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Index of
Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson: History, Memory, and Civic Culture

edited by
Jan Ellen Lewis and Peter S. Onuf


© 1999 University Press of Virginia

Reproduced 2001 with permission of the publisher

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INDEX

A Abram, 120, 122 Absalom, Absalom! (Faulkner), 10, 19-20, 24, 32, 205 Adair, Douglass, 76 Adams, Henry, 196, 200-201 Adams, John, 37, 210-11, 212 and Abigail, 43 Callender attack on, 91 on evils of slavery, 75 Adams, John Quincy, 211 adultery, interracial, 62, 96 African Americans Callender's detestation of, 95, 99 class distinction among, 26, 163 community network of, 98 deportation of, 211, 217, 220-21, 223 Jefferson on freedom for, 44 Jefferson's rejection of, 114-15 loss of identity of, 237 oral history of Monticello's, 161-181 oral tradition of, 27 Age of Enlightenment, moral values of, 218 Albemarle County, interracial families in, 66 Alice (Custis slave), 53, 54 American Dilemma, An (Myrdal), 225 American Indians, Jefferson's interest in, 35-36, 47 American Protestantism, and sinfulness of slavery, 233-34 Anderson, Anna, 242 Ashby, Matthew, 55 Ashlin, Joseph, 68 Ashton, Father John,63-64 Auschwitz, 228 B Bacon, Edmund, 98-99, 142 Bakari, Harvey, 125 Bakhufu, Auset, 193 Baltimore Sun, 204-5 Bankhead, Anne Randolph, 134-35 Bankhead, Charles, 134, 735 Banneker, Benjamin, 45 Barker, Bill, 125 Barrett, Cyrus, 68 Barrett, Frances, 68 Barrett, Salley, 68 Barrett, William, 68 Beckett, Eleanor; 64, 65 Beckett, William; 65 Beckett-Norris clan, 65 Bell, Mary Herrings (Sally's sister), 66, 104, 179 Bell, Robert Washington, 66 Bell, Sarah Jefferson, 66 Bell, Thomas, 66, 104, 179 Benjamin (Ben; former, Wythe slave), 57, 58 Bennett, Winifred, 242 Betsy (Judah slave), 60 Billy (Brown slave), 59 Billy (Jarvis slave), 68 Binah (Prestwood slave), 73-74 biography, as genre of history, 38 biracial society, problem of creating, 221-22 blacks. See African Americans blackface, images of, 162-63 blackness, identification with, 171-72 Blair, John, 53, 55 Boyd, Julian P, 38, 75-76 Broadnax, Lydia, 56-57, 58, 59 Brodie, Fawn M., 6, 11, 25, 78, 212, 239, 241, 251 on "family denial," 136 on Jefferson at Monticello, 41 transcription of, 249 on Wythe's alleged miscegenation, 58 Brown, Ann, 59 Brown, Michael, 57, 58-59 Brown, Nancy, 59 Brown, Robert, 59 Brown, William Wells, 193, 202 Burg, R. R., 202 Burke, Edmund, 229 Burnaby, Andrew, 56 Burstein, Andrew, 241 Burwell, Nathaniel, 68 Burwell, William, 138, 139-40 Byrd, Sarah Hemings, 166, 171, 172, 178 Byrd, William, 43, 45 Byrd, William II, 63 C Callender, James, 1, 4, 12, 75, 104, 200, 238-39 accuracy of reports of, 88, 89, 101 on Jefferson family resemblances, 136 on "President Tom," 27 reports of, 89-90, 101-3, 202 reputation of, 88-89, 106-7 on Sally Herrings, 40, 95, 100-101, 120 Call of the South, The (Durham), 205 Calvert, Anne, 64 Calvert, Caroline, 65-66 Calvert, George, 77 shadow family of, 64-66 Caribbean islands interracial norms of, 68-74 Carr, Dabney, 115 Carr, Peter, 5, 104, 144, 145, 147, 150, 152, 155, 241 and DNA evidence, 151 reputation of, 151-52 Carr, Samuel, 5, 104, 144, 145, 147, 148, 155, 241 and DNA evidence, 151 reputation 52 Carroll, Charles, 63-64 Carter, Ben, 63 Carter, Landon, 45 Carter B. Woodson Institute for Afro-American and African Studies, 26 Chancy (Hughes slave), 66 Charles (Wyllie slave), 58 Charlotte (Calvert slave), 65 Charlottesville, interracial community in, Chase-Riboud, Barbara, 25-26, 193, 206 Chinn, Julia, 203, 207 Clarke, Celia, 74 Clarke, Sarah, 60 Clarke, Thomas, 60 Clay Henry, 57 Clayton, John,52 clergymen, discretion required of, 67 Cleveland, Grover, 195 Clinton, William Jefferson (Bill), 203, 211, 215 impeachment of, 1, 245 Clinton-Lewinsky scandal, 245 Clotel or, The President's Daughter (Brown), 19 202 Cocke, John Hartwell, 63, 107-8 Cocker, Mrs., 69 Colbert, Burwell, 249 color prejudice, in black community, 171-72 Complete Correspondence between Thomas Jefferson and John Adams (Cappon), 38 concubine, as term, 75, 120, 179 consent, versus obedience, 231 Coobah (Thistlewood slave), 71 Coolidge, Ellen Randolph, 19 on memory of childhood, 133 on paternity of Hemings's children, 104, 136, 137, 142, 144, 145, 150, 155 Cosway Maria Jefferson and, 121, 122, 214-15, 248 coverture, laws of, 97 Cramphin, Thomas, Jr., 65-66, 77 Cullwick, Hannah, 191 Custis, Daniel Parke, 53, 54 Custis, John, IV, 52-55, 56, 60, 64, 77 Custis, John Parke, 64 Cyrus (Calvert slave), 65 D Darnton, Robert, 120-21 Declaration of Independence and concept of equality, 229-30 Jefferson and, 210 Lincoln's use of, 31 making of, 30-31 decolonization, 116 democracy, coexistence of, with slavery, 201 Demoiter, R., 68 Diary in America (Marryat), 201 Diop, Birago, 180-181 divorce petitions grounds for, 62 and interracial adultery, 96 DNA evidence, xii, 78, 129, 153, 200, 211 impact of, 115, 119, 144, 150, 193, 194, 196, 244 implications of, 1, 2 publication of, 236 results of, 241-42, 243, 244-45 Dolly (Johnson slave), 202, 207 Douglas, Stephen, 203 Dove, James, 57 Dove, John,57 Dred Scott decision, 203 Dreyfus case, 241 Duane, William, 96 Du Bois, W E. B., 165, 205 Dungey Absalom, 62 Dungey James, 62 Durham, Robert Lee, 205 Du Val, William, 57, 59 Duvall, Severn,188 E Ebony magazine, 192-93 Ellis, Joseph J., 41-42, 195-96, 241 Ely, Melvin, 62 emancipation, Jefferson on, 222, 223-24 Eppes, Mary Jefferson (Jefferson's daughter), 100, 118, 128, 131, 135 36 "Era of Good Feelings," 211 equality Jefferson's commitment to, 224, 229-31 estate, and estate house, separation of, 116 F family, 135 Jefferson on, 129, 130-32 Jefferson's two, 200 Family Letters (Jefferson), 130, 151 family tree, Hemings-Jefferson, xii Faris, William, 61 Farm Book, Jefferson's, 13, 24, 107, 249 Faulkner, William, 10, 19-20, 24, 32, 306 Fears, Absalom, 62 Fears, Elizabeth, 62 Fears, James, 62 Fears, William, 6z Fears-Dungey clan, 62 Finkelman, Paul, 218 Florence (Johnson slave), 202, 207 Fossett,Joseph, 169, 249 Foster, Eugene A., xii, 27, 78, 178, 242 Founding Fathers, as symbol, 29, 30 Franklin, Benjamin, 195 compared to Jefferson, 210, 219 Franklin, John Hope, 35 Franky (Burwell slave), 68 Frederick-town Herald, 106 freedom, as "standard," 229 freedom of conscience as absolute right, 232 Jefferson's commitment to, 214, 233-34 G Gazette of the United States, 95 gender, concept of, 42 George 111, King, 44 Gerard, Thomas, 68 Getting Word project, 163, 169-70, 180-81 Goodridge, Timothy, 68 Gordon-Reed, Annette, 5, 6, 7, 12, 14, 15, 27, 32, 78, 119, 212, 215, 216 on Madison Herrings interview, 9 on Jefferson's relatives as slaves, 152 government, liberals on purpose of, 131 government by consent, Jefferson's commitment to, 231 Gray Beverly, 163, 165 on "bringing children out of Egypt," 178 Gray Francis, 206 Greenberg, Kenneth, 194 Greene, Lorenzo Johnston, 35 H Hagar, 120,122 Hamilton; Alexander, 90 compared to Jefferson, 219 Harlem, 161, 162 Harrison, Benjamin, 169 Hemings, Betty. See Hemings, Elizabeth Hemings, Beverley (Sally's son), 98, 102-3, 107, 141, 153, 156, 168, 179, 250 departure of, 250 Hemings, Elizabeth (Betty; Sally's mother), 104 descendants of, 163, 179 and John Wayles, 103 146, 179 Hemings, Ellen Wayles. See Roberts, Ellen Hemings Hemings, Eston (Sally's son), xii, 13, 77, 121, 130, 156, 164, 250 adopts Jefferson surname, 165, 174 descendants of, 162-65, 169, 173-74 genetic markers of, 178 migration of, 164-65, 168 passing of, 168-69 Jefferson as father of, 141, 144-45, 153 Hemings, Harriet (Sally's daughter), 87-88, 98, 107, 141, 153, 156, 168, 179 departure of, 249 Hemings, James (Sally's brother), l00-101, 102 Hemings, James Madison (Madison's son), 166 Hemings, John (Sally's brother), 163, 249 Hemings, Julia (Eston's wife), 163, 168 Hemings, Madison (Sally's son), xii, 6, 9, 13, 24, 66, 150, 155, 156 descendants of, 170-171, 173 does not identify with Jefferson, 174-75 genetic markers of, 178 memoirs of, 237, 238, 239, 248, 249 reputation of, 165 on Sally Herrings, 75, 102 120, 121 on Jefferson, 106, 137, 141, 149, 153, 249-51 Hemings, Mary. See Bell, Mary Herrings Hemings, Mary Ann. See Johnson, Mary Ann Hemings, Mary Hughes. See McCoy Mary Hughes Hemings, Sally and children's freedom, 77, 120, 121, 190, 216 color of, 48 compelling persistence of story of, 207 descendants' description of, 175 diction of, 48 as Jefferson's "plantation wife," 119-20 parentage of, 146 racial identities of descendants of,170-71 referred to as "dusky Sally" 40, 148 "treaty" of, with Jefferson, 248 Hemings, Thomas Eston (Madison's son), 150 Hemings, William Beverly (Madison's son), 166 Hemings family and genetic connection to Jefferson family, 243 history, transmission of, 177-78 identity and, 161-83 interracial tradition in, 76-77 at Monticello, 103-4, 148-49 naming customs of, 250 relationship of, to Jeffersons and Randolphs 238 Hemings Jefferson family tree, xii Hemings Jefferson liaison, 124 DNA research on, xii, 200 as historical fact, 237 issues concerning, 191-93, 213-17, 251-52 lies about, 140-47 as mystery, 190-91, 243 See also Adams, Henry; Brodie, Fawn M.; Burstein, Andrew; Ellis, Joseph J.; Hemings, Sally; Jefferson, Thomas; Jordan, Winthrop D.; Malone, Dumas; Onuf, Peter; Peterson, Merrill D.; Randall, Henry S. heritage, 29 collective sense of, 14 as more important than history, 32 Hildreth, Richard, 203 History of the United States for 1796 (Callender) 90-91 History of the United States of America during the Administration of Thomas Jefferson (Adams), 200 Holocaust, 36-37 Honey James, 68 Hook, Duncan, 69 Hook, John, 69 House of Delegates (Virginia), 58 Howell, Samuel, 60 Huggins, Nathan, 207 Hughes, Betsy, 66 Hughes, Hastings, 66 Hughes, Mary, See McCoy Mary Hughes Hughes, Stephen, 66 Hutchinson, Thomas, 227 hypocrisy Jefferson's, 245-46 I ideology, as form of miscommunication, 5 illegitimacy, 176, 195 Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (Northrup), 188 inequality, theory and practice of, 123-24 interracialism as family tradition, 62, 65-66, 76 interracial marriage Knight-Ridder poll on, 187 Lincoln on, 203-4 as solution to racial problems, 28 interracial sex, 10, 107-8 anxiety about, 24-25, 189, 196, 204-5 in British Atlantic world, 69-73, 75-77 in Chesapeake, 52-74, 77-78 clandestine nature of, 189 eighteenth- vs. nineteenth-century view of, 60 as illegitimate, 6, 67 penalties for, 97, 189 prevalence of, 4, 23 privileged position of offspring of, 26 public opinion about, 67, 187-88 results of, 76 social knowledge of, 87-113 in South Carolina, 73-74 white attitudes toward, 104-6 between white men and black women, 62-78 between white women and black men, 60-62 See also interracialism; interracial marriage; shadow families Isaac, Rhys, 6, 7, 13, 20 Isaacs, David, 97, 104 Isaacs, Julia Ann. See Hemings, Julia J Jack (Custis slave), 53-54, 56 Jackson, Andrew, 211 Jacobs, Harriet, 190 James (Wythe slave), 58 Jarvis, Thomas, 68 Jefferson, Anna (Eston Hemings's daughter), 169 Jefferson, Beverly (Eston Hemings's son), 169, 174 Jefferson, Eston Hemings. See Herrings, Eston Jefferson, Isaac (slave), 20, 23, 75 Jefferson, Israel (slave), 99, 101, 137, 142 memoirs of, 237 Jefferson, John Wayles (Eston Hemings's son),169 Jefferson, Maria. See Eppes, Mary Jefferson Jefferson, Martha. See Randolph, Martha Jefferson Jefferson, Martha Wayles (Thomas's wife), 59, 146 Jefferson, Mary. See Eppes, Mary Jefferson Jefferson, Patsy. See Randolph, Martha Jefferson Jefferson, Peter (Thomas's father), 193 Jefferson, Polly. See Eppes, Mary Jefferson Jefferson, Randolph (Thomas's brother), 151, 152 Jefferson, Thomas on African Americans and race, 5, 114-15, 189, 206-7, 217 as American symbol, 3 and Callender, 90-95, 97-108 in context of his time, 29-30 and David Meade Randolph, break with, 139-40, 149 death of, 210-11 and Declaration of independence, 210 and denial of Herrings relationship, 141-43, 154 earliest memories of, 114-15 and equality, commitment to, 224, 231 and family, 123-24, 129, 130-35 on freedom of religious belief, 232 on George Wythe, 56 and Hemings, commitment to, 142-43, 179 and honor, 194 ideals of, 14-15, 44 indebtedness of, 45-46, 133, 212 moral implications of actions of, 8-9 patriarchal attitude of, 248 personal correspondence of, 212 personal characteristics of, 175, 196, 220-22, 247 politics of, 44 public persona of, 194 on racial mixing, 22-23, 44-45, 105-6 reelection of, 89 and religion, 214, 228-29, 232-34 as slaveholder, 21-22, 45-47 on slavery and emancipation, 76, 211, 217, 220-21, 222, 223-24 as vice president, 130 as victim, 140-41 See also Herrings Jefferson liaison Jefferson and Civil Liberties: The Darker Side (Levy), 240 Jeferson and the Rights of Man (Malone), 38-40 Jefferson family defense against paternity charges, 142, 144 interracial traditions in, 76-77 Jeffersonian Legacies (Onuf ), 240 Jeffersonian legacy, balancing, 212-13 Jeferson Image in the American Mind, The (Peterson), 15 Jefferson in Paris (film), 27, 206, 247 "Jefferson's Daughter" (anonymous), 201 John (Calvert slave), 65 Johnny (Burwell slave), 68 Johnson, Andrew, 202, 207 Johnson, Mary Ann Herrings (Madison's daughter), 176 Johnson, Richard M., 203-4, 207 Johnson, Samuel, 75 Jones, Meriweather, 95-96, 103 Jones, Nellie Johnson (Madison Hemings's granddaughter), 176 Jordan, Winthrop D., 2, 5, 6, 10-11, 23, 25, 37, 42-43, 78, 137, 236-37, 240 on centrality of race questions to nationhood, 224-27 on one-drop rule, 28 Judah, Isaac, 60 jurisprudence, of Founding Fathers, 30 K Kendall, George, 53, 54 Kentucky Resolutions of 1798, 217 King, Martin Luther, Jr., 31 L Lady Chatterley's Lover (Lawrence), 191 La Richefoucauld-Liancourt, Duc de, 87 Leeward Islands, 55 Leftrage, Susan, 61 Legree, Simon, 188 Letter Concerning Toleration (Locke), 214 Lettice (slave), 77 Lewis, Jan Ellen, 213 on Jefferson family's lies, 13 Lewis, Meriweather, 94 Lincoln, Abraham on Dred Scott decision, 203 Gettysburg Address of, 230 on interracial marriage, 203-4 and use of Declaration of independence, 31 livres philosophiques, 120-21 Liz (Johnson slave), 202, 207 Locke, John, 214 on freedom of religious thought, 232 on slavery as not hereditary, 223 Loftus, Phoebe, 68 Long, Edward, 69 Long Affair, The (O'Brien), 246 love, varying concepts of, 119 Lowenthal, David, 29, 31 Loyde,Stephen,63 Lunan, Reverend Patrick, 67 M Madison, James and Callender, 200 compared to Jefferson, 210, 219-20 on freedom of religious belief, 232 as secretary of state, 93 on standards for public figure, 212 Maier, Pauline, 30-31 on Declaration of independence, 229 Malone, Dumas, 38-40 on Jefferson-Herrings liaison, 194-95 on Jefferson's temperament, 138 Mandingo (Onstott), 195 manumission deed of, 53 of Sally Flemings's children, 49 Maria (Judah slave), 60 Marks, Peter, 66 Marryat, Frederick, 201 Maurice (Forster), 191 McCoy Mary Hughes (Madison Hemings's wife), 66, 163, 170-71 Meyers, Debra, 67-68 Middle Passage, 228 Miller, John Chester, 32, 89 mistress, as term, 120 Moody Anne, 54, 55 Moody, Matthew, 53, 54, 55 Moore, Ann, 61 Moore, Thomas, 138, 199, 200-201 "Moneymusk," 164 Monroe, James, 94 Monticello African Americans of, 161-81 "first" and "second," 6, 116-117, 118-19 as ideal Southern plantation, 21 interracial connections from, 66 Jefferson's presence at, 41-42 as part of history, 115 service buildings of, 117 Hemings Jefferson presence at, 146 "white slaves" at, 103 moral responsibility, judgments of, 226-27 Moral Tales (Marmontel), 122-23 Morgan, Edmund S., 229 Morgan, Philip D., 4, 11 Mosby Betsy, 62 Moses, William, 125 mulattoes, in interracial families, 77 Mumford, William, 58 Munby, Arthur, 191 Mustee, 67 Myrdal, Gunnar, 225, 227 N Nace (Jefferson slave), 22 naming, patterns of, 66 National Prayer Breakfast, 211 magazine, xii, 1, 27, 242 Negro Trail Blazers of California, 171 neighbors, Jefferson's, 12, 66-67, 239 New York Times, 1 "nigger in the woodpile," 24-25 Nora, Pierre, 29 Norris, Charlotte, 65 Norris, Mathilde, 65 Norris, Sophia, 65 Norris, William, 65 North Carolina, sexual mores of, 73-74 Northrup, Solomon, 188 Notes on the State of Virginia (Jefferson), 37, 47 115, 189, 217, 240 Query XIV of, 51, 220-22, 225, 230-31 O obedience, versus consent, 231 O'Brien, Conor Cruise, 14, 246 one-drop rule, of racial identity, 28, 48, 49, 50 216 Onstott, Kyle, 195 Onuf, Peter S., 213, 240 oral history, black tradition of, 27 orality, importance of, 163 Ossian (MacPherson), 117, 122 overseers, and liaisons with slaves, 63-64 P Page, Mann, 52, 55, 60, 77 Paine, Thomas, 131 Painter, Nell, 32 Palladio, Andrea, 116-17 Papers of Thomas Jefferson, The (Boyd), 38 Parke, Daniel, II, 55 Parke, Jane,55 Parke-Custis clan interracialism in, 62 shadow families among, 55 Parton, James, 5, 136, 137, 250 and biography of Jefferson, 148 passing, 165-69 costs of, 169 intermittent, 168 and new family story, 174 paternity, Jefferson's, as private matter, 176-77 Patterson, Orlando, 247 Peale, Charles Willson, 59 Peterson, Merrill D., 15, 29, 210 Phibbah (Thistlewood slave), 11, 72-73, 77 Philadelphia Aurora, 96 Philadelphia Gazette, 90 Pike County (Ohio) Republican, 9,136, 145, 249 Pleasants, Robert, 58 Pole, J. R., 227-28 Political Progress of Britain, The (Callender), 90 Polly (Wythe slave), 58 popular consent, principle of, 228 "President Tom." See Tom (Jefferson slave) Prestwood, William Thomas, 56, 73-74, 77 Price, Richard, 98 Primary Colors (film), 206 privacy, concept of, 232-33 Prospect before Us, The (Callender), 91, 200 Q Quynn, Allen, 61 Quynn, Nancy, 61 R race centrality of, in definition of nationhood, 224-27 and crossing the color line, 163 current preoccupation with, 227 Jefferson on, 22-23, 44-45, 46, 49-50 See also African Americans; color prejudice; interracialism; interracial marriage; interracial sex; manumission; "one-drop rule"; passing; segregation; shadow families; slavery; "white niggers" racial reconciliation, call for, 211 Rakove, Jack N., 7, 8,14 on Hemings Jefferson relationship, 213-17 Randall, Henry S., 99, 108, 138, 250 and Thomas Jefferson Randolph, 145-46, 154 letter of, to Parton, 136-37, 147 Randolph, David Meade, 92, 95 break with Jefferson, 139-40, 149 Randolph, Ellen (Jefferson's granddaughter), 135 Randolph, George Wythe (Jefferson's grandson), 146 Randolph, Jeff. See Randolph, Thomas Jefferson Randolph, Martha Jefferson (Jefferson's daughter), 43, 118, 128, 129, 131, 132, 134, 135, 180 on Hemings's child's birth, 146 Randolph, Thomas Jefferson (Jeff Thomas's grandson), 99, 104, 134, 135, 146, 150, 155 on family resemblance, 136 on Jefferson as victim, 140-41 and Randall, 145-46, 147, 148, 154 response of, to Israel Jefferson, 136, 137, 144, 145, 150 Randolph, Thomas Mann (Jefferson's son-in-law), 134, 135, 139 and inheritance problem, 149 Redford, Dorothy, 180 "Relative to the Murder of Logan's Family" (Jefferson), 47 religion, Jefferson and tolerance of, 214, 228-29, 232-34 Republican Party and Callender, 90, 91, 93 Richmond Examiner, 96, 103, 142 Richmond Recorder, 1, 87, 88, 95, 100, 106, 200 Rind, William, 94, 95 Roberts, Andrew J.,171 Roberts, Ellen Hemings (Madison Hemings's daughter), 171, 172, 176 Roberts, Frederick Madison (Madison Hemings's grandson), 171 Robertson, Letty, 59 Robinson, Armstead, 26 Robinson, Paul, 190 Rogers, J. A.,193 Roosevelt, Theodore, 204-5 Rosewell (mansion), 52 Rothman, Joshua D., 4, 12, 23, 24, 239 S St. John's Church cemetery, 58 Sally (Brown slave), 59 Sally Hemings (Chase-Riboud), 25-26, 193, 206 Sam (Johnson slave), 202 Sangoe,Joane,68 Santo Domingo, 68, 217 segregation, rise and collapse of, 232 self-government, Jefferson on rights of, 223-24, 230 Sentimentaljourney (Sterne), 122 sexuality interior, 214-15 and physicality of sex, 190 private nature of, 213-14 relation of, to religious belief, 214 See also interracial sex shadow families, 55, 64 Shadwell, 114, 117 Sheppard, Joseph, 63 Sheppard, Judith, 63 Sheppard, Philip, 63 silence as family trait, 177 public, cultural code of, 96 Simmons, Bernardine, 26 Six Black Presidents, The (Black Blood: White Masks, U.S.A., Bakhufu), 193 slavery central role of in US. history, 188 coexistence of, with democracy, 201 as kind of lie, 143 sinfulness of, 233-34 Southern commitment to, 218 as threat, Jefferson on, 223 Jefferson's condemnation of, 76 slaves disposal of Jefferson's, 246 "meretorious service" of, as reason for release, 54 Jefferson's relations with, 45-47 Sloan, Herbert, 212 Smith, Margaret Bayard, 130, 132 Smith, Tamar, 61 Snowden and McCorkle, 91 Sollors, Werner, 6, 7, 14, 25 Somerset Homecoming (Redford), 180 South Carolina, sexual mores of, 7374 "Speech of Chief Logan" (Jefferson), 47 Stanley Liz, 191 Stanton, Lucia, 4, 7, 13, 24, 28, 66, 78, 216 on Jefferson as slaveholder, 21-22 Stedman, John, 69 Stier, Rosalie, 65 Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 188 Sukey (Carter slave), 63 Suliman, 122-23 Swann-Wright, Dianne, 4, 7, 13, 28, 121 Sylvee (Wright slave), 64 T Tarr, Edward, 60-61 Thistlewood, John (Thomas's son), 72 Thistlewood, John (Thomas's nephew), 71 Thistlewood, Thomas, 11, 56, 69, 70, 72-73, 75, 77 Thomas (Gerard slave), 68 Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings: An American Controversy (Gordon-Reed), 9, 27 Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History (Brodie), 239-40 Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association, 8 Thomas Jefferson's Farm Book (Betts, ed.), 38 three-fifths clause, US. Constitution, 226 Tom (Jefferson slave), 98, 102-3, 141 "To Thomas Hume, Esq., M.D. from the City of Washington' (Moore), 199 Tourgée, Albion W, 205 Treaty of Paris, 212 Trollope, Frances, 107 tropes of family and politics, 130, 141 Truman, Harry S., 25, 205-6 Truth, Sojourner, 32 Twelve Years a Slave (Northrup), 188 Tyler, John, 202 U "Uncle Tom's Cabin: The Sinister Side of the Patriarchy" (Duvall), 188 University of Virginia, 26,107,137 V Virginia Declaration of Rights, 229 Virginia Federalist, 94, 95 Volney Comte, 87 W Walker, Betsey, and Jefferson,137 Walker, Clarence, 5, 7,14 Walker, John, 138-39 Washington, Booker T, 204-5 Washington, George, 31 compared to Jefferson, 210 Wayles, John, 77, 250 and Betty Flemings, 103, 146, 179 Wayles family, interracial tradition in, 76-77 Weems, Parson, 31 Werff, Adriaen van der, 122 West, Adam, 61 West, Nancy, 97 Wheatley Phillis, 45, 47, 222 whiggerism. See "white niggers" whip, coercion of, 22 whipping, Jefferson on, 46 Whitaker, Lydia, 61 Whitaker, Peggy, 61 "white niggers, 171, 193 White over Black: American Attitudes toward the Negro, 1550-1812 (Jordan), 2, 5, 11, 35, 48, 224, 236-37, 240 white supremacy, role of, 238 wife, as term, 120 wills, lack of provision for mulatto children in, 67-68 Winfrey, Oprah, 1 Wirt, William, 58 women, Jefferson's attitude toward, 42-43 Wood, Gordon S., 7, 10, 227 on discipline of history, 219, 220 Woodson, Thomas, xii, 27, 102, 192-93, 243 Woodson family, 193, 196 World's Great Men of Color (Rogers), 193 Wright, Robert "Robin," 64 Wright, Thomas, 64 Wythe, Benjamin, 59-60 Wythe, George, 55, 56-60, 77 alleged interracial liaison of, 56-58, 78 antislavery convictions of, 58 and Michael Brown, 58-59 Wythe, Philip, 59-60 Y Young, Emma Byrd, 167

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