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1. The shadow economy - a challenge for economic and social policy 2. Defining the shadow economy 3. Methods to estimate the size of the shadow economy 3.1. Direct approaches 3.2. Indirect approaches 3.3. The model approach 3.4. Summary of the methods to estimate the size of the shadow economy 4. Size of shadow economies around the world 4.1. The results for 76 countries 4.2. The development of the shadow economy in the OECD countries from 1970-1999 4.3. Comparing the results for different estimation methods 5. The size of the shadow economy labour force 5.1. Illicit work and the shadow economy labour force 5.2. Developing countries 5.3. Transition countries 5.4. OECD-countries 6. An integrated approach to explain deviant behaviour 6.1. Structure of the model 6.2. Criticising the neo-classic and welfare-theoretic considerations 6.3. Micro-economic foundation 6.4. Institutional and sociological aspects 6.5. Explanatory approaches in socio- and finance psychology 6.6. An integrative approach 6.7. An evolutionary theory of the shadow economy 7. Analysing the causes and measures of economic policy 7.1. Government failure - the main cause for illicit work 7.2. Growing tax burden in the official sector 7.3. Density of regulation 7.4. Working hours agreements 7.5. Empirical examination of the influence of main causes 7.6. Control frequency and the level of punishment 7.7. (Tax-) moral and the supply of public goods 8. Effects of the increasing shadow economy 8.1. Allocation effects 8.2. Distribution effects 8.3. Stabilisation effects 8.4. Fiscal effects 9. 'The two-pillar-strategy' 9.1. On the necessity for a rational economic policy 9.2. 'Exit' and 'voice' as behavioural options 9.3. Decreasing the attractiveness of the 'exit'-option 9.4. Strengthening the voice-option 9.5. Legalising illicit work? 9.6. Combating illicit work - the perspective of the public choice theory 10. Conclusion and outlook.