Go to:  Thomas Jefferson: an American Man for All Seasons
              Papers and Correspondence      |       Main Page

Table of Contents of
The Papers of Thomas Jefferson
Volume 18

edited by
Julian P. Boyd

© 1950 - <2001> Princeton University Press

Reproduced 2003 with permission of the publisher

Table of Contents, All Volumes   |  Catalog record and links to related information from the Library of Congress catalog



November 1790 to November 1790
A Adams, John, letters from, to John Jay, 429 (note), 430 (note); letter to, 78 Algerine captives, Editorial Note, 369-416; documents concerning, 416-45; report on, 430; letter concerning, from the President to the Senate, 444; Senate resolution on, 444. See also, Mediterranean trade and Algerine captives Anderson, James, letter to, 111 Appleton, Thomas, letter from, 152 Arrearages in soldiers' pay, cabinet opinions concerning resolutions on, Appendix, 611-88 Aubuniere, G., memorial from, to Arthur St. Clair, 205 (note), 210 Auldjo, Thomas, letters from, 3, 25, 61; letter from, to Duke of Leeds, 5 (note); letter to, from James Mackenzie, 5 (note); report on conversations between J. B. Burges and Mackenzie, 6 (note) B Baird, Samuel, warrants of survey and instructions to, from Winthrop Sargent, 183 (note) Barbau, Jean Baptiste, Sr., letter to, from inhabitants of Prairie du Rocher, 205 (note) Billon, notes on, as reported to National Assembly, 458 Bosseron, Francois, letter from, and other magistrates of Vincennes, to Winthrop Sargent, 184 (note) Bourne, Sylvanus, letter from, 101 Bradford, John, letter from, 490 Braxton, Carter, letter to, 488 (note) Brehan, Madame de, letter to, 117 Bringhurst, James, letter to, 493 Brown, Andrew, letter from, 78; letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 66 (note) Brown, James, letters from, 69, 480 (note); letters to, 3, 306 Brown, William, letter to, 487 Buchanan, George, letter from, 472 Burges, J. B., report by Thomas Auldjo on conversations with James Mackenzie, 6 (note) C Cabassier, Baptiste, remonstrance of, to Arthur St. Clair, 205 (note) Cahokia, heads of families of, 206 (note); letter to church wardens of, from Seminary of Quebec, 205 (note); remonstrance of in- habitants of, to Arthur St. Clair, 205 (note) Carmichael, William, letter from, 597; letters to, from Richard O'Bryen, 437, 442 Carr, Martha Jefferson, letter to, 26 Cathalan, Stephen, Jr., letters from, 508 (note), 583, 585 (note), 585 Channing, William, letter from, 67 Chiappe, Giuseppe, letter from, to George Washington, 512 Childs & Swaine, letter from, 307; letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 66 (note) Churchman, John, letters from, 61, 492; letter to, 68 Cochy, Gabriel de, and others of Prairie du Rocher, to Jean Baptiste Barbau, Sr. and Antoine de Louviere e Cuyers, 205 (note) Coinage and the Unit of Money, Editorial Note, 454-58; documents concerning, 458-60; notes on billon as reported to National Assembly, 458; Jefferson to Hamilton, 459, 460 Colden, Henrietta Maria, letter from, 70; letter to, 578 Colley, Nathaniel, letter from, 591 Colquhoun, Patrick, letter from, to Henry Dundas, 248 (note) Commercial and diplomatic relations with Great Britain, Editorial Note, 220-83; documents concerning, 283-306; Smith to Washington, 247 (note), 248 (note), 249 (note); Colquhoun to Dundas, 248 (note); Grenville to Pulteney, 250 (note); Smith to Pulteney, 250 (note); memorandum by Smith, 258 (note); William Knox to Henry Knox, 265 (note); Franklin to Coxe, 268 (note); Jefferson's abstract of report to Privy Council on trade with United States, 268 (note); report to Privy Council on trade with U.S., 269 (note); Franklin to Jefferson, 269 (note); President to Secretary of State, 283; Washington to Morris, 284; official dispatches from Morris to Washington, 285-300; Morris to Leeds, 300 (note); Leeds to Morris, 301 (note); report of the Secretary of State, 301; Secretary of State to Morris, 303; President to the Secretary of State, 304; President to Congress, 304; President to the Senate, 305 Coxe, Tench, letters from, 62, 461; letter to, 102; letter to, from William Temple Franklin, 268 (note) Crew, Robert, letters from, 309, 309 (note) Crew & Allport, letter from, 309 (note) Currie, James, letter to, 488 Cutting, John Browne, letter from, 324; letter from, to J. Hunt, 334; letter from, to Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, 333; letter from, to Hugh Purdie, 336; letter from, to Philip Stephens, 336; letter to, 330; letters to, from Hugh Purdie, 334, 335; letter to, from William Short, 333; letter to, from Philip Stephens, 334 Cutting, Nathaniel, letter to, 79 D Davis, Augustine, letter from, 112; letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 66 (note) Delany, Sharp, letter from, 494 (note); letter to, 493 Derieux, J. P. P., letter from, 45 Donald, Alexander, letter from, 477; letter to, 71 Donald, Andrew, letter to, 27 Drago, Gaetano, letter from, to George Washington, 359 Duff, Nicholas, affidavit of, 582 (note) Dumas, C. W. F., letters from, 63, 135, 453, 592 Dundas, Henry, letter to, from Patrick Colquhoun, 248 (note) E Eppes, Francis, letter to, 578 Eustace, John Skey, letter from, to John Jay, 398 (note) F Fanning, James, letter from, 494 Fenwick, Joseph, letters from, 11, 142, 497 Fierer, Charles, letters from, 348, 350 (note) Fitzhugh, William, letter from [219] (note) Fort Chartres, map of, 205 (note), 215 Fox, George C., & Sons, letters from, 42, 48 (note) France, representation against tonnage acts by, 516-77. See also, Tonnage acts, French representation against Franklin, Benjamin, account of negotiations in London, 1775, by, 87 (note) Franklin, William Temple, letter to, 86; letter from, 269 (note); letter from, to Tench Coxe, 268 (note) G Gallipolis, petition of French emigrants in, to Arthur St. Clair, 206 (note); letter to French emigrants in, from St. Clair, 206 (note) Gamelin, Antoine, address by, and others of Vincennes, to Winthrop Sargent, 185 (note); response to, by Sargent, 185 (note) Gerry, Elbridge, letter from, 399 Gibault, Pierre, memorials of, to Arthur St. Clair, 205 (note), 206 (note), 211, 213 Gilmer, George, letter from, 27; letter to, 28 Girardin, Antoine, warrants of survey and instructions to, from Arthur St. Clair, 183 (note) Great Britain, commercial and diplomatic relations with, 220-306; trade with U.S., report to Privy Council on, 269 (note). See also, Commercial and diplomatic relations with Great Britain. Green, William, letter from, 580 Grenville, Lord, letter from, to William Pulteney, 250 (note) Grevin, invoice for shipment of furniture, 34 (note) Guide, Jean Baptiste, letter from, 507 H Hamilton, Alexander, letters from, 562, 564; letters to, 68, 459, 460, 563; letter to, from William Short, 610 (note) Hamtramck, John Francis, extract of letter to, from Arthur St. Clair, 206 (note), 213 Hanson, Richard, letter to, 28 Harison, Richard, letter from, 125 Hartley, David, letter from, 139 Hawkesbury, Lord, report to Privy Council on trade with U.S., 269 (note) Hawkins, Benjamin, letter from, 346 Hay, William, letter from, 113 Hiltzheimer, Jacob, letter to, 577 Howard, John E., letter from, to George Washington, 10 Howell, T., letter from, to George Washington, 121 (note) Humphreys, David, letters from, 6, 342; official dispatches from, 48, 102, 472, 497 Hunt, J., letter to, from John Browne Cutting, 334 Huntington, Samuel, letter from, to John Jay, 386 (note) Hylton, Daniel L., letter to, 7 I Impressment of Hugh Purdie and others, Editorial Note, 310-24; documents concerning, 324-42; John Browne Cutting to Jefferson, 324; Jefferson to Cutting, 330; Jefferson to Joshua Johnson, 331, 341; Cutting to Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, 333; William Short to Cutting, 333; Cutting to J. Hunt, 334; Philip Stephens to Cutting, 334; Purdie to Cutting, 334, 335; Cutting to Purdie, 336; Cutting to Stephens, 336; William Young to Stephens, 337; affidavit of Purdie, 337; Jefferson to Washington, 341; Jefferson to James Maury, 342 J Jay, John, letters to, from John Adams, 429 (note), 430 (note); letter to, from John Skey Eustace, 398 (note); letter to, from Samuel Huntington, 386 (note) Jefferson, John Garland, letter from, 43 Jefferson, Mary, letter from, [594] (note); letters to, 141, 476 Jefferson, Thomas, account of manuscript of Franklin's negotiations in London, 1775, 87 (note); customs declaration for wines and wallpaper, 494 (note); deed of gift of slaves, by, 12; estimate of yield of estate of, by Nicholas Lewis, 109; invoices of Petit and Grevin for shipment of furniture, 34 (note); notes by, on acts of Assembly for clearing Rivanna river, 41 (note); report on universal standard of weights and measures satirized by Noah Webster's A Pendulum without a Bob, 481; subscription for extending navigation of Rivanna, 39. See also, United States: Secretary of State. Jenkinson, Charles, Lord Hawkesbury, report to Privy Council on trade with U.S., 269 (note) Johnson, Joshua, letters from, 10, 48, 106; letters to, 331, 341 K Kaskaskia, heads of families of, 204 (note); lands claimed by inhabitants of, 204 (note); orders for prison for, from Arthur St. Clair, 206 (note); plan of town of, [205] (note); report on lands at, by Secretary of State, 207 Kinloch, Francis, letter to, 80 Knox, Henry, letter from, 499; letter to, 69; letter to, from William Knox, 265 (note) Knox, William, letter from, 81; letter from, to Henry Knox, 265 (note) L La Bussiere, Joseph, deposition of, 205 (note) La Motte, letters from, 51, 55 Lear, Tobias, letters from, 146, 178, 191, 347 (note), 476; letter from, to the President, 179; letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 365 Leeds, Duke of, letter from, to Gouverneur Morris, 301 (note); letter to, from Thomas Auldjo, 5 (note); letter to, from Gouverneur Morris, 300 (note) LeRoy, Jean Baptiste, letter to, 68 (note) Lewis, Mary Walker, letter from, 594 Lewis, Nicholas, letter to, 41; estimate by, of yield of Jefferson's estate, 109; memorandum for, 29 Lewis, William, letters from, 72, 461 Lindsay, William, letter from, 480 (note); letter to, 479 Livingston, Robert R., letters from, 146, 148 (note) Lords Commissioners of Admiralty, letter to, from John Browne Cutting, 333 Louviere e Cuyers, letter to, from inhabitants of Prairie du Rocher, 205 (note) Lyle, James, letter to, 29 (note) M McAllister, Matthew, letter from, 360 MacDonogh, Thomas, letter from, 41; letter to, 110 McHenry, James, letter from, 155 McKean, Thomas, letter from, to George Washington, 347 (note); letter to, 347 Mackenzie, James, letter from, to Thomas Auldjo, 5 (note); report by Auldjo on conversations with J. B. Burges, 6 (note) Madison, James, letters to, 218, 480, 490, 560 Maillet, Jean Baptiste, instructions to, from Arthur St. Clair, 205 (note) Mason, George, letter from, 482 Maury, James, letter from, 52; letter to, 342 Maxwell, James, letter from, 480 (note); letter to, 307 Mazzei, Philip, letter from, [218] (note) Mediterranean trade and Algerine captives, Editorial Note, 369-416; documents concerning, 416-45; Samuel Huntington to John Jay, 386 (note); John Skey Eustace to John Jay, 398 (note); Elbridge Gerry to Secretary of State, 399; President to Secretary of State, 409 (note); European proposal for use of force against Barbary states, 416; Secretary of State to President, 423; report on, by Secretary of State, 423; extract of letter from Richard O'Bryen to Congress, 429 (note); John Adams to John Jay, 429 (note), 430 (note); report on American captives in Algiers, 430; James Simpson to Washington, 435 (note); Secretary of State to Speaker of House 436; Secretary of State to President of Senate, 437; Richard O'Bryen to William Carmichael, 437, 442; Senate resolution on Algerine captives, 444; President to Senate, 444 Mentor, papers concerning, 347 (note) Miro, Esteban, proclamation of, 206 (note) Miromenil, letter from, 513 Money, unit of. See Coinage and the Unit of Money. Monroe, James, letters from, 81, 219, 509; letters to, 29, 514 Montmorin, letter to, from Louis Guillaume Otto, 534 Morris, Gouverneur, letter from, 363; letter from, to Duke of Leeds, 300 (note); letter to, 82; letter to, from Duke of Leeds, 301 (note); letter to, from Washington, 284; official dispatches from, 361, 367; official dispatches from, to Washington, 285-300; official dispatch to, 303; report on mission of, to England, 301 Mortimer, Charles, letter from, 219 (note) Moustier, letter from, 12; letter to, 118 N Nelson, William, Jr., letters from, 56, 58 Newspaper editors, letters to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 65, 486 Northwest Territory, Editorial Note, 159-78; documents concerning, 178-218; Tobias Lear to Secretary of State, 178, 191; Winthrop Sargent to President, 179, 191 (note); report of Secretary of State on lands at Vincennes, 186; report of Secretary of State on executive proceedings in, 188; extract of executive proceedings of, by Winthrop Sargent, 188; secretary of State to President, 189, 216; President to Senate and House of Representatives, 192, 216; Arthur St. Clair to Secretary of State, 192, 193, 216; report of St. Clair, 194; report of Secretary of State on lands at Kaskaskia, &c., 207; extracts from report of St. Clair, 208; memorial of James Piggot and others to St. Clair, 205 (note), 209; memorial of G. Aubuniere and others to St. Clair, 205 (note), 210; memorials of Pierre Gibault to St. Clair, 205 (note), 206 (note), 211, 213; St. Clair to inhabitants of Prairie du Rocher, 205 (note), 212; St. Clair to John Francis Hamtramck, 206 (note), 213; map of reserved tract including Fort Chartres, 205 (note), 215; population of, 217 Nourse, Joseph, letter to, 150 O O'Bryen, Richard, extract of letter from, to Congress, 429 (note); letters from, to William Carmichael, 437, 442 Otto, Louis Guillaume, letters from, 558, 560, 561, 572; letter from, to Montmorin, 534; letters to, 559, 571, 573; report of conversa- tion with Secretary of State, 549; representation by, 558 P Page, Mann, letter from, 219 (note) Parish, John, letter from, 344 Patterson, Robert, letter from, 343 Perez, Manuel, correspondence of, with Arthur St. Clair, concerning recovery of slaves, 206 (note) Petit, statement of accounts for household expenses and furniture, 34 (note) Peyroux de la Coudreniere, Henri, correspondence of, with Arthur St. Clair, concerning recovery of slaves, 206 (note) Pickering, Timothy, letter from, 514 Piggot, James, memorial of, to Arthur St. Clair, 205 (note), 209 Pintard, John Marsden, letter from, 83 Pinto de Souza, Luis, letter from, 108 Powell, Robert, letters from, 348, 350 (note) Prairie du Pont, heads of families of, 206 (note) Prairie du Rocher, letter from inhabitants of, to Jean Baptiste Barbau, Sr., 205 (note); letter to inhabitants of, from Arthur St. Clair, 205 (note), 212 Printers of the laws, letters to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 65, 486 Pulteney, William, letter to, from Lord Grenville, 250 (note); letter to, from William Stephens Smith, 250 (note) Purdie, Hugh, affidavit of, 337; letters from, to John Browne Cutting, 334, 335; letter to, from John Browne Cutting, 336; impressment of, documents concerning, 310-42. See also, Impressment of Hugh Purdie and others. Q Quebec, Seminary of, letter from, to church wardens of Cahokia, 205 (note); proclamation annulling claim of, 205 (note) R Randall, Paul R., letter to, 73 Randolph, Beverley, letter from, to George Washington, 123 (note); letter to, from Washington, 122 (note) Randolph, Martha Jefferson, letter from, 499; letters to, 110, 350, 579 Randolph, Thomas Mann, Jr., letter from, 42; letters to, 44, 64, 308, 488 Read, George, Jr., letter from, 7 Remsen, Henry, Jr., letter from, to Tobias Lear, 365; letter from, to the printers of the laws, 486; letter from, to Benjamin Russell and others, 65, 66 (note) Rittenhouse, David, letter from, 476 Rivanna River, TJ's notes on acts of Assembly for clearing, 41 (note); TJ's subscription for extending navigation of, 39 Ross, David, letter to, 489 Russell, Benjamin, letters from, 135, 135 (note), 486 (note); letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 65, 66 (note) Rutledge, John, Jr., letter from, 52 S St. Clair, Arthur, correspondence of, with Spanish commandants, concerning recovery of slaves, 206 (note); extract of letter from, to John Francis Hamtramck, 206 (note), 213; extracts from report of, 208; instructions from, to Jean Baptiste Maillet, 205 (note); letters from, 192, 193, 216; letter from, to Attorney General, 192 (note); letter from, to French emigrants at Gallipolis, 206 (note); letter from, to inhabitants of Prairie du Rocher, 205 (note), 212; memorial to, from G. Aubuniere, 205 (note), 210; memorials to, from Pierre Gibault, 205 (note), 206 (note), 211, 213; memorial to, from James Piggot, 205 (note), 209; orders for prison from, to inhabitants of Kaskaskia, 206 (note); petition to, of French emigrants at Gallipolis, 206 (note); proclamation by, at Kaskaskia, 204 (note); proclamation by, on hunting in Northwest Territory, 206 (note); proclamation by, respecting timber of Northwest Territory, 206 (note); remonstrance to, from inhabitants of Cahokia, 205 (note); report of, 194; warrants of survey and instructions from, to Antoine Girardin, 183 (note) Sargent, Winthrop, address to, by Antoine Gamelin and others of Vincennes, 185 (note); extract by, of executive proceedings of Northwest Territory, 188; Journal of executive proceedings in Northwest Territory, by, 183 (note); letters from, to President, 179, 191 (note); letter to, from Francois Bosseron and other magistrates of Vincennes, 184 (note); public notice by, to inhabitants of Vincennes, 184 (note); response by, to Antoine Gamelin and others of Vincennes, 185 (note); warrants of survey and instructions from, to Samuel Baird, 183 (note) Schweighauser & Dobree, letter from, 54 Sevier, John, letter from, 509 Short, William, letters from, 30, 355, 445, 510; letter from, to John Browne Cutting, 333; letter from, to Alexander Hamilton, 610 (note); letters to, 74, 600; official dispatches from, 13, 75, 84, 114, 350, 451, 500, 603; official dispatch to, 595 Simpson, James, letter from, to George Washington, 435 (note) Sinclair, Sir John, letter from, 366 Sitgreaves, John, letter from, 137 Slaves, Jefferson's deed of gift of, 12; correspondence of Spanish commandants with Arthur St. Clair concerning recovery of, 206 (note) Smith, Meriwether, letter from, 130 Smith, William Stephens, letter from, to William Pulteney, 250 (note); letters from, to George Washington, 247 (note), 248 (note), 249 (note); memorandum by, 258 (note) Spanish commandants, correspondence with, and Arthur St. Clair, concerning recovery of slaves, 206 (note) Stephens, Philip, letter from, to John Browne Cutting, 334; letter to, from John Browne Cutting, 336; letter to, from William Young, 337 Stockton, Richard, letter from, 151; letter to, 152 Swanwick, John, letter from, 156 T Telfair, Edward, letter from, 491 Telles, John, letter from, 155 Textiles. See Woolen textiles. Thompson, Thomas, letter from, 143 Timber, in Northwest Territory, proclamation on, by Arthur St. Clair, 206 (note) Timothy, Ann, letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 66 (note) Todd, John, Jr., proclamation by, 185 (note) Tonnage acts, French representation against, Editorial Note, 516-58; documents concerning, 558-77; Otto to Montmorin, 534; report by Otto of conversation with Secretary of State, 549; Otto to Secretary of State, 558, 560, 561, 572; Secretary of State to Otto, 559, 571, 573; Jefferson to Madison, 560; Hamilton to Jefferson, 562, 564; Jefferson to Hamilton, 563; report of Secretary of State to President, 565; President to Senate, 571 U United States, commercial and diplomatic relations with Great Britain, 220-306; report to Privy Council on trade with, 269 (note) United States: President: draft of Secretary of State for, of suggestions for message to Congress, 99; letter to, from Secretary of War, 144 (note); letters from, 144, 283; letter to, from Tobias Lear, 179; letters to, from Winthrop Sargent, 179, 191 (note); letters to, 189, 216, 341; reports on Northwest Territory to Senate and House of Representatives, 192, 216; message from, to Congress, 304; letters from, to Senate, 305, 444; notes from, 304, 409 (note); report to, on Mediterranean trade, 423; report to, on Algerine captives, 430; report to, on representation by France against Tonnage Acts, 565; report to Senate by, 571 Secretary of State: memoranda of letters for Washington, 98; draft by, of suggestions for President's message to Congress, 99; opinion of, on proposed manufactory of woolen textiles in Virginia, 120; documents on Northwest Territory, 159-218; letters to, from Tobias Lear, 178, 191; report by, on lands at Vincennes, 186; report by, on executive proceedings in Northwest Territory, 188; letters from, to President, 189, 216, 341; letters to, from Arthur St. Clair, 192, 193, 216; report to, by St. Clair, 194; report of, on lands at Kaskaskia, &c., 207; abstract by, of report to Privy Council on trade, 268 (note); letters to, from President, 144, 283; report by, on Morris' negotiations with Great Britain, 301; notes to, from President, 304, 409 (note); letter to, from John Browne Cutting, 324; letters from, to Joshua Johnson, 331, 341, letter from, to James Maury, 342; report by, on American trade in the Mediterranean, 423; report by, to President, on Algerine captives, 430; report by, to Speaker of the House, on Mediterranean trade, 436; letter from, to President of Senate, 437; reports by, to Hamilton, on coinage and the unit of money, 459, 460; report by Otto of conversation with, 549; letters from, to Otto, 559, 571, 573; letters to, from Otto, 558, 560, 561, 572; report by, to President, on representation by France against Tonnage Acts, 565 Secretary of Treasury: reports to, on coinage and the unit of money, 459, 460; charges of official misconduct against, see Appendix on arrearages in soldiers' pay. Secretary of War: letter from, to President, 144 (note) Attorney General: letter to, from Arthur St. Clair, 192 (note) Senate: letters to, from President, 305, 444; transmittal of letters from Algerine captive to president of, 437; resolution of, on Algerine captives, 444; communication to, by President, of French representation on Tonnage Acts, 571 Senate and House of Representatives: reports on Northwest Territory submitted to, by President, 192, 216; message to, from President, 304; extract of letter to, from Richard O'Bryen, 429 (note) V Vaughan, Benjamin, letter from, with enclosure on weights and measures, 115; letter from, 479; letter from, to John Vaughan and TJ, 10 Vaughan, John, letter to, from Benjamin Vaughan, 10 Vaughan, Samuel, Jr., letter to, 97 Viar, Jose Ignacio de, letter from, 367 Vincennes, magistrates of, to Winthrop Sargent, 184 (note); public notice to inhabitants of, by Winthrop Sargent, 184 (note); report by Secretary of State on lands at, 186 W Warren, Mercy, letter to, 77 Washington, George, letter from, to Gouverneur Morris, 284; letter from, to Beverley Randolph, 122 (note); letter to, 346; letter to, from Giuseppe Chiappe, 512; letter to, from Gaetano Drago, 359; letter to, from John E. Howard, 10; letter to, from T. Howell, 121 (note); letter to, from Thomas McKean, 347 (note); letter to, from Beverley Randolph, 123 (note); letter to, from James Simpson, 435 (note); letters to, from William Stephens Smith, 247 (note), 248 (note), 249 (note); memoranda of Secretary of State for, on letters received, 98; official dispatches to, from Gouverneur Morris, 285-300 Webster, Noah, Jr., letter from, 153; letter to, 131; A Pendulum without a Bob, 481 Weights and measures, Benjamin Vaughan's account of English objections to universal standard of, derived from nature, 116; report on, satirized by Noah Webster, Jr., 481 Williamson, Hugh, letter from, 359 Wilson, Philip, petitions to the King and Congress concerning Mentor, 348 (note) Woodard, John, letter from, 111 (note); letter to, 111 Woolen textiles, opinion by Secretary of State on proposed manufactory of, in Virginia, 120 Wythe, George, letter from, 486 Y Young, William, letter from, to Philip Stephens, 337
Following page 278
THE COMTESSE DE TESSE'S PARTING GIFT TO JEFFERSON IN 1789 This truncated column and its pedestal, both of marble, filled two of the eighty-six crates of Jefferson's furniture and personal possessions that were packed in Paris under William Short's supervision and shipped to America in the summer of 1790. The weight of the two crates caused a revolutionary mob at Le Havre to suspect that plate or other valuables belonging to some aristocrat were being smuggled out of France under Jefferson's diplomatic passport. The mob forced the shippers to open them, along with six other crates containing busts by Houdon of Voltaire, Turgot, Lafayette, Franklin, Washington, and Jefferson (Le Mesurier & Cie. to TJ, 27 Aug. 1790). This added somewhat to the "monstrous bill of freight" and other costs that Jefferson had to pay. The immense shipment of furniture, books, wines, papers, and personal effects descended upon Jefferson at a time of extraordinary official pressures, but it did not include the additional burden of the pedestal and its column. These went by another ship to Norfolk and thence to Monticello (see note, Short to TJ, 7 Nov. 1790; TJ to Brown, 16 Dec. 1790). The "magnificent pedestal," given to Jefferson in 1789 by the Comtesse de Tesse, contained a Latin inscription predicting that his name would "descend forever blessed to posterity" (note, TJ to Madame de Tesse, 27 Aug. 1789). During Jefferson's lifetime this gift from a cherished friend, surmounted by Giuseppe Ceracchi's massive bust of Jefferson, stood in the entrance hall at Monticello with the inscription turned to the wall. In his directions for an epitaph Jefferson suggested that the bust, "with the pedestal and truncated column on which it stands, might be given to the University, if they would place it in the Dome room of the Rotunda" (MS of Epitaph, DLC: TJ Papers, 231: 41473). Instead, the ensemble became the property of the government and pedestal, column, and bust were all destroyed in the Capitol fire of 1851. This drawing may have been executed by Jefferson's granddaugh- ter, Cornelia Jefferson Randolph. Another representation of the ped- estal and column, a very unsophisticated pencil sketch, shows the same signs of the zodiac while failing to indicate the inscription, thus con- firming travellers' comments that it was hidden from view. It also shows the bust mounted on the column (reproduced in A. L. Bush, Life portraits of Thomas Jefferson [Charlottesville, 1962], p. 28; this sketch appears on the verso of a letter written by Thomas Jefferson Randolph in 1826, ViU; hence the very childlike drawing has been improbably attributed to him). This is apparently the only surviving depiction of Ceracchi's likeness of Jefferson, since Robert Mills, after Congress in 1850 had refused to give him permission to execute a plaster copy of it, made daguerreotypes that apparently have been lost. A floor plan of Monticello by Cornelia Jefferson Randolph, reproduced by James A. Bear, Jr., Report of the Curator 1961 (Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation, 1962), p. 12, indicates that the pedestal, column, and bust stood in the entrance hall immediately to the right as the visitor entered from the portico. (Courtesy of The Thomas Jefferson Memorial Foundation) PRIVATE CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND THE BRITISH MINISTRY, 1790-1791 By the opening of the third session of the First Congress, Hamilton and others friendly to the British interest in the United States were well aware that their privately expressed views of policy had brought about no sensible change in the attitudes of the ministry. Up to this point their principal channel of communication had been George Beckwith, whose communications left the British government in no doubt as to the identity of its American friends. But the mission of Gouverneur Morris, inspired by Hamilton and Jay, had failed (see Vol. 17: 35-108). Also, Jefferson and Madison were fixed in their determination to seek reciprocity in commerce through retaliatory means, a policy which Hamilton himself had advocated in The Fed- eralist. The fear that they might succeed led their opponents late in 1790 to make a sudden and more direct appeal to the British ministry. This clandestine effort to undermine the policy of the Secretary of State was aided by Robert Morris, whose business connections proved useful in gaining access to the ministry. The person chosen for the mission was William Stephens Smith, who was ambitious for diplo- matic office. Both he and his sponsors sought to create the impression that he went to England on private affairs and that, showered by attentions from the ministry, he was anxiously solicited by Grenville to convey a friendly message to the American government. This view has been accepted by historians, but the cloak of Smith's private business, which was real enough, served as a disguise for public objects. What actually took place was just the reverse of what he tried to make his own government believe. It was Smith himself who solicited a meeting with Grenville, then about to succeed Leeds as Secretary for Foreign Affairs. He almost failed to get an audience but at last was granted a single interview as a result of the impor- tunations of Patrick Colquhoun, Henry Dundas, and, most important of all, William Pulteney. At this meeting with Grenville, which lasted less than an hour, Smith made available to the minister a prepared memorandum on affairs in the United States in which he described the "two parties in the American Government, composed of the prin- cipal leading men in the Country-one set of Individuals very powerful and respectable in favour of France and another in favour of England" (undated memorandum, in Smith's hand, endorsed as received by Grenville on 15 Apr. 1791, PRO: FO 4/9, f. 222-3). This document, which in substance echoed what Hamilton and others had long been saying to George Beckwith, represented the real object of the mission. It was an urgent appeal to the British government to sustain its American friends. On his return Smith volunteered a report to the President in which he unwittingly revealed more than he intended. With some discreet omissions and several serious misrepresentations, he discoursed at length on the changed attitudes and the friendly dispositions he had observed in the ministry. Hamilton, Jay, and others saw and approved the report before it was transmitted to the President. But neither Washington nor Jefferson, who drafted the response to Smith, was any more deceived by this calculated misrepresentation than they had been by Hamilton's similar distortion of Beckwith's communication of the preceding summer. A similar overture to the ministry, arising in the same quarters and prompted by the same fears, was made in 1790 through General John Maunsell, who indeed returned the next year with a written message from William Pitt to the friends of the British interest in America. But this result was inspired less by their appeals than by fear of the rising influence of the Secretary of State. For an account of the missions of Smith and Maunsell, see Editorial Note to the group of documents on commercial and diplomatic relations with Great Britain, p. 221-83. William Stephens Smith (1755-1816). Portrait by Gilbert Stuart. (Courtesy of Yale University Art Gallery) Patrick Colquhoun (1745-1820). Engraving by S. Freeman after a portrait in possession of the family. (Courtesy of Wilmarth S. Lewis, Farmington, Connecticut) Henry Dundas, first Viscount Melville (1742-1811). John Kay's engraving of 1790 shows Dundas in conversation with James Fer- gusson (1769-1842), a Scottish legal writer. (Courtesy of Mrs. Donald F. Hyde, Four Oaks Farm, Somerville, New Jersey) THE FIRST CONFLICT IN THE CABINET The collision between Hamilton and Jefferson that occurred in May 1790 when the former sought and the latter opposed a presi- dential veto of resolutions designed to protect Revolutionary veterans from exploitation revealed both their contrasting personalities and their opposing concepts of government. On one level, quickly termi- nated by Washington's refusal of a veto, the issue was joined in terms of overarching principles (see Vol. 16: 455-70). On another, with consequences that did not come into public view until 1797, it terminated for Hamilton in personal tragedy (see Appendix). Having successfully opposed Hamilton's request for a veto, Jefferson was only an interested but passive observer of the denouement. Aside from these two principals, the following persons whose portraits are here re- produced were involved in one way or another: Frederick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg (1750-1801). This por- trait by Joseph Wright, painted in 1790, reveals Muhlenberg as a man of impressive dignity, urbane solidity, and more than a touch of human warmth. A Pennsylvania Federalist of moderate views and accommodating disposition, Muhlenberg is seated in the chair of the Speaker of the House of Representatives, an office to which he was elected by men of varying political convictions both North and South. He is shown in the act of signing a bill, perhaps intended to repre- sent the first to bear, his name as Speaker since the words "Act to regulate the" are clearly legible in the document and since these are also the opening words of the Act to regulate the manner of admin- istering oaths required by the Constitution for members of the Senate and the House-the first bill to be introduced and the first to be passed into law under the new government (JHR, I, 14, 21, 29, 43). The symbolism is apt both for the beginning and for the end of Muhlenberg's Congressional career. In 1796, with the nation and the Congress deeply divided over Jay's Treaty, it fell to him to break the tie in a crucial vote on the bill to provide for its execution. This was an act of courage, but it terminated his political life. Toward the end of their regime the Federalists lost the allegiance of this man of probity, moderation, and good will. In 1792, in an effort to gain clemency for an errant clerk, Muhlen- berg accidentally became possessed of information proving that specu- lation in soldiers' claims had somehow been aided by official collusion. When the Secretary of the Treasury seemed also to be implicated, he felt it his duty to consult two legislative colleagues, James Monroe and Abraham B. Venable of Virginia. The inquiry that posed such a pain- ful dilemma for Alexander Hamilton was thus begun through inad- vertence by a respected supporter of Federalist measures. In this as in other episodes Muhlenberg's sense of public duty triumphed over his partisan loyalties. (National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institu- tion, Washington, D.C.; lent by Mrs. George Brooke III, through whose courtesy the portrait is reproduced) James Monroe (1758-1831). From the time Muhlenberg informed him of the imprisonment of James Reynolds, reportedly a constituent speculating in soldiers' claims for pay, Monroe took the leading part in the effort to trace the source of official misconduct in the Treasury. His role has been misunderstood, chiefly because the interpretation that Hamilton sought to establish has been accepted without critical examination. The clash with Hamilton that had its roots in this first conflict in the cabinet came at a time when Monroe, recalled as minis- ter to France and vilified in the Federalist press as a hireling of that nation, was primarily engaged in preparing a justification of his own official actions. His defense, A view of the conduct of the Executive, in the foreign affairs of the United States (Philadelphia, 1797), is a restrained, cogently reasoned, and quite impersonal account of his mission to France. It thus stands in marked contrast to Observations on certain documents (Philadelphia, 1797), in which Hamilton attempted to refute charges against his own official conduct by im- pugning the honor of Republicans in general and Monroe in partic- ular. Jefferson joined other friends of Monroe in urging him not to continue the dispute, despite Hamilton's misrepresentations. This sensitive portrait of Monroe was executed during his years as minister to France, 1794-1797. It was painted by the portrait- miniaturist, Madame G. Busset. (Courtesy of The James Monroe Memorial Foundation, Fredericksburg, Virginia) Abraham Bedford Venable (1758-1811). A graduate of the Col- lege of New-Jersey of the class of 1780, Venable was the scion of a prosperous family of planters, merchants, and public figures of Prince Edward County, Virginia. He was the same age as Monroe and fol- lowed his lead in the inquiry after Muhlenberg revealed to them the evidence he had received concerning James Reynolds' activities. Venable was the only one of the three who was still in Congress when the affair became public in 1797. His role at that time also was secondary, chiefly because Hamilton sought to place the entire responsibility upon Monroe. The portrait of Venable, which has always been in the possession of the family, has been attributed to Rembrandt Peale (Virginia his- torical portraiture, 1585-1830, ed. Alexander W. Weddell [Richmond, 1930], p. 340-1). The family historian, Elizabeth Marshall Venable, Venables of Virginia (New York, 1925), p. 35, reports a family tradition that it was painted while Venable was a student at Princeton. While its provenance establishes it as of the period, the appearance of the costume, particularly the jabot, indicates subsequent over- painting (communication from E. P. Richardson, 13 May 1971). Charles Coleman Sellers (communication to the Editors, 14 May 1971) suggests that the portrait could have been painted after Ven- able's death in 1811 from whatever likeness the family possessed, perhaps a miniature of Venable as a student. (Courtesy of Mrs. James Watson Morris, Virginia Beach, Virginia) Oliver Wolcott, Jr. (1760-1833). Comptroller of the Treasury, staunch Federalist, and faithful supporter of the Secretary, Wolcott was guided in his official conduct by exacting standards of probity and propriety. Unlike Hamilton, who at times lent the influence of his office to such friends as William Duer, Baron Steuben, and the widow of General Greene, Wolcott bluntly refused to allow private friendships to impinge upon his official duty. In 1792, in his effort to prevent some of the numerous frauds and impositions on the public, he instituted legal proceedings against James Reynolds and Jacob Clingman. This action resulted in acute embarrassment for Hamilton and led to the inquiry conducted by Muhlenberg, Monroe, and Venable. At Hamilton's request, Wolcott was present at the confrontation between Hamilton and the three members of Congress. When the affair became known in 1797, Wolcott urged Hamilton not to make a public response. After this prudent advice was rejected, he supplied an affidavit which sought to bolster Hamilton's defense but which, in one essential respect, contradicted it. Wolcott remained to the end one of Hamilton's most loyal friends and admirers. The portrait of Wolcott is a miniature painted by John Trumbull about 1790. (Courtesy of Yale University Art Gallery) William J. Vredenburgh (1760-1813). An enterprising young merchant and broker of New York City, Vredenburgh obtained from the Treasury in the autumn of 1789-very likely with the assistance of William Duer, Assistant Secretary-lists of names of officers and soldiers of the Virginia and North Carolina lines, with amounts of arrearages of pay due them. Several speculators were probably in- volved in this venture in which sums actually due were at times mis- represented, with claims being purchased at a fraction of their value even as understated. But it was Vredenburgh who employed as his agent one James Reynolds, son of an assistant commissary of pur- chases under Jeremiah Wadsworth during the Revolution. Reynolds' activities in Virginia aroused such bitter resentments as to bring about the protective legislation which Hamilton, echoing in part argu- ments advanced in Vredenburgh's own protests, urged Washington to veto. The portrait of Vredenburgh is a wax medallion by an unidenti- fied artist. It is here reproduced from the half-tone illustration in E. Reuel Smith's Notes on the Vredenburgh and Burnett families (New York, 1917), its present location not being known. (Courtesy of Mrs. Sedgwick Smith, Skaneateles, New York) Jefferson records the Reynolds affair. On 17 Dec. 1792, two days after Muhlenberg, Monroe, and Venable confronted Hamilton, Jeffer- son recorded information about the affair that perhaps came to him from Monroe. It is to be noted that in this brief memorandum he merely alluded to the "affair of Reynolds and his wife," without in any sense connecting the name of Hamilton with either. Also, while he recorded the fact of Reynolds' speculations and fixed responsibility for collusion upon Duer, he did not implicate Hamilton in the specu- lations but merely noted that he had asked for a veto of the resolu- tions aimed at curbing exploitation of soldiers. This second part of the memorandum he subsequently deleted, perhaps because it may have seemed to imply an involvement in the speculation on the part of Hamilton. The deletion was possibly made in 1818 when Jefferson reviewed the contemporaneous memoranda that he began to record in 1791. At that time he "cut out from the rest" some that he deemed incorrect, doubtful, or merely personal and deleted passages in others that, as in this instance, he retained in the three bound volumes to which he gave the name Anas (DLC: TJ Papers, 231: 37839). The deleted passage is quoted in the Appendix, at note 104. WILLIAM TEMPLE FRANKLIN (1762-1823) One of the first matters that Jefferson attended to on his return to Philadelphia late in 1790 was to transmit to William Temple Franklin the manuscript of that part of Benjamin Franklin's auto- biographical writings which dealt with his unsuccessful efforts to achieve peace in 1775. It is not certain which, if either, of the two known manuscripts of the narrative Jefferson had had in his posses- sion for a few months after he received it from Benjamin Franklin. Jefferson's remembered accounts both confused the question and did injustice to William Temple Franklin, whom he suspected of having been bribed to suppress publication of the document. Disappointed in his ambition for diplomatic office, Franklin departed for England in the autumn of 1790 with the avowed purpose of seeking to publish his grandfather's papers, an object which gave Jefferson much un- easiness. For a discussion of the identity of the manuscript that Jefferson returned to him, see note to TJ to William Temple Franklin, 27 Nov. 1790. The portrait is a miniature by John Trumbull, dated 1790. (Courtesy of Yale University Art Gallery)

Table of Contents, All Volumes   |  Catalog record and links to related information from the Library of Congress catalog

Go to: Thomas Jefferson: an American Man for All Seasons
             Papers and Correspondence      |      Main Page

Go to LC Home Page
Library of Congress
(July 14, 2003)
Comments: Ask a Librarian

LC Home Page  |  Search the LC Online Catalog   |  Services for Researchers   |  Research Tools |  Main Reading Room Home Page