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Introduction: from colony to Empire 1. The independence of Brazil Leslie Bethell Part I. Empire (1822-89): 2. 1822-1870 Leslie Bethell and Jose Murilo de Carvalho 3. 1850-1870 Richard Graham 4. 1870-1889 Emilia Viotti da Costa Part II. First Republic (1889-1930): 5. Economy Warren Dean 6. Society and politics Boris Fausto Bibliographical essays Index.