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Introduction: 1. Rationalism and relativism 2. Comparative studies 3. Defining 'early civilization' 4. Evidence and interpretation Sociopolitical Organization: 5. Kingship 6. States: city and territorial 7. Urbanism 8. Class systems and social mobility 9. Family organization and gender roles 10. Administration 11. Law 12. Military organization 13. Sociopolitical constants and variables Economy: 14. Food production 15. Land ownership 16. Trade and craft specialization 17. Appropriation of wealth 18. Economic constants and variables Cognitive and Symbolic Aspects: 19. Conceptions of the supernatural 20. Cosmology and cosmogony 21. Cult 22. Priests, festivals, and the politics of the supernatural 23. The individual and the universe 24. Elite art and architecture 25. Literacy and specialized knowledge 26. Values and personal aspirations 27. Cultural constants and variables Discussion: 28. Culture and reason 29. Conclusion References Index.