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Table of Contents of
The Papers of Thomas Jefferson
Volume 25

edited by
Julian P. Boyd


© 1950 - <2001> Princeton University Press

Reproduced 2003 with permission of the publisher

Table of Contents, All Volumes   |  Catalog record and links to related information from the Library of Congress catalog
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CONTENTS

January 1, 1793 to May 10, 1793
FOREWORD vii GUIDE TO EDITORIAL APPARATUS ix ILLUSTRATIONS xxxix JEFFERSON CHRONOLOGY 2
{ 1793 }
January February March April May
INDEX ILLUSTRATIONS
January From James Brown, 1 January 3 From George Divers, 1 January 3 From Gouverneur Morris, 1 January 4 From Timothy Pickering, 1 January 5 To Thomas Pinckney, 1 January 6 To George Washington, 1 January 6 From Thomas Barclay, 2 January 7 To Benjamin Smith Barton, [2 January] 8 From Francis Eppes, 2 January 8 To David Humphreys, 2 January 8 To the Speaker of the House of Representatives, 2 January 9 To Harry Innes, 3 January 10 From James Monroe, 3 January 11 From Thomas Pinckney, 3 January 11 To John M. Pintard, 3 January 13 To William Short, 3 January 14 From Benjamin Smith Barton, 4 January 17 To J. P. P. Derieux, 4 January 18 To Francis Eppes, 4 January 19 From Alexander Hamilton, 4 January 20 Notes on Alexander Hamilton's Report on Foreign Loans, [after 4 January] 20 From the Commissioners of the Federal District, 5 January 24 From Alexander Donald, 5 January 26 To James Carey, 6 January 27 From Gouverneur Morris, 6 January 27 From John Bulkeley & Son, 7 January 28 From David Humphreys, 7 January 29 To Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., 7 January 30 To David Rittenhouse, 7 January 31 From David Rittenhouse, enclosing Assay of Foreign Coins, 7 January 31 From Jean Baptiste Ternant, 7 January 33 From Ernst Frederick Guyer, 8 January 34 To Ernst Frederick Guyer, 8 January 36 From David Humphreys, 8 January 36 Report on Foreign Coinage, 8 January 37 To the Speaker of the House of Representatives, 8 January 38 From Jean Baptiste Ternant, 8 January 39 To George Washington, 8 January 40 From John Butler, 9 January 40 From C. W. F. Dumas, 9 January 41 From Andrew Ellicott, 9 January 41 Note on Balloons, [ca. 9 January] 42 From Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., 9 January 42 From Caspar Wistar, Jr., [9 January] 43 From J. P. P. Derieux, 10 January 44 From Tobias Lear, 10 January 45 From Tobias Lear, 11 January 45 From David Rittenhouse, 11 January 46 To George Washington, enclosing Clause for Bill Regulating Trade with the Indians, 13 January 46 From Robert Gamble, 14 January 48 From Tobias Lear, 14 January 49 From James Monroe, 14 January 50 To James Monroe, 14 January 50 To Martha Jefferson Randolph, 14 January 50 To Jean Baptiste Ternant, 14 January 51 To the Commissioners of the Federal District, 15 January 52 From Delamotte, 15 January 53 To Andrew Ellicott, 15 January 54 From Alexander Hamilton, 15 January 55 From Alexander Hamilton, 15 January 55 From Alexander Hamilton, 15 January 56 From Tobias Lear, 15 January 56 From Lebrun, 15 January 57 Notes on the French Revolution, 15 January 58 From Rochefontaine, [15 January] 59 From William Short, 15 January 60 From Jean Baptiste Ternant, 15 January 61 To George Washington, 15 January 61 From Etienne Claviere, 16 January 62 To Francis Eppes, 16 January 63 Notes on John Adams and the French Revolution, 16 January 63 From Martha Jefferson Randolph, 16 January 64 From Francis Eppes, 17 January 65 To Robert Gamble, 17 January 65 From Gouverneur Morris, 17 January 66 To Aaron Burr, 20 January 66 To J. P. P. Derieux, 20 January 67 From Joseph Fenwick, 20 January 68 To Richard Hanson, 20 January 69 To Daniel L. Hylton, 20 January 70 From Benjamin Joy, 20 January 71 Andre Michaux's Observations on His Proposed Western Expedition, 20 January 71 To Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., enclosing Instructions on Timber for Monticello, 21 January 72 Jefferson and Andre Michaux's Proposed Western Expedition 75 American Philosophical Society's Subscription Agreement for Andre Michaux's Western Expedition, [ca. 22 January] 81 From James Cole Mountflorence, 22 January 84 To George Washington, 22 January 85 From George Washington, 22 January 85 From James Currie, 23 January 86 From David Humphreys, 23 January 86 George Washington to Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 23 January 88 From Robert Gamble, 24 January 90 To John Wilkes Kittera, 24 January 90 From Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., 24 January 91 From Robert Dick, 25 January 92 To Albert Gallatin, 25 January 92 From David Humphreys, 25 January 93 From Gouverneur Morris, 25 January 95 From George Gilmer, 26 January 97 To Martha Jefferson Randolph, 26 January 97 To Joseph Fay, 27 January 98 From Christopher Greenup, 28 January 99 From Samuel Stearns, 28 January 100 From C. W. F. Dumas, 29 January 100 From Thomas Bell, 30 January 101 From Nathaniel Cutting, 30 January 102 From James Monroe, [30 January] 102 From Thomas Pinckney, 30 January 103 From John Carey, 31 January 105 From Thomas Pinckney, 31 January 106 George Washington to the Commissioners of the Federal District, 31 January 107 George Washington to the Commissioners of the Federal District, 31 January 109 February To Daniel Carroll, 1 February 110 From Daniel Carroll, 1 February 110 From Alexander Hamilton, 1 February 111 From Benjamin Hawkins, 1 February 111 Minutes of a Conference with the Illinois and Wabash Indians, 1-4 February 112 From James Cole Mountflorence, 1 February, enclosing Account of the French Revolution, 11 November 1792 119 To George Washington, 1 February 133 To Samuel Clarkson, 2 February 134 To C. W. F. Dumas, 2 February 134 To George Washington Greene, 2 February 135 From Tobias Lear, 2 February 136 To George Washington, 2 February 136 From C. W. F. Dumas, 3 February 136 To Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., 3 February 137 From William Short, 3 February 139 From George Washington, 3 February 142 To Alexander Hamilton, 4 February 143 From Tobias Lear, 4 February 144 From Tench Coxe, enclosing Notes on Jefferson's Draft Report on Commerce, 5 February 145 To Tench Coxe, 5 February 149 From Thomas Pinckney, 5 February 149 From John M. Pintard, 5 February 151 From the Commissioners of the Federal District, 7 February 152 From Tobias Lear, 7 February 153 Notes of a Conversation with George Washington, 7 February 153 From Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., 7 February 156 From Winthrop Sargent, 7 February 157 To George Washington, 7 February 158 To Tench Coxe, 8 February 158 From Tench Coxe, 8 February 159 From David Humphreys, 8 February 159 From David Humphreys, 8 February 160 From William Stephens Smith, 8 February 161 From Jean Baptiste Ternant, 8 February 162 From John Nancarrow, 9 February 163 From Jean Baptiste Ternant, 9 February 164 From Joseph Fenwick, 10 February 165 From Thomas Pinckney, 10 February 166 From Thomas Pinckney, 10 February 168 To George Washington, 10 February 168 From the Commissioners of the Federal District, 11 February 169 From Thomas Pinckney, 11 February 169 To Martha Jefferson Randolph, 11 February 170 From the Commissioners of the Federal District, 12 February 170 From James Currie, 12 February 171 Jefferson's Questions and Observations on the Application of France 172 I. Statement of the American Debt to France [ca. 12 February] 175 II. Thomas Jefferson to George Washington, 12 February 176 III. Questions on the Application of France, 12 February 177 IV. Observations on the Questions about the Application of France, 12 February 177 From James Simpson, 12 February 182 From Fulwar Skipwith, 12 February 183 From George Washington, 12 February 183 From Joseph Fay, 13 February 184 Circular to Foreign Ministers in the United States, enclosing Extracts from Jefferson's Draft Report on Commerce, 13 February 184 From Gouverneur Morris, 13 February 189 From Gouverneur Morris, 13 February 195 From William G. Sydnor, [before 13 February] 196 From George Washington, 13 February 196 From Benjamin Hawkins, 14 February 197 To Jean Baptiste Ternant, 14 February 198 To George Washington, 14 February 198 To George Washington, 14 February 199 From George Hammond, enclosing Table of British Import Duties, 15 February 199 Memorandum on Consuls and Consular Appointments, 15 February 202 From Josef Ignacio de Viar and Josef de Jaudenes, 15 February 205 To George Hammond, 16 February 206 Notes on Levees and Assumption, 16 February 208 Report on the Petition of John Rogers, 16 February 209 From Jean Baptiste Ternant, [16 February] 211 To George Washington, 16 February 211 From Stephen Cathalan, Jr., 17 February 212 From Angelica Schuyler Church, 17 February 215 To George Clinton, 17 February 215 From Tobias Lear, 17 February 216 From John Syme, 17 February 216 To Jean Baptiste Ternant, 17 February 217 From Jean Baptiste Ternant, 17 February 218 To Josef Ignacio de Viar and Josef de Jaudenes, 17 February 219 To George Washington, 17 February 220 George Washington to the Cabinet, 17 February, enclosing Henry Knox's Heads of Instructions for the Commissioners to the Western Indians, [ca. 16 February] 220 To Martha Jefferson Carr, 18 February 223 From George Hammond, 18 February 224 To Jacob Hollingsworth, 18 February 225 From Jean Baptiste Le Roy, 18 February 225 Memorandum on Consuls Recommended for Appointment, 18 February 227 To Beverley Randolph, 18 February 229 To Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., 18 February 230 To George Washington, 18 February 231 From William Carmichael and William Short, 19 February 232 From James Simpson, 19 February 234 From Caleb Alexander, 20 February 235 From John Bulkeley & Son, 20 February 235 From John Carey, 20 February 236 From Tench Coxe, 20 February 237 From Tobias Lear, 20 February 237 To Robert Montgomery, 20 February 238 Notes on Alexander Hamilton's Report on Foreign Loans, [ca. 20 February] 239 Notes on Conversations with William Stephens Smith and George Washington, 20 February 243 From Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., 20 February 245 To the Speaker of the House of Representatives, 20 February 246 To George Washington, enclosing Extracts of Letters concerning Gouverneur Morris and William Short, 20 February 247 To Pierre Billet, 21 February 249 To Paul Gamelin, 21 February 251 From Wakelyn Welch, 21 February 252 From Robert Crew, 22 February 252 From F. P. Van Berckel, enclosing Notes on Jefferson's Draft Report on Commerce, 22 February 253 To George Washington, [22 February] 254 To Jean Baptiste Ternant, 23 February 254 Tobias Lear to the Cabinet, 24 February 255 From Tobias Lear, 24 February 255 To Martha Jefferson Randolph, 24 February 256 To Peyton Short, 24 February 257 From George Washington, 24 February 257 Cabinet Opinions on Indian Affairs, [25 February] 258 Cabinet Opinions on the Debt to France, 25 February 260 Commissioners of the Sinking Fund to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, 25 February 261 From Joseph Fenwick, 25 February 261 From Peregrine Fitzhugh, 25 February 262 From Jacob Hollingsworth, 25 February 263 To Jean Baptiste Ternant, 25 February 264 To Jean Baptiste Ternant, 25 February 264 To George Washington, 25 February 265 To George Washington, 25 February 266 From Andrew Ellicott, 26 February 266 From Joseph Fay, 26 February 268 To Elbridge Gerry, 26 February 269 From Tobias Lear, 26 February 270 From Adam Lindsay, 26 February 270 Notes on Cabinet Opinions, 26 February 271 To John Pendleton, Jr., 26 February 274 From David Stuart, 26 February 275 From George Washington, 26 February 275 To George Wythe, 26 February 276 To William Carmichael, 27 February 277 From Stephen Cathalan, Jr., 27 February 277 To Francis Eppes, 27 February 279 Jefferson and the Giles Resolutions 280 I. Resolutions on the Secretary of the Treasury, [before 27 February] 292 II. William Branch Giles's Resolutions on the Secretary of the Treasury, [27 February] 294 From Tobias Lear, 27 February 296 From Martha Jefferson Randolph, 27 February 297 From Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., 27 February 298 Cabinet Opinion on Military Rations, 28 February 299 From Tobias Lear, with Jefferson's Note, 28 February 300 Notes on Washington's Second Inauguration and Republicanism, 28 February 301 From Timothy Pickering, 28 February 302 To Arthur St. Clair, 28 February 303 George Washington to the Senate, with Jefferson's Note to Washington, 28 February 303 From Robert R. Livingston, [February-March] 304 March To John Adams, 1 March 306 From J. P. P. Derieux, 1 March 306 From John Kendrick, 1 March 307 Memorandum on Consular Appointments, 1 March 308 To the Speaker of the House of Representatives, 1 March 310 Cabinet Opinion on the American Debt to France, 2 March 310 Notes on the Giles Resolutions, 2 March 311 Report on the Proceedings of the Northwest Territory, 2 March 312 To Jacob Hollingsworth, 3 March 312 To Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., 3 March 313 To Stephen Willis, 3 March 314 From Edward Dowse, 4 March 315 To George Washington, 4 March 316 To George Washington, 4 March 316 From George Clinton, 5 March 317 To Alexander Donald, 5 March 317 To George Washington, 5 March 319 From Francis Eppes, 6 March 319 From Tobias Lear, 6 March 320 To Thomas Pinckney, 6 March 320 To Vicomte de Rochambeau, 6 March 321 From William Short, 6 March 321 To Fulwar Skipwith, 6 March 331 To Moses Cox, 7 March 332 From Tench Coxe, 7 March 332 From Gouverneur Morris, 7 March 333 From Joel Barlow, 8 March 336 From Clement Biddle, 8 March 337 To Tench Coxe, 8 March 337 From Tench Coxe, [8] March 338 From Gouverneur Morris, 8 March 338 From George Washington, 8 March 339 From Delamotte, 9 March 340 From Delamotte, 9 March 340 From Delamotte, 9 March 341 From William & Samuel Jones, 9 March 341 From Gouverneur Morris, 9 March 343 To George Washington, 9 March 344 From George Washington, 9 March 345 George Washington to the Secretaries of State, Treasury, and War, 9 March 345 To James Currie, 10 March 346 To J. P. P. Derieux, 10 March 346 From Thomas Digges, 10 March 347 From Alexander Donald, 10 March 351 To Martha Jefferson Randolph, 10 March 352 Report on Acts of Congress, 10 March 354 Report on Boundaries with the Western Indians, 10 March 354 To Dugald Stewart, 10 March 357 From George Washington, 10 March 357 From Gaetano Drago di Domenico, 11 March 358 To Henry Lee, 11 March 359 Opinion on Compensation to the Commissioners of the Federal District, 11 March 360 From Benjamin Smith Barton, 12 [March] 361 To Moses Cox, 12 March 362 From Delamotte, 12 March 362 From Joseph Fay, 12 March 363 To Horatio Gates, 12 March 363 To George Washington Greene, 12 March 364 To Benjamin Joy, 12 March 365 To James Monroe, 12 March 366 To Gouverneur Morris, 12 March 367 From Thomas Pinckney, 12 March 370 From Thomas Pinckney, 12 March 371 To Edmund Randolph, with Randolph's Reply, 12 March 372 To George Clinton, 13 March 373 From the Commissioners of Accounts for the States, 13 March 373 From Gouverneur Morris, 13 March 374 From Thomas Pinckney, 13 March 375 From Thomas Pinckney, 13 March 378 To Edmund Randolph, 13 March 379 To George Washington, enclosing Letter of Protection for Friendly Indians, 13 March 380 From George Washington, 13 March 382 From Delamotte, 14 March 383 From Beverley Randolph, 14 March 383 To George Gilmer, 15 March 384 From Stephen Hallet, enclosing Description of His New Plan for the Capitol, 15 March 384 To Gouverneur Morris and Thomas Pinckney, 15 March 387 From Edmund Randolph, 15 March 389 To George Washington, 15 March 390 From George Washington, with Jefferson's Note, 15 March 391 George Washington to Madame de Lafayette, 15 March 391 From John Wilkes Kittera, 16 March 392 From James Maury, 16 March 392 To Thomas Pinckney, 16 March 393 To Benjamin Russell, 16 March 395 To Francis Eppes, 17 March 396 From Horatio Gates, 17 March 397 To Edmund Randolph, enclosing Proposed Form for Patents, 17 March 398 To John Syme, 17 March 399 To George Washington, 17 March 400 To George Wythe, 17 March 401 To Joseph Fay, 18 March 402 To Alexander Hamilton, 18 March 402 To Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., 18 March 403 From William Loughton Smith, 18 March 404 To William Loughton Smith, 18 March 405 To George Washington, 18 March 405 From Stephen Cathalan, Jr., 19 March 406 From David Humphreys, 19 March 407 From Thomas Pinckney, 19 March 408 From George Washington, 19 March 408 From Thomas Auldjo, 20 March 409 From John Gregorie, 20 March 409 To Thomas Pinckney, 20 March 410 To Jean Baptiste Ternant, 20 March 411 To George Washington, 20 March 412 From George Washington, 20 March 412 To George Washington, 20 March 412 From George Washington, with Jefferson's Note, 20 March 413 To Willink, Van Staphorst & Hubbard, 20 March 413 From Brown, Benson & Ives, 21 March 414 Circular to Consuls and Vice-Consuls, 21 March 415 To Joseph Fay, 21 March 418 To Horatio Gates, 21 March 419 To David Humphreys, 21 March 420 From John M. Pintard, 21 March 422 To David Rittenhouse, 21 March 423 To George Washington, 21 March 423 George Washington to the Cabinet, 21 March 424 To Andrew Ellicott, 22 March 425 To David Humphreys, 22 March 426 To David Humphreys, 22 March 427 From James Monroe, 22 March 429 To James Simpson, 22 March 429 To William Carmichael and William Short, 23 March 430 To Alexander Hamilton, 23 March 432 To Alexander Hamilton, 23 March 432 Notes on Stockholders in Congress, 23 March 432 To William Short, 23 March 435 To William Short, 23 March 436 From John Syme, 23 March 437 To George Washington, 23 March 438 To C. W. F. Dumas, 24 March 439 From Alexander Hamilton, 24 March 439 From David Humphreys, 24 March 440 To James Madison, [24 March] 442 From James Madison, 24 March 443 To Martha Jefferson Randolph, 24 March 444 To George Washington, 24 March 444 From William Barton, 25 March 445 From Richard Harrison, 25 March 445 From George Meade, [25 March] 445 Notes on Stockholders in Congress, 25 March 446 From David Rittenhouse, enclosing Account of Expenditures for the Mint, 25 March 446 To George Washington, 25 March 448 From George Washington, 25 March 448 From John Carey, 26 March 448 From Andrew Ellicott, 26 March 449 To Henry Knox, 26 March 450 From Henry Knox, 26 March 450 From Gouverneur Morris, 26 March 450 Edmund Randolph's Notes on Jefferson's Letter to Alexander Hamilton, [ca. 26 March] 458 To George Washington, 26 March 459 From Giuseppe Ceracchi, 27 March 459 To Alexander Hamilton, 27 March 460 From James Monroe, 27 March 463 From John M. Pintard, 27 March 464 From Peter Carr, 28 March 465 Notes on the Payment of the Public Debt, [ca. 28 March] 465 From Benjamin Rush, 28 March 467 From Rodolph Vall-Travers, 29 March 467 To David Humphreys, 30 March 468 Notes on the Reception of Edmond Charles Genet, 30 March 469 To George Turner, 30 March 470 To Nathaniel Cutting, 31 March 470 To Alexander Hamilton, 31 March 471 From Alexander Hamilton, 31 March 472 From John Garland Jefferson, 31 March 472 To James Madison, 31 March 473 Notes on Alexander Hamilton and the Bank of the United States, 31 March 474 To Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., 31 March 475 To Archibald Stuart, 31 March 476 To Archibald Stuart, 31 March 476 April To Timothy Pickering, 1 April 477 To George Washington, 1 April 477 From Timothy Pickering, 2 April 478 From William Short, 2 April 479 From William Short, 2 April 482 From Jacob Hollingsworth, 3 April 483 To Benjamin Rush, 3 April 484 From William Davies, 4 April 484 From Alexander Donald, 4 April 485 From Joseph Fenwick, 4 April 486 From Alexander Hamilton, 4 April 487 From David Humphreys, 4 April 487 From Gouverneur Morris, 4 April 488 To David Rittenhouse, 4 April 490 From Willink, Van Staphorst & Hubbard, 4 April 490 To Brown, Benson & Ives, 5 April 491 From C. W. F. Dumas, 5 April 491 From Alexander Hamilton, 5 April 492 From Gouverneur Morris, 5 April 492 From Thomas Pinckney, 5 April 493 From William Short, 5 April 494 To Jean Baptiste Ternant, 5 April 510 From George Washington, 5 April 511 From Thomas Pinckney, 6 April 512 To James Brown, 7 April 513 From Tench Coxe, [7 April] 514 To Francis Eppes, 7 April 515 To James Madison, 7 April 516 Notes on Conversations with Tobias Lear and John Beckley, 7 April 517 To George Washington, 7 April 518 To Gouverneur Morris, 8 April 519 From Timothy Pickering, 8 April 520 To Martha Jefferson Randolph, 8 April 520 From Tench Coxe, 9 April 521 To Alexander Hamilton, 9 April 522 From George Hammond, 9 April 522 To George Hammond, 9 April 523 From Rodolph Vall-Travers, 9 April 523 To James Brown, 10 April 524 From James Brown, 10 April 525 From Thomas Pinckney, 10 April 525 From David Rittenhouse, [10 April] 527 To Henry Skipwith, 10 April 527 From Elias Vanderhorst, 10 April 528 To Thomas Leiper, 11 April 529 To Fontaine Maury, 11 April 529 From Gouverneur Morris, 11 April 530 To David Rittenhouse, 11 April 530 From John Vaughan, with Jefferson's Note, [11 April] 531 To David Humphreys, 12 April 532 From James Madison, 12 April 532 To Thomas Pinckney, 12 April 534 To Thomas Pinckney, 12 April 536 From Edmund Randolph, 12 April, enclosing Edward Tilghman to Edmund Randolph, 19 March 537 From George Washington, 12 April 541 To Willink, Van Staphorst & Hubbard, 12 April 542 From Jean Baptiste Ternant, 13 April 543 To Thomas Bell, 14 April 543 To Dabney Carr, 14 April 544 To Martha Jefferson Carr, 14 April 545 To Peter Carr, 14 April 545 To John Wayles Eppes, 14 April 547 To John Garland Jefferson, 14 April 547 From J. Wheatcroft, 14 April 548 From James Brown, 15 April 549 To Richard Dobson, 15 April 549 From Horatio Gates, 15 April 550 To James Lyle, 15 April 550 From Edward Ryan, 15 April 551 To Edmund Randolph, 17 April 552 Edmund Randolph's Opinion on George Turner, [ca. 17 April] 552 To George Turner, 17 April 553 To James Wilson, 17 April 553 From Brown, Benson & Ives, 18 April 554 From William Carmichael and William Short, 18 April 554 To George Hammond, 18 April 563 Notes for Reply to Jean Baptiste Ternant, 18 April 564 Report on the Fund for Foreign Intercourse, 18 April 565 To Edward Stevens, 18 April 567 From Rodolph Vall-Travers, 18 April 568 George Washington to the Cabinet, enclosing Questions on Neutrality and the Alliance with France, 18 April 568 Cabinet Opinion on Washington's Questions on Neutrality and the Alliance with France, [19 April] 570 From Horatio Gates, 19 April 572 To Thomas Greenleaf, 19 April 572 From Gouverneur Morris, 19 April 572 From Tobias Lear, [20 April] 575 To Gouverneur Morris, 20 April 575 From Thomas Paine, 20 April 576 To Thomas Pinckney, 20 April 577 To Jean Baptiste Ternant, 20 April 579 To Richard Curson, 21 April 580 To Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., 21 April 580 From John Carey, 23 April 581 To Archibald Moncrief, 23 April 583 To Jean Baptiste Ternant, George Hammond, and F. P. Van Berckel, 23 April 583 To Alexander Hamilton, 24 April 584 From George Hammond, 24 April 584 To Gouverneur Morris, 24 April 585 To Thomas Pinckney, 24 April 586 To John Brown Cutting, 25 April 586 From Lord Wycombe, 25 April 587 To William Carmichael and David Humphreys, 26 April 587 Circular to the Governors of the States, 26 April 588 To Ernst Frederick Guyer, 26 April 589 From John Mason, 26 April 590 To Gouverneur Morris, Thomas Pinckney, and William Short, 26 April 591 To George Clinton, 27 April 592 From Josef de Jaudenes, 27 April 593 From John Garland Jefferson, 27 April 593 From Thomas Leiper, 27 April 594 To Thomas Pinckney, 27 April 595 From Thomas Pinckney, 27 April 596 To George Wythe, 27 April 597 Jefferson's Opinion on the Treaties with France 597 I. Notes on Washington's Questions on Neutrality and the Alliance with France, [before 28 April] 603 II. Notes for Opinion on the Treaty of Alliance with France, [before 28 April] 604 III. Thomas Jefferson to George Washington, 28 April 607 IV. Opinion on the Treaties with France, 28 April 608 To James Madison, 28 April 619 To Archibald Moncrief, 28 April 620 To Beverley Randolph, 28 April 620 To Martha Jefferson Randolph, 28 April 621 From F. P. Van Berckel, 28 April 622 From David Humphreys, 29 April 623 American Philosophical Society's Instructions to Andre Michaux, [ca. 30 April] 624 From Tench Coxe, 30 April, enclosing Stephen Kingston to Tench Coxe, 29 April 626 From Sharp Delany, 30 April 628 To Sharp Delany, 30 April 629 From James Simpson, 30 April 630 May From John Carey, 1 May 630 From Henry Cooper, 1 May 631 From Joseph Dombey, 1 May 631 From C. W. F. Dumas, 1 May 631 From John Wayles Eppes, 1 May 632 From Samuel Freeman, 1 May, enclosing Petition from Merchants and Citizens of Maine, 29 April 633 From Grand & Cie., 1 May 635 To Alexander Hamilton, 1 May 636 Memorial from George Hammond, 2 May 637 From Philip Mark, 2 May 640 From Thomas Pinckney, 2 May 641 To Edmund Randolph, 2 May 641 From Edmund Randolph, 2 May 642 To Tench Coxe, 3 May 642 From Alexander Hamilton, 3 May 643 To George Hammond, 3 May 644 From Phineas Miller, 3 May 644 Opinion on Ship Passports, 3 May 645 To Thomas Pinckney, 3 May 649 To Jean Baptiste Ternant, 3 May 649 From Tench Coxe, 4 May 650 To George Logan, 4 May 650 From David Sewall, 4 May 651 To George Washington, 4 May 651 From William Carmichael and William Short, 5 May 652 From Thomas Greenleaf, 5 May 659 To James Madison, 5 May 660 To James Monroe, 5 May 660 From Rodolph Vall-Travers, 5 May 663 To George Washington, 5 May 664 To George Washington, 5 May 665 Notes on Washington's Questions on Neutrality and the Alliance with France, [6 May] 665 Notes on Alexander Hamilton and the Enforcement of Neutrality, 6 May 667 To Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., 6 May 668 From F. P. Van Berckel, 6 May 669 From Tench Coxe, 7 May 670 From C. W. F. Dumas, 7 May 671 From Enoch Edwards, 7 May 671 From Joseph Fay, 7 May 672 Notes on the Sinking Fund and the Proclamation of Neutrality, 7 May 673 To Thomas Pinckney, 7 May 674 To Jean Baptiste Ternant, 7 May 676 From Josef Ignacio de Viar and Josef de Jaudenes, 7 May 677 To George Washington, 7 May 679 To Brissot de Warville, 8 May 679 To Enoch Edwards, 8 May 680 To Alexander Hamilton, 8 May 680 Memorial from George Hammond, 8 May 683 Memorial from George Hammond, with Jefferson's Notes, 8 May 684 Memorial from George Hammond, with Jefferson's Notes, 8 May 685 Memorial from George Hammond, 8 May 686 From Henry Lee, 8 May 688 From James Madison, 8 May 688 To Gouverneur Morris, 8 May 689 To Thomas Pinckney, 8 May 690 To Edmund Randolph, [8 May] 690 To Edmund Randolph, 8 May 691 From Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., 8 May 693 From Jean Baptiste Ternant, 8 May 694 From Mary Barclay, 9 May 694 From Tench Coxe, 9 May 695 From Alexander Hamilton, 9 May 695 From James Monroe, 9 May 696 From William Vans Murray, 9 May 698 From Edmund Randolph, 9 May 700 From Jean Baptiste Ternant, enclosing La Forest's Report on the Grange, 9 May 702 From Robert Gamble, 10 May 705 From James Monroe, 10 May 707 INDEX 709
ILLUSTRATIONS
Following page 400
JEFFERSON'S "ADAM AND EVE" LETTER ON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION Jefferson's celebrated letter to William Short of 3 Jan. 1793, the second page of which is illustrated in this volume, represented a profound shift in his attitude toward the French Revolution. During his ministry to France and for approximately the first thirty months of his tenure as Secretary of State, Jef- ferson's hopes for the French Revolution were tempered by his belief that cen- turies of royal despotism and religious authoritarianism made a constitutional monarchy along British lines the most desirable outcome of the revolutionary turmoil in France. But with the overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy in August 1792 and the establishment of the French Republic in the following month, his enthusiasm for the Revolution became almost unbounded, and the convic- tion grew in his mind that the success of French republicanism in Europe was necessary to thwart what he regarded as the monarchical designs of the Fed- eralists in America. Despite the ensuing changes of regime in France, it took Napoleon Bonaparte's rise to power to convince Jefferson that his enthusiasm for the French Republic had been mistaken and that his earlier support for a French constitutional monarchy had been well founded. (Courtesy of the College of William and Mary) THE EXECUTION OF LOUIS XVI The guillotining of Louis XVI on 21 Jan. 1793 shortly after the National Convention tried and convicted him as a traitor to the nation was the most vivid symbol of the demise of the old regime in France. During the king's trial Maximilien Robespierre, the Jacobin leader, was the leading advocate of the view that the execution of Louis was necessary for the French Revolution to survive. This graphic depiction of the monarch's severed head and Robes- pierre's accompanying commentary expressed the Jacobin belief in the revolu- tionary justice and necessity of this act of regicide. At first Jefferson neither regretted nor rejoiced in Louis's execution, but looking back on this event in his autobiography, written in 1821, he attributed the king's problems to the nefarious influence of Marie Antoinette and stated that if he had been a mem- ber of the National Convention he would have voted to confine the queen to a convent and make Louis a strictly limited constitutional monarch. (Courtesy of the Bibliotheque nationale) THE FIRST MANNED BALLOON FLIGHT IN AMERICA Jefferson manifested his zealous patronage of scientific and technological advances by purchasing a ticket to watch Jean Pierre Blanchard make Amer- ica's first successful manned balloon ascension on the morning of 9 Jan. 1793. Blanchard, the first aeronaut to cross the English Channel in a balloon and the earliest to make a living entirely from admission fees and subscriptions connected with his flights, rose from the courtyard of Philadelphia's Walnut Street Prison before an immense crowd headed by President Washington and flew about fifteen miles in three-quarters of an hour. Blanchard soon pub- lished a pamphlet describing his exploit, the frontispiece of which is depicted here. Jefferson had displayed keen interest in balloons even before viewing an unmanned release in Philadelphia in May 1784, and was one of the only ones at Blanchard's launch who had already witnessed manned flights, in Paris in September 1784 and June 1786. On the day of Blanchard's ascension Caspar Wistar, Jr., wrote Jefferson about the scientific experiments to be conducted while the balloon was aloft, and around the same time Jefferson spoke with Blanchard and took notes on the methods the aviator employed to produce the hydrogen which propelled his craft. (Courtesy of the American Antiquarian Society) SUBSCRIPTION AGREEMENT FOR ANDRE MICHAUX'S PROPOSED WESTERN EXPEDITION This subscription agreement, written on behalf of the American Philosoph- ical Society, in whose vault the signed text was discovered only in 1979, represented a fortunate conjuncture between Jefferson's longstanding interest in western exploration and the personal and professional needs of the distin- guished French botanist, Andre Michaux. With his status as a French royal botanist in America thrown into doubt by the overthrow of the Bourbon monarchy, Michaux sought the support of the American Philosophical Society in December 1792 for an expedition designed to find an overland water route to the Pacific. Jefferson, who had proposed a similar venture to the Society months before, took the lead in dealing with Michaux on the Society's behalf, drafting this subscription agreement, soliciting subscribers to it, and drawing up detailed instructions for the expedition itself. In the end, despite Jefferson's painstaking preparations, Michaux never undertook this expedition, preferring instead to serve as an agent of Edmond Charles Genet, the French Repub- lic's first minister to the United States, in an unsuccessful effort to organize a filibustering expedition from Kentucky to free Louisiana from Spanish rule. (Courtesy of the American Philosophical Society) TENCH COXE (1755-1824) When Jefferson assumed office as Secretary of State in 1790 it seemed unlikely that he would develop any kind of working relationship with Coxe, a Philadelphia merchant and former loyalist who served under Alexander Hamil- ton in the Department of the Treasury as assistant secretary and commissioner of the revenue. But the two men became close collaborators throughout Jef- ferson's tenure in office because of their shared belief in the need for retaliation against British restrictions on American trade-a viewpoint that placed them sharply at variance with Hamilton. Drawing upon his access to private and official sources of information, Coxe provided Jefferson with vital economic data pertaining to some of his reports to Congress as Secretary of State. He was especially helpful in collecting information for and commenting in detail on Jefferson's December 1793 Report on Commerce, as evidenced by the notes on a draft of this famous state paper that he sent to the Secretary of State on 5 Feb. 1793. Engraving by Samuel Sartain. (Courtesy of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania) WILLIAM BRANCH GILES (1762-1830) This staunchly Republican congressman from Virginia, who graduated from the College of New Jersey and studied law with George Wythe, was the ostensible leader of an effort by Republicans in the House of Representatives to censure Alexander Hamilton's administration as Secretary of the Treas- ury and thereby drive him from office. The House inquiry culminated at the end of February and the beginning of March 1793 in the overwhelming defeat of censure resolutions against Hamilton introduced by Giles on 27 Feb. Although Federalists had long suspected that Jefferson was the guiding spirit behind this Republican attempt to undermine Hamilton, there was no documentary evidence for Jefferson's involvement until 1895, when Paul L. Ford announced his discovery of an even more strongly worded set of draft resolutions in Jefferson's hand among a collection of papers owned by his great-granddaughter, Sarah Nicholas Randolph. This collection was dispersed after the death of Miss Randolph, and the manuscript resolutions have since disappeared. Portrait by Gilbert Stuart, ca. 1792. (Courtesy of the Frick Art Reference Library) JEFFERSON'S NOTES ON THE DEFEAT OF THE GILES RESOLUTIONS On this page from what came to be called the "Anas," Jefferson recorded privately in three separate entries his reaction in March 1792 to the crushing defeat in the House of Representatives of a series of resolutions introduced by William Branch Giles attacking the probity of Alexander Hamilton's stew- ardship as Secretary of the Treasury. Despite his veiled involvement in this episode, Jefferson maintained a curious air of detachment in describing their legislative history. Initially he contented himself with a general statement that Hamilton had weathered the attack only because a corrupt cadre with a vested interest in supporting his fiscal policies had rejected self-evident truths abetted by a combination of staunch Federalists, indifferent moderates, and vacillat- ing Republicans. However, Jefferson soon attempted to document the pivotal role of stockholders in the defeat of the resolutions by compiling lists of con- gressional holders of stock in the Bank of the United States and of govern- ment securities, an enterprise in which other Republicans were equally active. (Courtesy of the Library of Congress) WASHINGTON AND JEFFERSON AVOID EUROPEAN ENTANGLEMENTS This draft of Jefferson's dispatch of 23 Mch. 1793 to William Carmichael and William Short, the commissioners of the United States in Madrid, signaled an important shift in American policy toward Spain. During the Nootka Sound crisis in 1790, Jefferson had instructed Carmichael to explore with Spain the possibility of ceding its possessions east of the Mississippi to the United States in exchange for an American guarantee of Spanish lands to the west of that boundary. The easing of tension between Spain and Britain ended any realistic prospect of reaching such an agreement, but authorization to discuss it was not withdrawn until Jefferson wrote this letter, which grew out of a report from William Stephens Smith that France contemplated sending an army to free Spain's transatlantic colonies. Jefferson initially favored diluting the offer to a trade of the Floridas to the United States in exchange for an American guarantee of Louisiana against British attack, but not against a movement for independence within that Spanish colony. In this form he showed the draft on 22 Mch. 1793 to the President, who withheld his assent. Evidently Wash- ington concluded that a guarantee that could lead to war with Britain was unduly risky, even if accompanied by major territorial gains. When Jefferson resubmitted the draft two days later, amended to withdraw the offer of any form of guarantee, the President formally endorsed it with his approval, an unusual step in his dealings with his Secretary of State. (Courtesy of the Library of Congress) JEFFERSON'S RESIDENCE ON THE SCHUYLKILL Although Jefferson reluctantly abandoned his plan to resign as Secretary of State at the end of George Washington's first term as president, he sought to forestall a lengthy continuance by sending most of his furniture to Virginia and leasing a summer cottage outside Philadelphia owned by Moses Cox. At the beginning of April 1793 he moved to this house near Gray's Ferry on the east bank of the Schuylkill River, which by that time was the site of a floating bridge with a pleasure garden situated on the opposite bank. During the summer Jefferson ate, read, wrote, and received company under the plane trees which encompassed the small three-room building, going inside only to sleep. On 17 Sep. 1793 he left Philadelphia to visit Monticello and, having determined to take lodgings in the city on his return, urged his landlord to take up residence at the Gray's Ferry house during the yellow fever epidemic then raging in the metropolis. Watercolor by David J. Kennedy, executed after Jefferson's death from a 1793 sketch by John Andrews, Jr. (Courtesy of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania) WASHINGTON'S PROCLAMATION OF NEUTRALITY The French Revolution took on a maritime dimension affecting vital Amer- ican commercial and diplomatic interests when France declared war on Great Britain and the Netherlands on 1 Feb. 1793. Although Washington and the Cabinet unanimously agreed on the overriding need to keep the United States neutral in the midst of this epochal conflict, Jefferson initially opposed a pres- idential declaration of neutrality, arguing during a Cabinet meeting on 19 Apr. 1793 that the executive was not constitutionally authorized to make such a declaration and that it would be wise to withhold one anyway in the hope of extracting concessions on the recognition of neutral rights from the belligerents. But he acquiesced in the majority opinion of the Cabinet in favor of the issuance of a proclamation by the President declaring American neutral- ity, which was subsequently drafted by Attorney General Edmund Randolph, who in deference to Jefferson's sensibilities did not use the word neutrality in it. Despite this omission, the substance of the proclamation issued by the President on 22 Apr. 1793 was in fact a declaration of neutrality, and it was recognized as such almost immediately both inside and outside the Washington administration. (Courtesy of the Massachusetts Historical Society) JEFFERSON'S NOTES FOR HIS OPINION ON THE FRENCH TREATIES This document, which illustrates Jefferson's methodical working habits, is an outline of a masterly opinion that he submitted to the President on 28 Apr. 1793 in favor of the continued validity of the 1778 treaties of alliance and commerce with France even after the establishment of the French Republic and its declaration of war on Britain and the Netherlands. The opinion itself was called forth by Alexander Hamilton's attempt to persuade Washington during a Cabinet meeting on 19 Apr. 1793 that the change in government in France and the altered international situation justified the United States government in informing Edmond Charles Genet, the first minister from the French Republic, that it reserved the right to suspend or terminate these treaties as circumstances dictated. Faced with such a threat to the French alliance, the sheet anchor of his diplomacy, Jefferson mustered all of his persuasive powers in a successful effort to convince the President to reject Hamilton's arguments and to honor the treaties. (Courtesy of the Library of Congress)

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