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Acknowledgements Introduction 1. Introduction to the Middle East G. M. Wickens 2. The historical background of Islamic civilisation C. E. Bosworth 3. Islamic faith Charles J. Adams 4. God and his creation: two medieval Islamic views Michael E. Marmura 5. Law and traditional sociey R. M. Savory 6. Arabic literature: a living heritage Ella Marmura 7. Persian literature: an affirmation of identity G. M. Wickens 8. Turkish literature through the ages Eleazar Birnbaum 9. Islamic art: variations on themes of arabesque R. Sandler 10. The Middle East as world centre of science and medicine G. M. Wickens 11. What the west borrowed from the Middle East G. M. Wickens 12. Christendom vs. Islam: 14 centuries of interaction and co-existence R. M. Savory 13. The changing concept of the individual R. Sandler 14. The modern Arab world L. M. Kenny 15. Tribalism and modern society: Iraq, a case study Albertine Jwaideh 16. Iran W. Millward 17. Turkey: from cosmopolitan empire to nation state Eleazar Birnbaum 18. Khatimah G. M. Wickens Suggested background reading Glossary and index.