markets	
	Government Policy for a Natural Monopoly	
	Valuing Money Across Time	
5 Deregulation and Privatization of Electricity Generation	
	Models for the Electricity Sector	
	Country Examples of Electricity Restructuring	
	California Power Crisis	
6 Monopoly, Dominant Firm and OPEC	
	Monopoly Model	
	Monopoly Compared to Competition	
	Price Controls in a Monopoly Market	
	Brief History of OPEC	
	Multiplant Monopoly Model	
7 Market Structure, Transaction Costs Economics and U.S. Natural Gas Markets	
	Natural Gas Consumption and Production Worldwide	
	Evolution of Natural Gas Market Structure	
	Evolution of the U.S. Natural Gas Industry	
	New Directions: Electricity Deregulation and Information Technologies	
8 Externalities and Energy Pollution	
	Pollution as a Negative Externality	
	Optimal Level of Pollution	
	Difficulties Measuring Costs and Benefits of Pollution	
9 Public Goods and Global Warming	
	Introduction to Public Goods	
	Abatement Policies	
	Energy Conservation and Its Cost	
10 Monopsony ; Japan and the Asia Pacific LNG Market	
	LNG Technologies	
	LNG Production and Trade	
	LNG Monopsony on Input Market, Competitor on Output Market	
	Monopsony Model Compared to Competitive Model	
	Bargaining and Negotiation	
11 Game Theory and the European Natural Gas Market	
	Politics and a Pipeline	
	Cournot Duopoly	
	Duopoly Compared to Competitive Market	
	Monopoly Compared to Competitive and Duopoly Market	
	Bertrand Model	
	Limit Pricing Model	
12 Allocating Fossil Fuel Production Over Time and Oil Leasing	
	Dynamic Two-Period Competitive Optimization Models without Costs	
	Model One (Base Model: No Costs, No Income Growth)	
	Model Two (Base Model: No Costs but Income Growth)	
	Model Three (Base Model: No Costs, No Income Growth but Lower Interest Rate)	
	Model Four (Base Model: No Income Come Growth but With Costs)	
	Model Five (Base Model: No Income Growth with Backstop Technology)	
	Dynamic Multi-Period Models	
	Dynamic Models with Market Imperfections	
	Taxing and Bidding Decisions	
13 Computing Energy Costs and Supply	
	Unit or Levelized Costs of Wind Electricity	
	Above-Ground Costs for Gas and Oil	
	Unit Costs with No Decline Rate	
	Developing Cost Data	
	Estimating Total Energy Resources	
14 Oil Refining, Energy Transportation, and Linear Programming	
	Crude Oil Refining	
	Linear Programming to Optimize Refinery Profits	
	Energy Transportation	
15 Energy Futures and Options Markets for Managing Risk	
	Energy Futures Contracts	
	Hedging with Energy Futures	
	Efficient Market Hypothesis	
	Crack and Spark Spreads	
	Energy Futures Options	
	Valuing Options 	
	Option Trading Strategies	
	Energy Swaps	
16 Energy and Information Technologies	
	Steps of Internet Use	
	Optimization Subject to Constraints	
	Management Styles	
	Information and Mission	
	Transaction Costs	
	Changes Wrought by the Information Revolution	
17 Managing in the Multinational World of Energy	
	Universalism and Particularism	
	Cognitive Styles	
	Life Values	
	Business Protocols	
Appendix A: Glossary and Abbreviator	
Appendix B: Conversion Charts	
Appendix C: Bibliography	
List of Figures
Fig. 2/1 Global Temperatures Throughout Geological History
Fig. 2/2 World Primary Energy Substitution
Fig. 2/3 Limits to Growth World Model Standard Run
Fig. 2/4 Successive Forecasts by the International Energy Workshop
Fig. 3/1 World Historical Coal Production by Major Country
Fig. 3/2 Coal Production in Major Countries
Fig. 3/3 U.S. Historical Coal Prices
Fig. 3/4 Supply and Demand
Fig. 3/5 Increase in Demand
Fig. 3/6 Decrease in Supply
Fig. 3/7 Price Controls
Fig. 3/8 Representative Business Cycle
Fig. 3/9 U.S. Gross National Product in 2000 Dollars
Fig. 3/10 Government Share per Barrel of Oil, 1995
Fig. 3/11 Supply and Demand in an Energy Market
Fig. 3/12 Supply and Demand with a Unit Tax
Fig. 3/13 Supply and Demand with a Tax on the Consumer
Fig. 3/14 Incidence of a Unit or Volume Tax
Fig. 3/15 Consumer Plus Producer Surplus
Fig. 3/16 Supply Equals Marginal Cost in a Competitive Market
Fig. 3/17 Producer Plus Consumer Surplus in a Competitive Market
Fig. 3/18 Deadweight Loss from an Energy Tax
Fig. 4/1 U.S. Retail Electricity Consumption, 1949-2000
Fig. 4/2 Electricity Consumption and Population by Major World Region
Fig. 4/3 U.S. and World Electricity Production by Fuel Type, 2000
Fig. 4/4 Decreasing Average Costs
Fig. 4/5 Increasing Average Costs 
Fig. 4/6 Average Variable Cost and Marginal Cost
Fig. 4/7 Typical Daily Electric Load Curves for Israel, Jordan, and Egypt 
Fig. 4/8 U.S. 2000 Net Electricity Consumption by Month
Fig. 4/9 Decreasing Cost Industry
Fig. 4/10 Monopoly Producer
Fig. 4/11 Social Optimum in a Natural Monopoly Market
Fig. 4/12 Peak Load Model
Fig. 5/1 Deregulation in U.S. Electricity Sector, 1999
Fig. 5/2 Peak Load Demand and Supply
Fig. 6/1 Social Welfare in a Competitive Market
Fig. 6/2 Monopoly Producer
Fig. 6/3 Numerical Example of Monopoly 
Fig. 6/4 Competitive Supply in a Constant Cost Industry
Fig. 6/5 Social Losses from Monopoly
Fig. 6/6 (a) and 6/6 (b) Monopolist and Price Controls
Fig. 6/7 U.S. Oil Prices, 1861/1999
Fig. 6/8 OPEC Production and Quotas
Fig. 6/9 Marginal Cost for a Two-Country OPEC
Fig. 6/10 OPEC's Optimal Production 
Fig. 6/11 Allocating Optimal Production Across OPEC Countries
Fig. 6/12 Multiplant Monopoly Numerical Example
Fig. 6-13 Developing Demand for OPEC's Oil
Fig. 6/14 Dominant Firm Example
Fig. 6/15 Dominant Firm Numerical Example
Fig. 6/16 Marginal Social Efficiency of Investment
Fig. 6/17 Target Revenues and Price Increases for a Low-Absorber Country
Fig. 6/18 Target Revenues and Price Increase for High-Absorber Countries
Fig. 7/1 Natural Gas World Production and Consumption, 1999
Fig. 7/2 Historical Natural Gas Consumption in the U.S. by Major Sector
Fig. 7/3 Historical Natural Gas Prices, 1920/1999
Fig. 7/4 Prominent U.S. Gas Market Hubs 
Fig. 7/5 Natural Gas Prices by Sector, 1984/2000
Fig. 7/6 Gas in Storage and Gas Spot Prices
Fig. 8/1 Supply and Demand in a Market with Negative Externalities
Fig. 8/2 Costs and Benefits of Water Pollution
Fig. 8/3 Varying Marginal Costs by Area
Fig. 8/4 Marginal Abatement Costs for Two Firms
Fig. 8/5 SO2 Emissions Rate Reductions for 441 Generating Units
Fig. 9/1 Coastal and Inland Demand for CO2 Abatement
Fig. 9/2 Total Social Benefits and Social Optimum for CO2 Abatement
Fig. 9/3 Social Losses for Private Market Production of Public Goods
Fig. 9/4 Social Optimum for a Public Good
Fig. 9/5 Permits Issued Under Different Abatement Cost Scenarios
Fig. 10/1 Financing Energy Projects
Fig. 10/2 LNG Ship 
Fig. 10/3 Monopsony Purchase of Inputs for Competitive Constant Output Market and Constant Marginal Product up to Generating Capacity
Fig. 10/4 Monopsony Purchases of LNG
Fig. 10/5 Perfectly Price-Discriminating Monopsonist 
Fig. 10/6 OLEC as Monopoly Seller of LNG
Fig. 10/7 Bilateral Monopoly in the Asia Pacific LNG Market
Fig. 11/1 European Gas Grid, 1999
Fig. 11/2 Gas Fields in the Yamal Peninsula Area
Fig. 11/3 Reaction Function for a Duopoly 
Fig. 11/4 Marginal Cost Curves for Producer 1 and 2
Fig. 11/5 Market Supply and Demand in a Competitive Market
Fig. 11/6 Two Gas Producers Acting as a Monopolist.
Fig. 11/7 Limit Pricing Model
Fig. 12/1 R/P Ratios for the U.S. 
Fig. 12/2 Demand in the Current Period
Fig. 12/3 Demand for Oil 
Fig. 12/4 Optimal Allocation of a Resource in a Two-Period Model
Fig. 12/5 Consumer Surplus in a Two-Period Model
Fig. 12/6 Dynamic Competitive Solution Maximizes NPV of Social Welfare
Fig. 12/7 Change in Resource Allocation over Time with Income Growth
Fig. 12/8 Resource Allocation over Time with a Decrease in Interest Rate from r1 to r2 
Fig. 12/9 Two-Sector Model with Reserves of 250 
Fig. 12/10 Allocation in Two-Period Dynamic Model with Constant Marginal Cost
Fig. 12/11 Promising New Technologies
Fig. 12/12 Two Period-Model with Backstop Fuel of $30
Fig. 12/13 A Monopoly Producer in a Two-Period Model
Fig. 13/1 Gross World Primary Energy Consumption, 2001
Fig. 13/2 Fuel Sources for World Electricity Consumption, 2002 
Fig. 13/3 Hydroelectric Power from a Dam
Fig. 13/4 Solar One 
Fig. 13/5 Diagram of a Photovoltaic Device
Fig. 13/6 Binary Cycle Power Plant
Fig. 13/7 Flash Steam Power Plant
Fig. 13/8 U.S. Electricity Production Costs
Fig. 13/9 Hubbert Curve for Oil and Gas Reserves
Fig. 14/1 Consumption and Production of Oil Products by World Region 2000
Fig. 14/2 Oklahoma Sweet Distillation Curve
Fig. 14/3 Isoquants for the Leontief Production Function X1 = 2.5 min (u1, u2/2)
Fig. 14/4 Diagram for Gasoline Blending Problem
Fig. 14/5 Energy Transport Worldwide
Fig. 14/6 Illustrative Gas and Oil Transportation Costs 
Fig. 15/1 U.S. Oil Prices 1859/2001
Fig. 15/2 Two Markets Before Trade
Fig. 15/3 Two Markets After Trade
Fig. 15/4 Future Prices Today by Maturity Date
Fig. 15/5 Three-Month Convenience Yield for U.S. Light Sweet Crude Oil, January 1985 to January 2003 
Fig. 15/6 One-Month and Six-Month U.S. Light Sweet Crude Futures Price
Fig. 15/7 U.S. Refinery Mix for Four Most Important Products, April 2003
Fig. 15/8 Value of a European Call Option at Expiration
Fig. 15/9 Value of a European Put Option at Expiration
Fig. 15/10 Valuing a Call from an Underlying Stock Price 
Fig. 15/11 Value of One Half of a Stock in One Period
Fig. 15/12 Value of a Borrowed Bond in One Period
Fig. 15/13 Value of an Underlying Asset in a Binomial Lattice
Fig. 15/14 Value of a Put Option in a Binomial Lattice 
Fig. 15/15 Lattice with the Underlying Asset Value and Probability of Each Node
Fig. 15/16 Valuing a European Option with a Two-Period Binomial Lattice
Fig. 15/17 Valuing an American Option with a Two-Period Binomial Lattice
Fig. 15/18 Valuing a European Straddle at Expiration 
Fig. 16/1 Consumer Surplus for Markets for Two Types of Light Bulbs
Fig. 17/1 Cultural Preferences for Individualism
Fig. 17/2 Vertical Structure and Orientation for Four Corporate Structures
List of Tables
Table 2/1 Cosmological and Geologic Milestones in Energy
Table 2/2 The World Largest Oilfields
Table 2/3 Data on Some Major Oil Sands
Table 2/4 Estimation of the Main Oil Shale Reserves
Table 2/5 Major Eras of Coal Formation
Table 2/6 Milestones in Recent Human Energy Use
Table 3/1 10 Largest U.S. Coal Producers, 2001
Table 3/2 World Coal Producers
Table 3/3 Energy Content by Coal Type
Table 3/4 World Coal Production, Consumption, and Reserves, 2000
Table 3/5 World Gross Energy Consumption for Electricity Generation
Table 3/6 European Coal Subsidies, 2001
Table 3/7 Revenues Related to Elasticities
Table 3/8 Severance Tax Rates for the Largest Energy Producing States, 2002
Table 3/9 World Survey Selected Petroleum Product Prices, Including Taxes
Table 4/1 Net Electricity Consumption, Growth and Population
Table 4/2 World Net Electricity Generation by Type, 2000
Table 4/3 Financing for a Representative Utility
Table 4/4 U.S. Average Electricity Prices and Consumption By Customer Class 
Table 5/1 Electricity Prices and Taxes
Table 5/2 Electricity Trade in TWh
Table 6/1 Major U.S. Oil Company Mergers and Acquisitions, 1910/2003
Table 6/2 OPEC Average Production and Quotas, 1984/2003
Table 6/3 OPEC Petroleum, Income, and Population Statistics for 2000
Table 7/1 World Dry Natural Gas Consumption and Production
Table 7/2 World Natural Gas Reserves
Table 7/3 Rents and Quasi-Rents
Table 7/4 Likely Governance Structure Matrix
Table 7/5 Top 10 Natural Gas Marketers, Second Quarter 2001
Table 7/6 Top 10 Interstate Pipeline Companies, 2001
Table 8/1 World's Largest Oil Spills
Table 9/1 Resistivity Measures for Various Construction Materials
Table 9/2 World Carbon Emissions and GDP Statistics
Table 10/1 LNG Exporting Countries, 2001
Table 10/2 Developing Marginal Factor Cost for LNG Supply Function
Table 11/1 Relative Share of Energy Consumption from Major Sources
Table 11/2 Energy Production and Imports in Western Europe
Table 11/3 Soviet Gas Contracts
Table 11/4 Europe Pipeline Natural Gas Imports
Table 11/5 Major Gas Companies in Western Europe
Table 11/6 Gas Storage in the European Union, 2000
Table 12/1 Typical Lives for Various Equipment and Appliances
Table 12/2 Proven Coal, Oil, and Gas Reserves and Production, 2001
Table 12/3 Costs for Gasoline and Backstop Technologies
Table 12/4 Companies with Significant Oil or Gas Production or Refinery Capacity
Table 13/1 Uranium Production and Resources, 2000
Table 13/2 Largest Uranium Producers in the World
Table 13/3 Facilities for Conversion of Yellow Cake to HF6
Table 13/4 World Uranium Enrichment Facilities by Country
Table 13/5 Operating Nuclear Electricity Capacity, 2001
Table 13/6 Some of the World's Largest Hydro Capacity Dams
Table 13/7 Comparative Electricity Generation Cost Including Capital
Table 13/8 World Proven Reserves and Undiscovered Resources
Table 14/1 Boiling Ranges for Petroleum Products
Table 14/2 Sample Crude API's and Prices, 2003
Table 14/3 Sample Crude Assays
Table 14/4 World Refinery Capacity by Region
Table 14/5 Reid Vapor Pressure Blending Problem
Table 14/6 Summary of Refinery Problem
Table 14/7 World Tanker Fleet by Size, 2001
Table 14/8 Tanker Freight Rates (% of Worldscale), January 2003
Table 14/9 Transport of Crude Oil and Products by Mode
Table 14/10 Pipeline Diameters, Average Cost, and Capacities
Table 14/11 World's Largest Net Exporters and Importers of Refined Petroleum Products in 1998
Table 14/12 U.S Domestic Distribution of Coal by Transportation Method, 2001
Table 15/1 Energy Future Contracts
Table 15/2 Sample Futures Quotes for Heating Oil on NYMEX
Table 15/3 Gains and Losses in the Spot Market at Various Prices
Table 15/4 Gains and Losses in the Spot and Forward Markets at Various Prices
Table 15/5 U.S. Refinery Products and Prices, April 2003
Table 15/6 Option Contracts Listed as of July 1, 2002
Table 15/7 Energy Futures and Options Quotes, May 15, 2003
Table 15/8 Variables that Affect American Option Values Before Expiration
Table 16/1 Population and Estimated Internet Users for Selected Countries
Table 16/2 Consumer Surplus for Bundled Products
Table 16/3 Optimal Allocation of Resources
Table 17/1 Sample Large Energy Companies International Operations
Table 17/2 Cultural Differences

Library of Congress Subject Headings for this publication: Energy industries, International economic relations