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Table of Contents of
The Papers of Thomas Jefferson
Volume 17

edited by
Julian P. Boyd


© 1950 - <2001> Princeton University Press

Reproduced 2003 with permission of the publisher

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CONTENTS

{ July 1790 - November 1790 }
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W
"Note on the Format ILLUSTRATIONS
A A (pseudonym of Jefferson), on treaty power, 289 (note) Adams, John, letter from, to John Jay, 227 (note); opinion of, on the war crisis, 137 Alden, Roger, letter from, 262 (note); letter to, 262 Anderson, Alexander, letter from, to Benjamin Vaughan, 516 (note) Anderson, Nathaniel, letter to, 262 Assumption and Residence Bills, Jefferson's account of bargain on, 205 Auldjo, Thomas, letter to, 285 (note) B Bache, Benjamin Franklin, letter from, 397 Barclay, Thomas, note by, on foreign consuls in Morocco, 226 (note) Barrett, Nathaniel, letters from, [285] (note), 583; letters to, 285, 424 (note) Barton, Benjamin S., letter from, 276 Barton, William, letter from, 351 (note); letter to, 347 Beckwith, George, Jefferson's note on interview with, 38 (note); report of, on conversations with Hamilton, 84, 94, 95, 96, 102; report by Hamilton on interview with, 80, 97 Bellini, Charles, letter from, 21 Bingham, William, letter from, 391 (note) Blount, William, letter from, 293 (note); letter to, 292 Bolling, Mary Jefferson, letter to, 656 Bondfield, John, letter from, 573; letter to, 476 Bonne, Rigobert, letter from, 636 Bourne, Sylvanus, letters from, 416 (note), 513; letters to, 416, 417, 420, 424 (note) Bowen, Jabez, letter from, 477 (note) Bradford, John, letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 509 (note) Brazil, Jefferson's notes on, 258 Bright, Francis, letter to Warner Lewis, 310 (note) Brown, Andrew, letter from, 391 (note); letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 509 (note) Brown, James, letters from, 322 (note), 571, [572] (note); letters to, 321, 572 (note), 653 Brush, Ebenezer, letter to, 424 (note) Burbeck, Henry, letters from, to Henry Knox, 472 (note) C Campbell, Arthur, certificate signed by, 23 (note) Campbell, David, commission as judge in Southwest Territory, 293 (note) Carmichael, William, official dispatches to, 111, 318, 472 Carnes, Burrill, letter from, 573; letter to, 424 (note) Carr, Garland, letter to, 672 Carr, Peter, letter from, 3 Carroll, Daniel, letter to, 467; letters to, from John Carroll, 253 (note); One of the Gallery on the conduct of, 200 Carroll, John, letter from, to Daniel Carroll, 253 (note) Carter, Elizabeth Chiswell, letter from, 552 (note); letter to, 551 Carter, John, letters from, 516, 598 (note); letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 509 (note) Carter, Robert, tracts of land sold by, 571 (note) Cathalan, Stephen, Jr., letter from, 478; letter to, 497 Cathalan, Stephen, Sr., letter from, 517 Charlton, Jane, letter from, 388 (note) Childs & Swaine, letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 509 (note) Church, Edward, letter to, 424 (note) Coinage, "Projet de Convention" with Jean Pierre Droz for, [451] (note) Colley, Nathaniel, letter from, 488; letter to, 398 Confiscation Acts, report of Governor of Georgia on, 335 Constitutionality of the Residence Bill, opinions on, 163-208. See also, Residence Bill. Consular establishment, documents concerning, 244-56: Editorial note, 244; Jefferson's memoranda on candidates and appointments for, 249, 252, 253, 254; letter from John Carroll to Daniel Carroll, 253 (note); letter from Thomas FitzSimons, [255] (note); letter from Robert Morris, 254 (note); list of consular vacancies, 256 Consuls, instructions from Secretary of State to, 423 Corny, Madame de, letter from, 259 Coxe, Tench, letters from, 261, 451 (note) Frederick Craig & Co., letter from [598] (note); letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 509 (note) Creek Indians, opinion of Secretary of State on monopoly of trade with, 288 Crevecoeur, St. John de, letter from, 13 (note) Currie, James, letters from, 621 (note); letter to, 621 Cutting, Nathaniel, letters from, 3, 7 (note), 299, 327 D Davis, Augustine, letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 509 (note) Delabigarre, Peter, letter from, 601 Delivet, Pierre, letters from, 400 (note); letter to, 399 Department of State, documents relating to personnel and services of, 343-87; account of contingent expenses of, 1790-1793, 360; salary account of, 356; diplomatic establishment, plans and estimates for, 216-31; documents concerning consular establishment of, 244-56; memoranda by Henry Remsen, Jr. on departmental routines, 379; "Rule of office" for consuls, 423 Derieux, J. P. P., letter from, 233; letter to, 400 Diodati, letter from, 322 Diplomatic establishment, plans and estimates for, documents concerning, 216-31 Donald, Alexander, letters from, 481, 566, 626; letter to, 473 Droz, Jean Pierre, "Projet de Convention" with, [451] (note) Dumas, C. W. F., letter to, from Luzac, 210 (note); official dispatches from, 208, 498, 541, 601; official dispatch to, 161 E Edwards, Pierpont, letter from, 647 Elk Hill, agreement of sale for, 569; Jefferson's advertisement for sale of, 567 Enville, Madame d', letter from, 286 Eppes, Elizabeth Wayles, letter from, 331; letters to, 265, 658 Eppes, Francis, letters from, [332] (note), 592; letters to, 266, 581, 584, 656 Ewell, Maxey, letter from, 584; letter to, 599 F Fenner, Arthur, letter from, 477 Fenno, John, letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 509 (note) Fenwick, Joseph, letter from, 295; letters to, 424 (note), 493 Fiscal policy, opinion of Secretary of State on, 425 Fitzhugh, William, letters from, 243 (note), 418 (note); letters to, 241, 417, 418 (note) FitzSimons, Thomas, letter from, [254] (note) Foster, Theodore, letter to, from Updike & Earle, 421 (note) Franklin, Benjamin, letter to, from James Perkins, Jr., 435 (note); letter to president of congress, extract from, 228 (note) Franklin, William Temple, letters from, 236, 293, 590; letters to, 211, 267 G Georgetown, property owners of, proposals by for seat of government, 469 Georgia, Governor of, letter to, 638 Gilman, Nathaniel, letter from [598] (note) Gilmer, George, letter to, 269 Goddard, William, letter from, 508; letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 509 (note) Gore, Christopher, letter from, 530 Grand, Ferdinand, letter from, 449 Grand, Ferdinand, Jr., letter to, 286 H Hamilton, Alexander, letters from, 89, 350 (note), 451, 451 (note); letters to, 21, 89, [409] (note), 474; letter from, to Washington, 161 (note); notes on, by Jefferson, [208] (note); opinion of, on the war crisis, 143; report by, on interviews with Beckwith, 81, 97; report by Beckwith on conversations with, 84, 94, 95, 96, 102 Hamtramck, John Francis, report by, on navigability of rivers in Northwest Territory, 448 Hancock, John, letter from, to George Washington, 283 (note); letter to, 419; letter to, from George Washington, 451 Harison, Richard, letter from, 484; letter to, 338 Harmer, Josiah, letter to, from Jonathan Heart, 445 Harrison, Carter Henry, Cumberland tract of land of, survey of, 571 (note) Harvie, John, Jr., letter from, 296; letters to, 270, 660 Heart, Jonathan, letter from, to Josiah Harmer, 445 Hodge & Wills, letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 509 (note) Hopkinson, Francis, letter to, 389 Houdetot, Madame d', letters from, 485, 635 Howell, David, letter from, 8; letter to, 244 Hudson & Goodwin, letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 509 (note) Huger, Benjamin, letter from, 332 Humphreys, David, official instructions to, 125; letter from, 87; official dispatches from, 593, 603, 627, 648, 663; reports by, to Washington on conversations with Hamilton, 103, 105 I Indian trade, proclamation concerning, 389 (note) Indian treaties, opinion of Secretary of State on 430 Innes, Harry, letter from, 20 J Jay, John, letter to, from John Adams, 227 (note); opinion of, on the war crisis, 134; reply to John Adams, 228 (note) Jefferson, John Garland, letter from, 10 Jefferson, Mary, letters from, 239, 332, [332] (note); letter to, 271 Jefferson, Thomas, abstract of deed to William Ronald, 571 (note); account by, of bargain on Assumption and Residence Bills, 205; advertises Elk Hill for sale, 567; agreement for sale of Elk Hill by, 569; article under pseudonym A on treaty power, 289 (note); bill of exchange sent by, to William Short, 497 (note); list of sundries sent to, 571 (note); memorandum on wines for Washington, 342 (note); note by, on interview with Beckwith, 38 (note); notes by, on Hamilton, [208] (note); notes of, on Brazil and Mexico, 258; opinion of, on judicial review, 333 (note). See also, United States: Secretary of State. Johnson, Joshua, letters from, 667, 673; letters to, 119, 424 (note) Johnston, James & Nicholas, letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 509 (note) Johnston, Zachariah, letter to, 468 Judicial review, Jefferson's opinion on, 333 (note) Junius Americanus (William Loughton Smith), address by, to the President, 183; reply to (by James Madison?), 201 K Key, John, letter to, 582 Knox, Henry, letters from, 340 (note), [598] (note); opinion of, on the war crisis, 140; letters to, 340, 430; letters to, from Captain Henry Burbeck, 472 (note) Knox, William, letters to, 424 (note) Kollock, Shepard, letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 509 (note) L Lafayette, Marquis de, letter to, from Washington, 86 La Forest, letter to, 475 Lambert, letter to, 494 (note) La Motte, letter from, 210, 645 Lead mines, certificate concerning, 23 (note) Lear, Tobias, letter from, 400 (note) Lee, Arthur, extracts of letters from, 227 (note) Lee, Richard Bland, letter from, 355 Leiper, Thomas, letter to, 309 Le Mesurier & Cie., letters from, 401, 435 Letombe, Philippe de, memorial of, to Massachusetts legislature, 283 (note) Le Veillard, letter from, 272 Lewis, Mary, letter from, 325 (note) Lewis, Nicholas, letter to, 324 Lewis, Warner, letter from, 310; letter to, from Francis Bright, 310 (note) Lindsay, Reuben, letter to, 654 Little Island, original patent for, 571 (note) Livingston, Robert R., letters from, 294; letter to, 325, 552 Lur-Saluces, letter to, 494 (note) Luzac, Jean, letter from, to C. W. F. Dumas, 210 (note) Lyle, James, letter to, 599, 674 M McAllister, Matthew, letter from, 625 McGillivray, Alexander, Jefferson's opinion on trade monopoly of, 288 McNairy, John, commission as judge in Southwest Territory, 293 (note) Madison, James, letter from, 512 (note); letters to, [208] (note), 511, 512 (note); concurring opinion of, on constitutionality of Residence Bill, 199; One of the Gallery on the conduct of, 200; reply to Junius Americanus attributed to, 201 Massachusetts legislature, memorial to, by Letombe, 283 (note) resolution by, 284 (note); memorial of Boston merchants to, 434 (note) Maury, James, letters from, 501, 658; letter to, 424 (note) Melcher, John, letter from Henry Remsen, Jr., 509 (note) Meyer, John, letter from, 351 Mexico, Jefferson's notes on, 258 Mifflin, Thomas, letter from, [509] (note) Migomry, William, certificate signed by, 23 (note) Mint, thoughts on establishment of, by Thomas Paine, 534 Miromenil, letter to, 494 (note) Mississippi question, Jefferson's outline of policy on, 113 Monroe, James, letters from, 231, 277, 607, 621; letter to, 25 Montgomery, John, letter from, 398 (note) Montgomery, Robert, letter from, 397 Montmorin, letter from, 291 Morris, Gouverneur, official dispatch to, 127; report by, to Washington, 101 Morris, Robert, letter from, 254 (note) N Nancy, account of, 421 (note) Neufville, John, letter from, [598] (note) Nicholas, John, Sr., letter to, 600 Nicholas, Wilson Cary, letter to, 659 Nootka Sound crisis. See, War Crisis Northwest Territory, report on navigability of rivers in, 448 O O'Bryen, Richard, letter from, 29 One of the Gallery, on the conduct of Madison, Page, and Carroll, 200 P Page, John, One of the Gallery on the conduct of, 200 Paine, Thomas, letter from, 533; thoughts by, on the establishment of a mint, 534 Palyart, Ignatius, letter from, 571 Paradise, Lucy Ludwell, letters from, 240, 482, 519 Parker, Josiah, letter from, 326 Perkins, James, Jr., affidavit of, 434 (note); letter to, from Benjamin Franklin, 435 (note) Petit, letter from, 297 Pinckney, Charles Cotesworth, letter from, 511 Pintard, John, letter from, 353 (note) Pintard, John Marsden, letter to, 424 (note) Pinto, Isaac, letter from, 356 (note); letter to, 355 Pinto de Souza, Luis, letter to, 117 Pleasants, James B., letter from, 320 Potts, Richard, letter to, 400 (note) Printers of public laws, letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 509 (note) Q Quesada, Juan Nepomuceno de, letter from, 341 (note); letter to, 341 R Randolph, Beverley, letter from, 23 Randolph, Edmund, letters from, 331, 388 Randolph, Martha Jefferson, letters to, 214, 326, 402 Randolph, Thomas Mann, letters to, 274, 623 Randolph, Thomas Mann, Jr., letters to, 26, 274, 298, 390, 402 (note), 473, 622 Rausan, Madame de, letter to, 494 (note) Rayneval, letter from, 501 Remsen, Henry, Jr., letters from, 495, 498 (note), 502, 518, 595; letters to, 329, 498, 554; memoranda by, 330 (note), 379, 381; receipts from, 598 (note); letters to public printers, 509 (note) Residence Bill, documents concerning constitutionality of, 163-208; Editorial Note, 163; address to the President by Junius Americanus, 183; Washington to Jefferson, 193; Jefferson to Washington, 193, 194; Jefferson's opinion on constitutionality of, 194; Madison's concurring opinion, 199; One of the Gallery on conduct of Madison, Page, and Carroll, 200; reply to Junius Americanus and others, 201; response by Truth to the foregoing, 203; Jefferson's account of the bargain on the Assumption and Residence Bills, 205; Jefferson to Madison, [208] (note); notes by Jefferson on Hamilton, [208] (note) Rice, mountain, directions for planting, 565 (note) Rittenhouse, David, letters from, [295] (note), 350 (note); letter to, 295; notes on boundaries of Pennsylvania, 445 (note) Roberts, Michael, [598] (note) Rodney, Thomas, letter from, 547 Ronald, William, letter to, 512; agreement for sale of Elk Hill to, 569; abstract of deed to, 571 (note) Ross, David, letter to, 630 Rush, Benjamin, letter from, 391 Russell, Benjamin, letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 509 (note) Russell, John, protest of seizure of Nancy, 421 (note) Rutledge, John, Jr., letter from, 521 S Saint James' Mountain Club, objects and rules of, 565 (note) Sartine, M. de, letters from to colonies, 435 (note) Sayers, R., certificate signed by, 23 (note) Sayre, Stephen, letter from, 421 Schuyler, Philip, letters from, 403, 408 (note); tables on weights and measures by, 409 (note) Scull, John, letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 509 (note) Seat of government, documents concerning Potomac site for, 452-71; Editorial Note, 452; Jefferson's draft of agenda for, 460; Jefferson's report to Washington, 461; Thomas Lee Shippen to William Shippen, 464; Jefferson to Washington, 466; Jefferson's draft of form of conveyance, 467; Jefferson to Zachariah Johnston, 468; proposals by landowners of Georgetown, 469 Sherburne, John Samuel, letter from, 607 Shippen, Thomas Lee, letter from, 509; letter to William Shippen, 464 Shippen, William, letter to, from Thomas Lee Shippen, 464 Short, William, letter from, 10, 27, 212, 315, 410, 505, 523, 558, 608, 631, 639; letters to, 282, 330, 342, 421, 496, 543; official dispatches from, 14, 256, 311, 392, 413, 437, 488, 502, 555, 654, 671; official dispatches to, 121, 277, 431, 477 Skipwith, Fulwar, letters from, 510, 585; letter to, 424 (note) Smith, Daniel, commission issued to, 293 (note) Smith, Meriwether, letter from, 672 (note); letter to, 672 Smith, Thomas, letter from, [288] (note); letter to, 288 Smith, William Loughton. See, Junius Americanus Southwest Territory, candidates for office in, commissions for, 293 (note) Stiles, Ezra, letter from, 442 Stith, Richard, letter from, [601] (note); letter to, 600 Swan, James, letter from, 560 T Tatham, William, letter from, 659 Telfair, Edward, letter from, [510] (note) Temple, Sir John, letter to, 333 Tesse, Madame de, letter from, 8 Tilton, James, letter from, [598] (note) Timothy, Mrs. Ann, letter to, from Henry Remsen, Jr., 509 (note) Treaties, Indian, opinion of Secretary of State on, 430 Treaty of 1778, memorial of merchants on interpretation of, 434 (note) Treaty of Peace, inquiry by Secretary of State on infractions of, 338; report by governor of Georgia on legislation contravening, 335 Treaty power, article by Jefferson on, 289 (note) Truth, response by, 203 U United States: Cabinet: queries to, from President, 128 Chief Justice: opinion of, on war crisis, 134 District Attorneys: letter to, 338 President: address to, by Junius Americanus, 183; report to, on meeting at Georgetown, 461; queries from, to Cabinet, 128; plans for diplomatic establishment presented to, 222; reports to, by Hamilton on conversations with Beckwith, 80, 97; letters to, from Humphreys, 103, 105; report to, by Morris, 101 Secretary of State: letter from, to President, enclosing outline of policy, 108, 109; letter from, to Carmichael, enclosing outline of policy, 111; first opinion of, on war crisis, 129; second opinion of, on war crisis, 131; opinion of, on constitutionality of Residence Bill, 194; plans and estimates by, for diplomatic establishment, 216-31; observations of, on diplomatic establishment as provided by Congress, 224; documents concerning consular establishment prepared by, 244-56; list of consular vacancies by, 256; opinion of, on monopoly of trade with Creek Indians, 288; opinion of, on role of courts in validating state legislation, 333; inquiry by, concerning legislation contravening Treaty of Peace, 338; documents of, pertaining to departmental personnel and services, 343-87; salary accounts of, 356; inquiry begun by, on whale and cod fisheries, 419; "rule of office" issued by, to consuls, 423; opinion of, on fiscal policy, 425; opinion of, on Indian treaties, 430; report by, to President, on seat of government, 460, 461, 466, 467 Secretary of Treasury: opinion of, on war crisis, 143 Secretary of War: opinion of, on war crisis, 140 Senate: Memorial of merchants to, 434 (note) Vice-President: opinion of, on war crisis, 137 Updike, John, letter from, to Theodore Foster, 421 (note) Updike & Earle, letter to, 421 (note) Upshaw, Thomas, letter from, 291 V Van Staphorst & Hubbard, letters from, 487, 540, 590 Vaughan, Benjamin, letters from 514, 619; letter to, from Alexander Anderson, 516 (note) Vaughan, Samuel, Jr., letter from, 564, 565 (note) Vernon, William, letter from, 483 Viar, Jose Ignacio de, letter from, 572; letter to, 638 W Walker, Francis, letter to, 676 War Crisis of 1790, documents concerning, 35-161; Editorial Note, 35; Jefferson's note on interview with Beckwith, 38 (note); Wash- ington to Lafayette, 86; Jefferson to Hamilton, 89; Humphreys to Secretary of State, 87; Hamilton's report of interviews with Beckwith, 80, 97; Beckwith's report of conversations with Hamilton, 84, 94, 95, 96, 102; Hamilton to Jefferson, 89; Beckwith's opinion of American attitudes, 93, 94; report on, by Morris to Washington, 101; reports by Humphreys to Washington on conversations with Hamilton, 103, 105; Secretary of State to the President, enclosing outline of policy, 108, 109; Secretary of State to William Carmichael, enclosing outline of policy, 111; Secretary of State to Joshua Johnson, 119; Jefferson to Pinto, 117; Secretary of State to the President, 120; Secretary of State to William Short, 121; queries from the President to members of Cabinet, 128; Secretary of State to David Humphreys, 125; Secretary of State to Gouverneur Morris, 127; first opinion of Secretary of State, 129; second opinion of Secretary of State, 131; opinion of the Chief Justice, 134; opinion of the Vice-President, 137; opinion of the Secretary of War, 140; opinion of the Secretary of the Treasury, 143 Washington, George, letters from, 193, 283, 444; letters to, 108, 120, 193, 194, 258, 320, 466, 643; address to, by Junius Americanus, 183; reports to, by Hamilton on conversations with Beckwith, 80, 97; report to, by Jefferson on meeting at Georgetown, 461; plans for diplomatic establishment presented to, 222; letter from, to John Hancock, 451; letter to, from John Hancock, 283 (note); letter from, to Lafayette, 86; report to, by Morris, 101; letter to, from Hamilton, 161 (note) Wayles, John, land sold to, by Robert Carter, 571 (note) Webster, Noah, Jr., letter from, 598 Weights and Measures, tables on, 409, 410. See also, Philip Schuyler, letter from, 403 Whale and cod fisheries, inquiry on, begun by Secretary of State, 419 Wheeler, Bennett, letter from, 477 (note) Willink, Van Staphorst & Hubbard, letter from, 547; letter to, 318 Willis, Francis, Sr., letter from, 546 Wilson, James, letter from, 354 Wine, Jefferson's memorandum on, for Washington, 342 (note) Wythe, George, letter from, 478
ILLUSTRATIONS
See pages 218, 394, 427
CREEK INDIAN CHIEFS WHOM JEFFERSON MET AT THE TREATY OF 1790 In July, 1790, when John Trumbull finished his full-length portrait of Washington for the Common Council of New York City, the Presi- dent was curious to know what effect this realistic delineation would have on the deputation of Creek Indians who accompanied McGillivray northward to negotiate the Treaty of 1790. He therefore directed Trumbull to place the picture in an advantageous light facing the entrance to the painting-room. Washington on this occasion, as in the portrait, was in full uniform. He invited several of the principal chiefs to dine with him and after dinner proposed a walk. When the door to the painting-room was thrown open, the Indians, according to Trumbull, were struck mute with astonishment and even more with perplexity on seeing before them another and identical White Father transfixed on thin fabric. "I had been desirous of obtaining portraits of some of these principal men, who possessed a dignity of manner, form, countenance, and expression, worthy of Roman senators," Trumbull wrote, "but after this I found it impracticable; they had received the impression, that there must be magic in an art which could render a smooth flat surface so like to a real man; I however succeeded in obtaining drawings of several by stealth" (John Trumbull, Autobiog- raphy [New York, 1841], p. 165; see also Trumbull, Autobiography, ed. Theodore Sizer, p. 166-7). The two pencil sketches here illustrated are among those reproduced between p. 164 and 165 in the 1841 edition of the Autobiography and bear these captions: "John-a Creek- N. York-July 1790. J. T." and "Tuskatche Mico, or the Birdtail King of the Cusitahs. N. York July 1790-J. T." Since these likenesses were done by stealth, it is probable that Trumbull sketched them during one of several gatherings between the time the Indians arrived in the city on the 21st of July and the formal ratification ceremonies in Federal Hall on the 13th of August. One such event was the "Complimentary conference" in the great Wigwam of the Society of St. Tammany with the members of that organization in full Indian dress. Speeches, songs, and toasts marked the occasion. Jefferson was present, smoked the calumet of peace, and joined in the "shake-hands" conducted in the Indian manner (New-York Jour- nal, 3 and 10 Aug. 1790; Daily Advertiser, 4 Aug. 1790; see note, TJ to Knox, 12 Aug. 1790). Jefferson, always zealous in gathering information about the American natives, took care to note on a slip of paper that an "Account of the Creek Nation" had appeared in Fenno's Gazette of the United States of 14 Aug. 1790 (DLC: TJ Papers, 59: 10012). Few indeed could have had a deeper interest in the language, the manners, and the individuals of this tribe than he. In 1786 Benjamin Hawkins had described both McGillivray and the Creeks and had sent to Jefferson copies of the treaties of Hopewell that he now employed under a liberal construction of the treaty power as a means of enforcing the secret article of the Treaty of 1790 (see Hawkins to TJ, 14 June 1786; see notes to TJ's opinion on McGil- livray's monopoly, 29 July 1790, and to Randolph to TJ, 14 Aug. 1790). INDIAN FIGURE PRESENTED TO JEFFERSON On 8 July 1790 Harry Innes transmitted to Jefferson an "Image carved of Stone of a naked Woman kneeling ... about nine or ten Inches high" and in 1791 Jefferson presented this object to the Ameri- can Philosophical Society (Innes to TJ, 8 July 1790, note). In the latter part of the 19th century many of the Society's botanical and mineralogical specimens, Indian artifacts, and other antiquities were deposited with the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. This figure of a woman is now in the Fitzhugh collection of the Heye Foundation with "accompanying data of provenience" identifying it as from the Cumberland river, Kentucky (Frederick J. Dockstader, Director, Museum of the American Indian, to the Editors, 27 Oct. 1960). This figure measures 934 inches in height. (Courtesy of the Museum of the American Indian) MARKET STREET, PHILADELPHIA, LOOKING EAST TOWARD OFFICES OF DEPARTMENT OF STATE AND RESIDENCE OF SECRETARY OF STATE The print here reproduced was "Drawn Engraved & Published by W. Birch & Son" and "Sold by R. Campbell & Co. No. 30 Chestnut Street Philada. 1799," the caption of which reads: "HIGH STREET, from Ninth Street. PHILADELPHIA." The offices of the Department of State cannot be certainly identified in the illustration, though if the suggestion of a street on the north side just beyond the sentry box is 8th, then 274 High (or, as it was commonly called, Market) street is on that corner. Diagonally across on the south side of the street stood the "very large four story house" that Jefferson occupied as his residence, the fourth house west from 8th street. If the view repre- sented in the print actually was taken from 9th street, then this house, owned by Thomas Leiper, must be one of those in the immediate foreground on the south side. For a description of the house, see Dumbauld, Tourist, p. 163-7. (Courtesy of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania ) THE OFFICES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE IN PHILADELPHIA, 1790 This three-story brick house on the northwest corner of Market at 7th street housed the offices of the Department of State after the removal of the government to Philadelphia in the autumn of 1790. For a description of the building and the offices, see notes to Document VII in the group of documents relating to departmental personnel and services, p. 377-80. This representation of the building was drawn by David J. Kennedy in 1836 and is a detail of a water color showing two other houses: (1) the home of Jacob Hiltzheimer on the southeast corner of Market at 7th street, below which on 7th Hiltzheimer built the continental stables, and (2) the large two-story house on the southwest corner of Market at 7th in which Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence (the drawing of this house shows that it bore on its roof a large sign extending the full width of the structure and reading: "JEFFERSON HOUSE"). This drawing is accompanied by explanatory notes made by Kennedy after 1891 (Kennedy Collec- tion, PHi; for a note on Kennedy and his work, see PMHB, LX (1936), 67-71). The building housing the offices of the Department of State in 1790 was No. 307 High street. (Courtesy of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania) JEFFERSON'S CHART OF NATIONAL DIPLOMATIC ESTABLISHMENTS A tabular summary of "the Diplomatic establishments of the princi- pal courts" appears on the verso of the chart here illustrated and is printed below, p. 221, note 20 (MS and its PrC are in DLC: TJ Papers 232: 41620-1; Tr in DNA: RG 59, SDC; the Dupl of the chart, also entirely in TJ's hand, that TJ submitted to the President is in DNA: RG 59, MLR). As explained in the Editorial Note to the group of plans and estimates that Jefferson drew up for the diplo- matic establishment, this conspectus was characteristic of his method (see p. 216-31). In addition to the various materials gathered by Jefferson for this purpose and described in note to Document III of that group, there exist various lists of diplomatic representatives sent and received by the courts of Great Britain, Portugal, and Spain that were used by him in compiling the chart illustrated (MSS in DLC: TJ Papers, 236: 42314, 42315, 42352, 42353, 42354, 42355; those for Great Britain and Portugal are in the hand of Lucy Ludwell Paradise). "PLAN OF A FORTIFICATION ON THE SOUTH FORK OF ELKHORN" This chart with its accompanying description is "the Plan of an old Fortification" that Harry Innes enclosed in his letter to Jefferson of 8 July 1779. It is not in Innes' hand and perhaps was drawn by some military officer, as was the case with the comparable plan of an Indian site on the Muskingum that was sent by Ezra Stiles to Jefferson on 8 May 1786 (see Vol. 9: xxix, 419, 477-8; Stiles seemed to think that plan was drawn by General Samuel Holden Parsons who trans- mitted it to him, but actually it was a "Plan of the Remains of Some Ancient Works on the Muskingum by Jona. Heart Captn. 1st. Amera. Regt." and an engraving of it with accompanying essay by Heart was published in the May, 1787, issue of Columbian Magazine, p. 425-7). The plan here illustrated is dated "January 26th. 1790." Its unidenti- fied author did not share Innes' view that the fortification was the work of aborigines, for he thought it appeared to be "above the power and abilities of Indians to perform" and asked: "Could Ferdinand de Soto have encampt at this place?" Jefferson retained the drawing among his papers though he gave the Indian artifact that accompanied it to the American Philosophical Society (MS in DLC: TJ Papers, 56: 9076-7, now separated from Innes' covering letter). (Courtesy of the Library of Congress) WILLIAM LOUGHTON SMITH At the time this miniature was painted by John Trumbull (1792), William Smith had not adopted his middle name, which he did later in order to avoid confusion with another political figure of the same name from South Carolina. For a statement of the reasons for identi- fying Smith as the author of the public letter to the President signed by Junius Americanus and calling for the veto of the Residence Bill as being unconstitutional, see Editorial Note, Opinions on the Consti- tutionality of the Residence Bill, p. 178-82, and notes to Documents I and IX in that group of documents. The miniature is signed and dated on the back (Theodore Sizer, The Works of Colonel John Trumbull [New Haven, 1950], p. 51). (Courtesy of Yale University Art Gallery) ARTHUR ST. CLAIR This pencil sketch by John Trumbull was drawn in New York in 1790 (Theodore Sizer, The Works of Colonel John Trumbull [New Haven, 1950], p. 48). Since St. Clair made his remarkable journey from Pittsburgh to New York late in August, arriving on the evening of the 20th and leaving presumably on the 24th, it follows that the delineation was made during the extraordinarily busy weekend when Knox, Hamilton, and St. Clair were planning and arranging the details for the expedition against Indians in the Northwest Territory and when the Secretary of the Treasury, in a confidential conversation with George Beckwith, revealed its object (see notes to Document xI in the group of documents pertaining to the war crisis, p. 131-4). The portrait, therefore, is that of a field officer caught at an exhausting and anxious moment. (Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art) MEDAL AWARDED HENRY LEE On 24 Sep. 1779 the Continental Congress resolved that "the thanks of Congress be given to Major Lee, for the remarkable prudence, address and bravery displayed by him" at the attack on the British fort at Paulus Hook; that "they approve the humanity shewn in cir- cumstances prompting to severity, as honourable to the arms of the United States, and correspondent to the noble principles on which they were assumed"; and that "a medal of gold, emblematical of this affair, be struck ... and presented to Major Lee" (Jcc, XV, 1099-1100). But this resolution was overlooked in the list of "honorary Rewards to Officers ... still due" that Robert Morris transmitted to David Humphreys in 1784 with directions to have the swords and medals commemorative of Saratoga, Stony Point, Cowpens, and other events of the Revolution "executed agreeably to the Resolutions of Congress" (see Vol. 16: 59). In 1789 Jefferson completed Humphreys' unfin- ished task and brought the medals back to the United States. It was presumably soon thereafter that he learned of the oversight when Henry Lee himself informed him of it and presented a copy of the resolution of Congress. Jefferson thereupon "put it in hand with [Joseph] Wright to be executed in Philadelphia." In an undated memorandum Jefferson wrote: "Wright, as well as I recollect, would not agree to warrant against the quality of the steel. His dies broke after they were executed, so that this matter was not concluded when I left Philadelphia" (Vol. 16: 78). The sequel is revealed in Treasury accounts. On 13 Jan. 1795 Joseph Stretch, administrator of the estate of Joseph Wright, submitted a statement of account for $233.33 due Wright "For modelling the likeness and cuting two dies for a model of Henry Lee Esq. as certified by the Secretary of State." Accompany- ing this account are the following documents: (1) a copy of the last will of Joseph Wright, "Miniture Painter and Engraver"; (2) a state- ment by Edmund Randolph, dated 10 Oct. 1794, reading: "The above account was produced to my predecessor in office, Mr. Jefferson. He told me that it was reasonable, and left a memorandum to that effect. As this was a transaction of his, I certify upon these premises, that the account is reasonable" (TJ's memorandum not found); (3) a statement by Moid Wetherill, 11 Sep. 1793, reading: "Joseph Wright being very ill [of yellow fever] and not expecting to recover, requested the Subscriber to make a memorandum as follows.-That the said Joseph Wright had presented an account against the United States for cuting a medal amount 50 Guineas.-Two Essays of a Quarter Dollar, cut by direction of David Rittenhouse Esqr. and presented to him (broke in hardening) value about 40 Guineas" (MS in DNA: M 235/19; Wright's invoice bears no date but is endorsed by TJ: "Wright Joseph"; on verso of Randolph's statement is a certificate signed by him to the effect that this service was performed under the direction of TJ by order of the President and in conformity to the resolution of 24 Sep. 1779). The obverse of the example of this relatively rare medal that is here reproduced shows "a very distinct crack in the obverse die" (Henry Grunthal, Acting Chief Curator, American Numismatic Society, to the Editors, 24 Feb. 1961). Obverse, legend: HENRICO LEE LEGIONIS EQUIT. PRAEFECTO. Exergue: COMITIA AMERICANA. On the truncation: J. WRIGHT. Reverse, inscription (ten lines): NON OBSTANTIB. | FLUMINIBUS VALLIS | ASTUTIA & VIRTUTE BELLICA | PARVA MANU HOSTES VICIT | VICTOSQ. | ARMIS HUMANITATE | DEVINXIT. | IN MEM PUGN AD PAULUS | HOOK DIE XIX. | AUG. 1779. Betts, American colonial history illustrated by contemporary medals (New York, 1894), p. 266n., states that the original obverse die is in the United States Mint but that that of the reverse "has been lost" and another cut by William Barber. (Courtesy of The American Numismatic Society) ROBERT MORRIS This silhouette of the man who received most of the public con- demnation for the bargain by which the seat of government was trans- ferred to Philadelphia is one of Joseph Sansom's "Physiognomical Sketches ... designed to preserve the characteristic features, personally, mentally, or officially [of] Remarkable Characters." That Sansom achieved his multiple object with astonishing penetration and clarity for such a medium is demonstrated both in this likeness of the financier and in the profiles of Washington, Franklin, Madison, and other figures reproduced in Charles Coleman Sellers' "Joseph Sansom, Phila- delphia Silhouettist," PMHB, LXXXVIII (1964), 395-438, from the originals in the Perot Collection, The Historical Society of Pennsyl- vania. It is regrettable that, so far as known, Sansom did not execute a silhouette of Jefferson. (Courtesy of The Historical Society of Penn- sylvania ) ROBERT MORRIS MOVES THE SEAT OF GOVERNMENT TO PHILADELPHIA Although the controversial Assumption and Residence Acts resulted from an accommodation of interests arranged by Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson, these chief negotiators of the legislative bargain were at the time screened from public obloquy. It was instead Robert Morris, a prominent but not principal figure in the arrangement, who became almost the sole target of the squibs, satires, caricatures, and other manifestations of popular indignation that filled the press during and after passage of the two measures. "Your delegates and your city," wrote a New Yorker (or more likely one posing as a New Yorker) to a Pennsylvanian, "have been roughly handled in the course of the debates. The abuse of Mr. Morris has been both indecent and unmer- ited, for every part of his conduct of this business has been fair and candid" ([N.Y.] Daily Advertiser, 15 July 1790, quoting extract of letter of 9 July written from New York as published in Philadelphia). Morris himself, sensing victory at last and no doubt sharing the preva- lent view in the north that a ten-year removal to Philadelphia would doom the Potomac site forever, bore the abuse with cheerful equa- nimity. "The Yorkers," he wrote to his wife, "... lay all the blame of this measure on me, and abuse me most unmercifully, both in the Public Prints, private conversations, and even in the streets; and yesterday I was nearly engaged in a serious quarrel with one of them.- However, I don't mind all they can do, and if I carry the point, I will, like a good Christian, forgive them all" (Morris to his wife, 2 July 1790, quoted in Frank M. Etting, An historical account of the old State House or Independence Hall [Boston, 1876] p. 139-40). The possibility of a bargain was suspected almost as soon as the residence question came up during the stalemate over assumption and the barrage of ridicule began at once. "As I was walking up Wall- street," declared A Country Correspondent early in June, "I heard a man say, as how Congress were about making a great balloon out of continental certificates and public securities; that they were filling of it as fast as they could with inflammable air; that in about a fortnight it would be nearly inflated; and that the great hall, which cost you Yorkers about 30,000, was to be then suspended to the balloon, with all its animate and inanimate contents, and set down near the new gaol in the city of Philadelphia" (New-York Journal, 4 June 1790). The prediction that the phenomenon would take place "in about a fort- night" proved to be quite accurate and the idea of transporting the seat of government by air may have inspired the anonymous cartoonist to place Federal Hall on the shoulders of Robert Morris. It seems almost certain that the engraving appeared before passage of the Residence Act. The anxiety expressed by some of the members of Congress, the words of encouragement by that almost obligatory con- vention of political cartoonists of the period-the devil, the presence of a procuress and another of "the Girls" among the devil's proffered inducements, the divided comments of the onlookers and retainers, the roughness of the road Morris is traveling on, and his own exhorta- tion to his followers to have confidence in him-all seem to point to an object not yet achieved. If this conjecture is well founded, the carica- ture must have appeared late in June or early in July (William Murrell, A History of American Graphic Humor [New York, 1933], p. xiii, 45-6, assigns the year 1798 both to this and to the two cartoons of Morris described below, but all three unquestionably belong to 1790). Two examples of this rare engraving are known: (1) the fine impression in the American Antiquarian Society here reproduced, having contemporary coloring in red, yellow, blue, and green; and (2) a plain copy in Independence Hall which bears on its face this caption in a contemporary and unidentified hand: "1790 | Carricature of ROBERT MORRIS by the New Yorkers in Consequence of the removal of the Seat of Government through his instrumentality from their City to the city of | Philadelphia." A redrawn engraving of the latter with its caption appears in Frank M. Etting, An Historical Account of the old State House or Independence Hall (Boston, 1876), p. 139, and a facsimile is in William Murrell, A History of American Graphic Humor (New York, 1933), p. 45 (though its location is erroneously assigned, p. xiii, to the New-York Historical Society). This engraving is unsigned, but R. W. G. Vail, "A Rare Robert Morris Caricature," PMHB (1936), p. 184-6, attributes it to Henry G. Jenks of Boston on three grounds: (1) that the draftsmanship of the front elevation of Federal Hall in the caricature bears a "very similar if not identical" relationship to that of a larger engraving of the struc- ture which appears in Isaiah Thomas' Massachusetts Magazine for June 1789; (2) that the original drawing for this latter engraving was described by I. N. Phelps Stokes, Iconography of Manhattan Island, III (New York, 1918), p. 904, as being signed by Jenks; and (3) that the example of the caricature in the American Anti- quarian Society was purchased in 1934 among the effects of Henry G. Jenks. There is no doubt that Stokes' authority is impressive and that the circumstance of finding this caricature among Jenks' effects must be given due weight. But, aside from the fact that the pen-and-ink sketch described by Stokes has not been located for comparison, the following considerations must be noted: (1) Stokes only identified the drawing as "an early unfinished sketch made by Henry G. Jenks," not as one signed by him, and in consequence the attribution may possibly have been that of the gallery in which he examined it; (2) he went no further than to say that this was "probably the original of the plate" that appeared in the Massachusetts Magazine; and (3) he identified the engraver of that plate not as Jenks but as S. Hill. Further a com- parison of Hill's "View of the Federal Edifice in New York" with the crudely drawn representation of that structure as carried by Robert Morris seems to reveal only striking inequalities. The former (also engraved for the Columbian Magazine, Aug. 1789) bears favorable comparison with the Peter Lacour-Amos Doolittle engraving of Wash- ington's inauguration of 30 Apr. 1789 and even with the drawing of Federal Hall by Archibald Robertson (I. N. Phelps Stokes and Daniel C. Haskell, American Historical Prints [New York, 1932], frontispiece; see Vol. 16, following p. 52). The latter is faulty in its perspective and in its imperfect proportions. In any case the comparison of the craftsmanship of the two engravings is between work known to be by Hill and work by an unidentified person. The attribution of this carica- ture to Henry G. Jenks must, therefore, be regarded as inconclusive. (Courtesy of the American Antiquarian Society) THE RESIDENCE BARGAIN SATIRIZED I. "View of C-o-n-ss on the road to Philadelphia." This satirical engraving shows Robert Morris carrying on his back a majority ac- quired-as the caricaturist suggests none too subtly-by means of the financier's money bags, with the minority bound by leading strings and obliged to follow along. The division between a solid majority and an overpowered "Manority" indicates that the print was executed after the voting on the Residence Bill had revealed the tendency of the voting but before the bill had been enacted. The remark by one of the minority that "It is bad to have a gouty Constitution" and the reply by another that "I am affraid bobby's dance will not mend it" also suggest that the print may have been published about the time that the constitutional issue was being discussed (see Opinions on the Constitutionality of the Residence Bill, p. 163-208). The engraver signed the cartoon with the obviously pseudonymous initials "Y. Z." (Courtesy of the New-York Historical Society) II. "Cong-ss Embark'd on board the Ship Constitution of America bound to Conogocheque by way of Philadelphia." The use of a ship as symbol of the Constitution and of Robert Morris as her commander grew naturally out of the public debate over the Assumption and Residence bills. Late in June a writer in the New-York Journal, pre- tending to correct the ship news that had appeared in Fenno's Gazette of the United States, described Congress as "a new ship, on her second voyage-a heavy and lubberly sailor-her cabin fitted up with French decorations." Assumption, he wrote, was also a new ship, fitted out by "an eastern company of insolvents," and Residence, still another new vessel, was owned by a declining merchant. The voyage of the latter had been temporarily postponed, but the writer added: "It is expected she will sail in company with the Assumption" (New-York Journal, 29 June 1790). A few days later J.P. and R.H.L. signed this satirical advertisement: "Six d-----s a day will be given for good caulkers to repair and caulk the new ship C--------., R[obert] M[orris] commander. The seams of her bottom having never been properly squared, and the plank [being] of green stuff, it is proposed to give her a thorough repair before she is properly fitted for the great and important voyage to Philadelphia" (same, 2 July 1790). This may have been intended as a warning that the constitutional issue was about to be raised, but in any event it was quite natural that from such materials as these the unknown engraver of this cartoon should have developed his derisory "Cong-ss Embark'd"-the ship Constitution with her figurehead of a goose instead of an eagle, her commander Robert Morris at the helm, the devil beckoning him on to the rapids, the figure below crying to his companions "If we can catch the cargo never mind the ship"-the cargo being identified as the Treasury-and the minority towed along in the painter, whose helmsman calls out to one in the bow "Cut the Painter as soon as you see the ship in danger," to which the bowman, knife in hand and voicing a clear threat of disunion, cries: "Ay, Ay. I had best do it now, for I believe she is going to the devil." It is obvious, too, that this caricature appeared after the Residence Act became law on 16 July 1790. For when one of the men in the painter remarks to a companion "I wonder what could have induced the Controller [President Washington] to sign our clearance"-that is, to decline to veto the measure as Junius Americanus and others urged- he is answered in a manner typical of the feelings of resentment against Washington for his silent but influential part in the controversial pro- ceedings: "Self gratification, I suppose, for it cannot be any advantage to the owners"-that is, to the people of the country. (Courtesy of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania)

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