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Table of Contents of
The Papers of Thomas Jefferson

edited by
Julian P. Boyd

© 1950 - <2001> Princeton University Press

Reproduced 2003 with permission of the publisher

Table of Contents, All Volumes   |  Catalog record and links to related information from the Library of Congress catalog



Note on the Format ILLUSTRATIONS
A Account of a sailor calling himself Archibald Ross, 564 Account of the mutiny on the Bounty, 275 Adams, John, letter to, 283 (note) Addresses of welcome and responses thereto: Albemarle citizens, 177, 178; mayor and citizens of Alexandria, 224, 225; Virginia house of delegates, [11] (note), 11; Virginia senate, 11, 12 Albemarle citizens, address of welcome and response, 'The Holy Cause of Freedom," 167-80; Editorial note, 167; the welcome, 177; the response, 178 Alden, Roger, memorandum of, 471 (note); letter to, 345 (note) American Academy of Arts and Sciences, certificate of Jefferson's election to membership, 112 (note) Anderson, James, letter from, 391, with enclosure Anderson, Nathaniel, letter from, 196] (note) Appointments, Jefferson's opinion on the powers of the Senate respecting diplomatic, 378 Arnoux and Chalut, the Abbes, letter to, 305 Arrearages in soldiers' pay, cabinet opinions concerning resolutions on, 455-70: Editorial note, 455; opinion of Hamilton, 462; opinion of Jefferson, 468 Autun, Bishop of, Jefferson's notes on propositions of, concerning a universal standard of weights and measures, 669 (note) B Bancroft, Edward, letter to, [86] (note) Barclay, Thomas, letters from, 320 (note), 471 Barnes, Joseph, letters from, 590, 591 (note) Barrett, Nathaniel, letters to and from, 102, 102 (note) The Bee, or universal literary intelligencer, prospectus for, 391, (note) Bellanger, Madame Plumard de, letter to, 298 Bellini, Charles, letter to, 485 Bethune-Charost, letter from, 39 Biddle, Charles, letter to, from Sharp Delany, 563 (note) Bingham, William, letter from, 591 (note) Blackden, Samuel, letter from, 247 Blair, Archibald, letter to, 82 Bolling, John, letters to, 157, 207 Bond, Phineas, letter from, 83 Boonen Graves & William Crafts, letter from, 324 (note); letter to, 324 Botidour, Mlle., letter from, to Martha Jefferson, [135] (note) Boudinot, Elias, letter to, 581 Bourne, Sylvanus, letters from, 264, [265] (note); letter to, 265 (note) Bounty, account of the mutiny on the, 275 Boyd, Archibald, letter from, to Walter Boyd, [312] (note) Boyd, Walter, letter to, 311; letter to, from Archibald Boyd, [312] (note) Brehan, Madame de, letter from, 424 Brown, James, letter from, 38; letter to, 80 Brown, John, affidavit of, 354 (note); letter to, 671 (note) Brown, William, letters to, 349, [350] (note), 486 (note) Bruce, Robert and Peter, letter to, 279 (note) Bryan, Anderson, letter from, 93; letter to, 83 Buchanan, George, letter from, 487 (note); letter to, 487 Burges, J. B., letter from and to Gouverneur Morris, 535 (note) Burke, Edmund, extract from the speech of, 260 Butler, Pierce, receipt by, 325 (note) C Caractus, pedigree of [192] (note) Carmichael, William, letters to, 329, 450; letter to, from John Jay, 330 (note) Carr, Martha Jefferson, letter to, 138 Carr, Peter, letters from, 205, 393; letters to, 276, 487 Carroll, Charles, of Carrollton, letter to, 486 (note) Carter, Charles, letter from, 21; letter to, 16 Cary, Wilson Miles, letter from, 549 (note); letter to, 548 Chalon, letter to, from the Farmers-General, 18 Chalut and Arnoux, the Abbes, letter to, 305 Church, Angelica Schuyler, letter to, 549 Clarke, Joseph, receipt to, 118 (note) Clay, the Rev. Charles, letter to, 129 Coffyn, Francis, letter to, 223 (note) Coinage, copper, documents concerning, 335-49: Editorial note, 335; resolution of house of representatives, 335, 345; John H. Mitchell to Thomas Tudor Tucker, 342; Thomas Jefferson to speaker of house, 345; report on copper coinage, 345; outline for Jefferson's report, 348 (note) Colvard, Benjamin, letter from, [309] (note) Commercial policy, documents on American, 513-30: ditorial note, 513; [Neil Jamieson] to Josiah Parker, 523; business modes of English and southern merchants, 528 Consular Convention of 1788, instrument of ratification of, 87 (note); proclamation of the, 327 Copying press, drawing of [324] (note) Corny, Madame de, letter to, 289 Cosway, Maria, letter from, 312; letter to, 550 Coxe, Tench, letters from, 531; letter from, to John Jay, 618 Craigie, Andrew, letter from, 264 (note) Cruse, Englehart, letter from, to George Washington, 413 (note) Cuthbert, William, letters from, 566 (note); letters to, 566 (note) Cutting, John Brown, letters from, 251, 262, [415] (note), [509] (note); letters to, from William Short, 258, 415 (note), 440 (note), 507 (note), 509 (note) Cutting, Nathaniel, letter from, 205; letter from, to Delamotte, 207 (note); letter from, to Martha Jefferson, 207 (note) D Davies, William John, affidavit concerning escaped slaves, 451 (note) Davis, Augustine, letter from, 52; letter to, 82 (note) Decius's letters on the opposition to the new constitution in Virginia, 141 (note) Delamotte, letter from, 17; letters to, 223 (note), 575; letter to, from William Short, 207 (note) Delany, Sharp, letter from, to Charles Biddle, 563 (note) De Lormerie, letters from, 433, 434 (note) De Pio, letter from, 230 Derieux, J. P. P., letters from, 42, 192 Diodati, letter to, 295 Diplomats, foreign, Jefferson's policy on presents to, documents concerning, 356-68: Editorial note, 356; Thomas Jefferson to William Temple Franklin, 363; William Temple Franklin to Thomas Jefferson, 364; memorandum of information from Adams and others, 366 (note); notes of presents given to American diplomats by foreign governments, 366; formula proposed by Jefferson, 367 Dohrman, Arnold Henry, letter to, [308] (note) Donald, Alexander, letters from, 28, 90, [223] (note), 236, [237] (note), 263, [325] (note), 382, 406, 565, 591; letters to, 222, 325, 331, 488 Dowse, Edward, letter from, 286 (note); letter to, 286 Dumas, C. W. F., official dispatches of, 193, 194 (note), 265, 411 (note), 415, 442; letter to, 551 Dunbar, John, letter to, 30 E The Earth belongs to the living; See Madison on "The earth belongs to the living" Eliza, ship, sea letter to, 284 (note) Enville, Madame d', letter to, 290; list of American seeds desired by, 503 Eppes, Elizabeth Wayles, letter from, 209 (note); letter to, 208, 489 Eppes, Francis, letters from, [209] (note), 447; letters to, 35, 598 Estaing, Comte d', letter from, to George Washington, 555; letter to, from George Washington, 559 (note) F Farmers-General, letter from, to Chalon, 18 Federal offices in North Carolina and the Southwest Territory, list of recommendations for, 476 Fenno's Gazette of the United States, documents concerning Jefferson's alliance with, 237-62: Editorial note, 237; Samuel Blackden to Thomas Jefferson, 247; John Brown Cutting to Thomas Jefferson, 251; William Short to John Brown Cutting, 258; extract from speech of Edmund Burke, 260 Fitzhugh, William, letter from, 223 (note); letter to, 223 Floridablanca, Conde de, letter of credence to, 330 (note) Forrest & Stoddert, letter from, 428 Forrest, Uriah, letter from, 429 (note); letter to, 489 Franklin, Benjamin, letter from, 326, with enclosure; letter to, 283; Jefferson's account with, 490 (note) Franklin, William Temple, letters from, 36, 364; memorandum concerning etrennes by, 358; letters to, 180, 363 Franks, David S., letter from, 158 G Garland, [John], letter to, 482 (note) Garth, Thomas, letter to, 209 Gautier, Jean Antoine, letter from, 363 (note) Gem, Richard, letter to, 297 Georgia land grants, Jefferson's opinion on certain, 406 Giles, William B., letter from, [22] (note), 23; letters to, 22 Gilmer, George, letter from, 433; letter to, 574 Grand, Ferdinand, letters to, 298, 368 Griffin, Cyrus, letters from, 14; letter to, 15 H Hamilton, Alexander, letters from, 353, 369 (note), 472 (note), 479, 511; letters to, 483, 512 with enclosure, [512] (note); letter to, from Oliver Wolcott, 472 (note); letter to, from William Lindsay, 353 (note); opinion on the resolutions concerning arrearages in soldiers' pay, 462 Hancock, John, letter from and to, 563 (note) Harvie, John, Jr., letter from, 136; letter to, 97 Haskell, Edward, certificate to, 24 (note) Hay, William, letter from, [92] (note); letter to, 92; plat of survey by, 100 (note) Hazard, Ebenezer, letter from, 188 Henderson, McCaul & Co., bonds from Jefferson to, 212 (note) Hopkinson, Francis, letters from, 422, 581; letter to, 490, with enclosures Houdetot, Madame d', letter to, 292 Howell, David, letters from, 451, with enclosures, 483; letter to, 553 Humphreys, David, letter from, 66 Hunter, William Jr., address to Jefferson as Mayor of Alexandria, 224; letter to, 491 I Izard, Ralph, letter to, 376 (note); receipt by, 325 (note) J [Jamieson, Neil], letter from, to Josiah Parker, 523 Jay, John, letter from, 20; letters to, 180, 283 (note); letter to, from Tench Coxe, 618; letter to, from George Walton, 451 (note); letter from, to William Carmichael, 330 (note); official dispatches to, from William Short, 3, 4 (note), 5 (note), 6 (note), 7 (note), 28 (note), 32, 40, 49, 86, 103, 119, 162, 165 (note), 199, 219, 234, 267, 279, 301, 333, 371, 400, 419, 425, 430, 436 Jefferson, Elizabeth, account with estate of, [192] (note) Jefferson, John, letter from, 87; letter to, 181 Jefferson, John Garland, letter to, 480 Jefferson, Mary, letters from, 384, 435; letters to, 331, 405, 435, 491, 599 Jefferson, Martha, letter to, from Mlle. Botidour, [135] (note); letter to, from Nathaniel Cutting, 207 (note); marriage settlement for, 189. See also Martha Jefferson Randolph Jefferson, Randolph, letter to, 194 Jefferson, Thomas, addresses of welcome to, by Virginia house of delegates and senate, with replies, 11, 12; certificate to Edward Haskell from, 24 (note); description by, of medals and memoranda on costs and makers, 67, 69, 77; description of Richmond lot by, [92] (note); entries, orders in council, and plats of lands of, in dispute with Harvie, 99 (note), 100 (note); certificate of election of, to American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 112 (note); address of welcome to, by Albemarle citizens, with reply, 177, 178; marriage indenture of, 189; marriage bond subscribed by, 191 (note); memorandum of silver left by, at Monticello, 196 (note); power of attorney to Nicholas Lewis by, 211 (note); address of welcome to, by mayor of Alexandria, with reply, 224, 225; bonds given by, to Henderson, McCaul & Co., 212 (note); diary by, of affairs of Philip Mazzei, 308; memorandum of, concerning Walter Boyd, 312; instructions of, to William Short concerning household furnishings, 321; receipt by Izard and Butler to, 325 (note). See also, United States: secretary of state Jones, John Coffin, letter from, 397; letter to, 554 Jones, Joseph, letter from, 182 (note); letter to, 182 Joy, Benjamin, sea letter to, 284 (note) Joy, George, letter to, 284 K Kemp, John, letter from, 580 Kerr, Charles, account with, [212] (note) L Lafayette, letters to, 292, 376; letter from, to George Washington, 531 (note); Opinion de M. De La Fayette, 440 (note) Lafayette, Madame de, letter to, 295 La Luzerne, letter to, 394 La Rochefoucauld d'Enville, letters to, 296, 377 Laurens, Henry, letter to, [283] (note) Leak, Walter, copy of plat of survey by, 100 (note) Lear, Tobias, letter from, 554, with enclosure Lee, Henry, letter from, [386] (note); letter to, 385 Leeds, Duke of, letters from and to Gouverneur Morris, 535 (note) Leroy & Bayard, letter to, 296; order on, 550 (note) Leslie, Robert, letter from, 588, letter to, 576 Le Veillard, letter to, 306 Lewis, Charles Lilburne, letter from [192] (note); letters to, 191, 192 (note) Lewis, Mary Randolph, letter to, 93 Lewis, Mary Walker, letter from, 492 (note) Lewis, Nicholas, letters to, 99 (note), 210, 411, 482, 492, 599; power of attorney to, 211 (note) Lewis, Robert, letter from, 94; letter to, 195 Lindsay, William, letter from, to the secretary of the treasury, 353 (note) Louis XVI, letter to, from George Washington, 314 Lyle, James, letter from, [109] (note), [212] (note); letters to, 109 (note), 156, 212 M McCaul, Alexander, letter from, 109 McHenry, James, letter from, 413 (note) Madison on "The Earth Belongs to the Living," 146-54: Editorial note, 146; text as received by Jefferson, 1790, 147; text as revised by Madison, late in life, 151 Madison, James, letters from, 125, 147, 151, 166, 183, 213, [287] (note); letters to, 92, 182, 286; opinion on method of delivering communications, 287; memorandum on Ladvocat, 495 (note); Queries concerning the report on weights and measures, 649 Madison, the Rev. James, letter to, 82 (note) Marriage settlement for Martha Jefferson, 189 Mason, George, letter from, 232, letter to, 493 Massachusetts, letter from governor of, 563 (note); letter to governor of, 563 (note), with enclosure Maury, the Rev. Matthew, letter to, 88 Mazzei, Philip, letter to, 307; efferson's diary of affairs of, 308 Medals struck in France, See Notes on American medals Melchior, Friedrich, Baron von Grimm, memorandum on etrennes, 359 Merchants, mode of business between English and southern, 528 Mifflin, Thomas, letter from, 563 (note); letters to, 281, 562 Mitchell, John H., letter from, to Thomas Tudor Tucker, 342 Monroe, James, letters from, 110, 432, 478, 596; letters to, 483, 536 Monticello, list of silver left at, 196 (note) Montmorin, letters to, 313, 314 Morris, Gouverneur, letter from, 328; letters from and to Duke of Leeds, 535 (note); letter to, from J. B. Burges, 535 (note); letter from, to George Washington, 532, with enclosures Morris, Thomas, letter from, [97] (note) Moustier, letters from, 100, 422 Mullins, Henry, letter from, [196] (note) Myers, Moses, letter to, from David Plunket, 354 (note) N Nicholas, John, Jr., letter from, 139. See also, Decius's letters on the opposition to the new constitution in Virginia, 141-5 Nicholas, John, Sr., letter from, [116] (note); letter to, 155 Nivison, John, letter from, to Josiah Parker, 354 (note) North Carolina and the Southwest Territory, recommendations for federal offices in, 476 Notes on American medals struck in France, dochments concerning, 53-78: Editorial note, 53; David Humphreys to Thomas Jefferson, 66; memoranda concerning distribution, cost, and makers of medals, 67; Jefferson's description of the medals, 69; related documents, 73-5 (note); Jefferson's notes on the history of the medals, 77 Notes of presents given to American diplomats by foreign governments, 366 O O'Bryen, Richard, letter from, 20; letter from, to William Short, 334 (note) Offices, list of persons recommended for, in North Carolina and Southwest Territory, 476 Otis, Samuel A., letter from, 588 (note) Otto, Louis Guillaume, letter from, 354 P Paine, Thomas, letter from, to George Washington, 531 (note) Paradise, John, letter from, 294; letter to, 84 Paradise, Lucy Ludwell, letters from, 137, 138 (note), 196, 198 (note), 294 (note), 446, with enclosures, letter to, 559 Parker, Josiah, letter to, from John Nivison, 354 (note); letter to, from [Neil Jamieson], 523 Pennsylvania, president of, letters to, 281, 562, with enclosures; letter from, 563 (note) Peters, Richard, letter from, 538; letter to, 494, with enclosure Petry, Jean Baptiste, letter from, 52 Piattoli, the Abbe, letter from, 214 Pinckney, Charles, letter from, 563 (note); letters to, 324, 562 Platt, Richard, letter from, 24 Pleasants, James B., letter from, 412 Plunket, David, letter from, to Moses Myers, 354 (note) Poggi, Anthony C., and John Trumbull, receipt by, 550 (note) Poplar Forest, plat survey of, 190 Presents to foreign diplomats. See Diplomats, foreign, Jefferson's policy on presents to Proclamation of the Consular Convention of 1788, 327 R Ramsay, David, letter from, 332; letter to, 577 Randall, P. R., letters from, 226, 226 (note) Randolph, David Meade, letter from, 509 Randolph, Edmund, letter from, 13 Randolph, Martha Jefferson, letter from, 384; letters to, 300, 386, 429, 474, [475] (note), 577 Randolph, Thomas Mann, Jr., letters from, 370, 409, 441; letters to, 214, 277, 351, 416, 436, 448, 540 Randolph, Thomas Mann, Sr., letters from, 135, [155] (note); letter to, 154 Rayneval, letter to, 315 Remsen, Henry, letter to, 310 Rittenhouse, David, letters from, 545, 567, 594; letters to, 484, 509, 542, 574, 587, [667] (note), 668 (note) Ross, Archibald, account of a sailor calling himself, 564 Rush, Benjamin, letter from, 411 Russell, Thomas, letter to, 494, with enclosure Rutledge, Edward, letters from, 389, 544; letter to, 600 Rutledge, John, Jr., letters from, 266, 413, 426, [428] (note) S Sarly, Jacob, letter from, 39 Seabrook, Nicholas B., letter from, [82] (note); letter to, 82 Seeds, list of, desired by Madame d'Enville, 503 Short, William, official dispatches from, 3, 4 (note), 5 (note), 6 (note), 7 (note), 32, 40, 49, 79, 86, 103, 119, 162, 165 (note), 199, 219, 234, 267, 279, 301, 333, 371, 400, 419, 425, 430, 436, 504, 570, 586; private letters from, 43, 105, 130, [135] (note), 159, 202, 271, [389] (note), 417, 473, 496, with enclosure, 582; letters to, 24, 228, 282, 315, 318, 377, 387, 395, 443, 475, 589, 590 (note); letters from, to John Brown Cutting, 258, 440 (note), 507 (note), 509 (note); commission as charge des affaires, 396 (note); instructions to, concerning household goods, 321 Sinclair, Sir John, letter from, 389 Skipwith, Fulwar, letters from, 90, 561 (note); letter to, 560 Skipwith, Henry, letters to, 16, 51 Smith, Meriwether, letter from, 155 Smith, William, letter from, 547; letter to, from Stephen Wilson, 548 (note) Soldiers' pay, Cabinet opinions on the resolutions concerning arrearages of, 455 South Carolina, letter from governor of, 563 (note); letters to governor of, 324 (note), 563 (note), with enclosure Steele, John, letters from, 471 (note); letter to, 470 T Tatham, William, letters from, 9, 185 Tesse, Madame de, letters to, 226, 378 Tolozan, letter to, [388] (note) Thompson, Benjamin, letters from, 282, 282 (note) Thompson, George, letter from, 510; letter to, 578 Trumbull, John, and Anthony C. Poggi, receipt by, 550 (note) Tucker, Thomas Tudor, letter to, from John H. Mitchell, 342 U United States: House of representatives: resolutions of, concerning copper coinage, 335; letters to speaker of, 345, 623; report to, on copper coinage, 345; report to, on weights and measures, 650 Senate: letter to president of, 674 President: proclamation of Consular Convention by, 327 Secretary of state: commission of, 9 (note); arrangements with Fenno's Gazette of the United States, 237-62; sea letter issued by, to ship Eliza, 284 (note); draft of proclamation of Consular Con- vention by, 327; report of, on copper coinage, 335; policy of, concerning presents to foreign diplomats, 356; opinion of, on power of senate over diplomatic appointments, 378; opinion of, on certain Georgia land grants, 406; opinion of, on resolutions concerning arrearages of soldiers' pay, 468; recommendations by, of persons for federal offices in North Carolina and Southwest Territory, 476; estimate of annual expenses of department of state, 512; position of, on commercial policy, 513-30; note by, on Stephen Wilson's letter, 548; position of, on neutrality, 578-80, and note; report of, on weights and measures, 650 V Vacher, John Francis, letter from, 309 Van der Kemp, Francis Adrian, letter to, 285 Vaughan, Benjamin, letter from, 274, with enclosed account of the mutiny on the Bounty, 275; letter to, 578 Vernes & Cie., letter from, 97 (note) Vernes, Jacob, letters from, 94, [97] (note), 116, 188, with enclosure of prices current, Bordeaux; letter from, to the secretary of state, 97 (note) Viar, Jose Ignacio de, letter from, 473 (note); letter to, 472 Virginia house of delegates, address of welcome by, [11] (note), and reply, 11 Virginia senate, address of welcome by, 11, and reply, 12 W Walker, John, letter from, [157] (note); letter to, 156 Walker, Thomas, letters from, 114, 479; letters to, 112, 127, 561, order for [212] (note) Walton, George, letter from, to John Jay, 451 (note) Waring, William, plan for a uniform system of weights and measures, 619 Washington, George, letters from, 8, 116, 531; letters to, 34, 184, 287, 310, 392, 410, 511; letter from, to Louis XVI, 314; letter to, from Englehart Cruse, 413 (note); letter to, from D'Estaing, 555; letter to, from Gouverneur Morris, 532; letter to, from Thomas Paine, 531 (note); proclamation of the Consular Convention of 1788, 327 Watson, David, letters from and to, 212 (note) Webb, George, Jr., letter from, [94] (note) Weights and measures, documents concerning report on, 602-75: Editorial note, 602; Tench Coxe to John Jay, 618; William Waring's plan for weights and measures, 619; Thomas Jefferson to speaker of the house, 623; first state of report, 624; second state of report, 628; James Madison's queries concerning report, 649; final state of report, 650; Jefferson to president of senate, 674; postscript to report, 674; Jefferson's notes on Bishop of Autun's propositions, 669 (note) Willard, Joseph, letter from, 111, enclosing certificate of election to American Academy of Arts and Sciences; letter to, 289 Willis, Francis, Jr., letter from, 165; letter to, 352 Wilson, Stephen, letter from, to William Smith, 548 (note) Wolcott, Oliver, letter from, to Alexander Hamilton, 472 (note) Wyley, Alexander, letter from, [388] (note) Wythe, George, letter from, 368, with enclosure from James Ferguson's Tables and tracts; letters to, 37, 495 Y Yazoo. See Georgia land grants, Jefferson's opinion on, 406 Z Zariny, Joseph, letter from, 13
Following page 52 THE SECRETARY OF STATE BEGINS TO REPORT This handsome specimen of calligraphy is the title-page of a folio volume of Jefferson's reports beginning with that on copper coinage (see p.335-49). The exceedingly fine, highly-calendered, gilt-edged paper, the careful calligraphy, and the acquisition of the volume im- mediately after he had assumed office (as proved by the inclusion of the report on coinage)-all reflect Jefferson's concern for the per- manence of the record. (Courtesy of the National Archives) JEFFERSON INSTRUCTS POLLY IN THE USE OF A COPYING PRESS Superimposed on Jefferson's letter to Brailsford & Morris, 7 May 1789, is the impression of the final page of a letter from Polly Jefferson (here spelling her name as Maria) to her friend Kitty Church. The verso of the page not only bears the first part of the text of Polly's letter-an error in this experiment at copying that reversed and further obscured the image-but is also complicated by the offset impression of the succeeding letter, that of the same date to William Drayton. The margins of Polly's letter are also partially lost. Jefferson probably en- couraged her to write in French-she needed prompting as a corre- spondent in any form-just as he encouraged Kitty Church to do so in a letter to her mother (TJ to Angelica Schuyler Church, 21 Sep. 1788). This much of the obscured letter is recoverable: "Votre lettre machere Kitty m a fait le (plaisir) grand plaisir. Il n y a pas longtemps que J en ai receu un mot de Pa[...] et [...] vous [savez bien?] [...] son coeur. Comme j avais deja quiter le couvent avant de larrivee de votre lettre je n ai pas pu faire vos commissions a ces dames et demoiselles. Sally vous dit bien des choses. Adieu macher amie. Croyez moi pour la vie tout a vous. Maria Jefferson" (Polly employed no more punctuation in French than in English and this deficiency has been supplied in part). The Sally referred to in the letter was Sally Hemings, the servant who had accompanied Polly on the voyage from America in 1787 (Abigail Adams to TJ, 26 June 1787). The Editors are indebted to Mr. and Mrs. Vincent Eaton of the Library of Congress for aid in recovering this engaging text. (Courtesy of the Library of Congress) JEFFERSON GIVES SHORT SECRET INSTRUCTIONS This example of the minuscule handwriting of which Jefferson was capable (reproduced in exact size) and which he employed with short- hand abbreviations on many occasions is from a letter to William Short, 24 Jan. 1791, concerning the problem facing him as a diplomatic officer appointed under the confederation and obliged to observe the constitu- tional injunction against accepting, without the consent of Congress, "any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State" (Art. I, sect. 9). The passage reproduced here from the letter to Short is the text en clair of Jefferson's instructions in cypher about the manner of disposing of the king's present. On Jefferson's sensible and characteristic solution of the prob- lem, see p.362-3. (Courtesy of the Library of Congress) JEFFERSON'S SEAL This is perhaps the earliest intact example of Jefferson's personal seal bearing the famous motto "REBELLION TO TYRANTS IS OBEDIENCE TO GOD" (see Vol. 1: 677). It is attached to the cover of his letter to Dr. Richard Gem of 4 Apr. 1790; the seal was also used on TJ's letter to Le Veillard, 5 Apr. 1790. The seal was first reproduced, with careful attention to exactness, in a wood engraving in Benson J. Lossing's The pictorial field book of the Revolution (2d edn., New York, 1852, II, 548). That reproduction was made after a perfect wax impression dis- covered in Jefferson's papers after his death. (Courtesy of the Henry E. Huntington Library) COLUMBIA COLLEGE IN 1790 Cornelius Tiebout must have been at work engraving Anderson's drawing of Columbia College shortly before Jefferson sought the advice of William Samuel Johnson, president, and John Kemp, professor of mathematics, when he was engaged in the final stages of his report on a uniform system of weights and measures. Tiebout's print was pub- lished in the May 1790 issue of the New-Tork Magazine; or Literary Repository. Jefferson was unable to find at the college (or elsewhere in New York) the books needed in the preparation of his report and he consulted mathematicians only after he had formed the substance of his plan of weights and measures (see Kemp to TJ, 28 June 1790, and reference to Johnson in unfinished letter quoted p.607). The building of the college, erected between 1756 and 1760, was then located to the west of Broadway on Church street, a few squares from Federal Hall. See report on weights and measures, p. 602-75. (Courtesy of the New-York Historical Society) VIEW OF FEDERAL HALL AND WALL STREET, BY ARCHIBALD ROBERTSON It was Professor John Kemp of Columbia College, one of those con- sulted by Jefferson when he was preparing the report on weights and measures, who invited Archibald Robertson (1765-1835), a successful painter of Aberdeen, Scotland, to come to America. Robertson arrived in New York the same year that Jefferson took up his duties as secretary of state. As painter, amateur architect, linguist, and friend of Kemp, he must have met Jefferson and found in him a kindred spirit. Robert- son also brought with him from the Earl of Buchan as a gift for Wash- ington "a box made of the venerable oak which sheltered ... Wallace after his defeat at Falkirk," and Washington in turn commissioned "Mr. Robinson" to do a miniature of himself for Buchan (Washington, Writings, ed. Fitzpatrick, XXXII, 25). In addition to portraits, Robert- son executed a number of water-color views of New York. This view, probably painted while Jefferson was yet in New York, looks up Wall street past Federal Hall to Trinity Church, a location that was the center of federal government activity in 1790. Bordering the Church yard and obscured by Federal Hall in this view stood City Tavern, the inn occupying the full block between Thames and Cedar streets on Broadway, where Jefferson lodged from the time of his arrival in New York on 21 Mch. 1790 until the first of June, when he moved a few blocks away into the house at 57 Maiden Lane. Another view by Cornelius Tiebout, taken from an almost identical vantage point, shows more clearly the wing added by L'Enfant during the remodelling of the building in 1788-1789 in order to provide accommodations for the government (John A. Kouwenhoven, The Columbia historical portrait of New York, New York 1953, p. 83; Dumbauld, Tourist, p. 154-5). (Courtesy of the New-York Historical Society) BLACK MARBLE CLOCK ORDERED BY JEFFERSON, 1790 When Jefferson gave William Short a long list of instructions about household furnishings (see p. 321), he was engaged in preparing his report on weights and measures, a fact which must have suggested to him the desirability of adding to the design of the clock then ordered "a pendulum vibrating half seconds exactly." The design was not original with Jefferson, but was drawn from memory: a clock of similar design had been stolen "from the chimney" of his study in Paris. There was another interesting variation that he made in the design, however, for the stolen clock had conical columns and Jefferson altered these to obelisks. The striking similarity of the obelisks of the clock and those of the "Bowling-Green Washington" by Tiebout (see below) suggests that the latter may have provided the stimulus for this alteration. Short gave "the model of the clock" to the "Directeur de la salle des ventes ...with a verbal and written explanation" of what was desired. Diffi- culties of price and performance ensued and Short was unable to dis- patch the clock with the other household goods that were shipped in the autumn of 1790. He thereupon engaged another workman, whose name "CHANTROT A PARIS" appears on the dial, and the clock was completed in the summer of 1791 (Short to TJ, 14 June, 16 July, and 4 Aug. 1790; 30 Mch., 26 Apr., 2 May, and 17 July 1791; TJ to Short, 24 Jan. 1791; Chantrot to TJ, 24 July 1791). The owner of the clock, who is a descendant of Jefferson, informs the Editors that it still operates with remarkable accuracy. (Courtesy of the owner.) THE "BOWLING-GREEN WASHINGTON" The design of this portrait of Washington drawn by Dr. Charles Buxton, engraved by Cornelius Tiebout, and published by Charles Smith in New York in 1783 suggests a probable influence on Jefferson's design of the clock made by Chantrot (see note above). But the view in the background, showing the fort, Bowling Green (its fence encircling the pedestal from which the statue of George III had been pulled on 9 July 1776), and the Kennedy house where Washington lived at the begin- ning of the Revolution, also has its association with Jefferson. It was here that Jefferson, on his way to keep an appointment with Washing- ton in June 1790, met Alexander Hamilton in a pregnant moment of history. He recalled the episode in 1818 in these words: "Hamilton was in despair. As I was going to the President's one day, I met him in the street. He walked me backwards and forwards before the President's door [which faced Bowling Green] for half an hour. He painted patheti- cally the temper into which the legislature had been wrought, the disgust of those who were called the Creditor states, the danger of the secession of their members, and the separation of the states" (Anas; DLC: TJ Papers, 212: 37844, dated 4 Feb. 1818). Out of this meeting came perhaps the most famous and most short-lived coalition in Ameri- can history (see Documents in the residence question, under 14 July 1790). (Courtesy of the Museum of the City of New York) BENJAMIN FRANKLIN'S "TESTIMONY...ON THE...DISPUTED RIVER OF ST. CROIX" This "sheet which contains the Bay of Passamaquoddy" from the fourth edition of John Mitchell's Map of the British Colonies in North America, published in 1776, was sent by Franklin only a few days before his death and was in response to Jefferson's inquiry (see TJ to Franklin, 31 Mch. 1790; Franklin to TJ, 8 Apr. 1790). Benjamin Franklin Bache was the amanuensis for the letter of transmittal and shortly afterward gave the following account of the heroic manner in which Benjamin Franklin met this final call to public duty: "Ten Days before his Death, when the Disorder was near its Height, he called me to his Bedside, and dictated to me an Answer to a Letter, he had re- ceived a few Days before, from T. Jefferson.-Tho' at the time he was in the greatest Agonies-in more Pain than I ever saw him-Tho' it was with great Difficulty that he could breathe-Yet he dictated a Letter of a Folio Page and an half, upon Business that required every Exertion of his Memory and Judgment, without once requiring me to read back what I had written, or obliging me to correct more than one small Error, and yet he has been but a little in the Habit of dictating.-The Letter was as good a one as he ever wrote, notwithstanding the several Difficulties he laboured under at the Time.-From that day he grew worse and worse, and took but little Food" (Bache to Margaret Hartman Markoe, 2 May 1790; RC in PPAP; the Editors are indebted to Whit- field J. Bell, Jr. for calling this letter to their attention). The letter that Franklin signed with a slight tremor but with the characteristically bold signature is indubitable proof that the dying statesman's devotion to affairs of the public was true to the end. Jefferson, perhaps purposely, had refrained from naming the map that he supposed the commissioners had used, but Franklin's memory was also dependable. The sheet that Franklin sent was not the one actually used in the negotiations. See Hunter Miller, Treaties and other international acts, III, 340-1. (Courtesy of the National Archives.) WASHINGTON'S SET OF AMERICAN MEDALS EXECUTED IN FRANCE Of the American medals completed or begun in France before Jeffer- son's departure in 1789, only nine were his ultimate responsibility and it is these that are here illustrated individually (for the history of these medals, see p. 73-8). Shortly after the president returned from services at St. Paul's on Sunday, 21 Mch. 1790, he received the new secretary of state, who had just arrived in the city. Then or shortly thereafter Jefferson handed to Washington the gold medal honoring him and authorized by Congress in 1776. At the same time, presumably, he delivered to the president the gold and silver medals destined for other Revolutionary officers (TJ to Washington, 1 Apr. 1790, note). He also presented a duplicate set in silver, as ordered by Congress. This set was encased in a mahogany box made by Upton, a Parisian cabinet-maker, and no doubt similar to the boxes made for the sets of tin proofs that Jefferson had caused to be struck for himself and for Madison (see p. 77-8). It included all save one of the medals made in France under Jefferson's supervision, plus three others-the Libertas Americana, the 1786 Franklin medal, and that struck in honor of De Fleury. This group of eleven medals was offered for sale to the United States in 1827, but no action was taken when a resolution in the house of representatives proposed to authorize the purchase. More than two decades later Daniel Webster recalled that the proposition at first seemed to be favored and added: "The price was not considered any great object: but a constitutional question arose whether Congress could, without a violation of their duty and obligations, buy that little casket, a relic which came from General Washington's cabinet. It was debated there two or three days, when finally, by a vote of those who were opposed to the constitutional power, it was laid upon the table. I had kept my eye upon it, and when the debate ceased in the House of Representatives I sent and purchased the casket" (Daily National Intelligencer, 25 Jan. 1850; JHR, 19th. Cong., 2d. sess., 23, 24, and 27 Feb. 1827, p. 326, 348-9, 351; on 27 Feb. Everett reported a resolution authorizing the clerk to purchase the medals at a cost not over $500.). This directly contradicts portions of the story repeated by a "confidential and devoted friend" of Webster, Peter Harvey, when he presented the medals to the Massachusetts Historical Society in 1874. The medals had presumably been in Harvey's possession since Webster's death in 1852 (Procs., Mass. Hist. Soc., 1875, p. 287-92). They are still encased in the burled mahogany casket lined with salmon-covered velvet, measuring 9 by 9 inches, that Jefferson brought back on the Clermont in 1789 and they therefore narrowly escaped destruction in the fire that broke out on that vessel when she docked at Norfolk (see Vol. 15: 560, note; communication from Wendell Garrett to the Editors, 16 Mch. 1961; courtesy of the Massachusetts Historical Society). The frequent production of facsimiles and re-strikes of these medals, which has given rise to the erroneous belief that original examples of them are common, may have begun almost immediately after the series was completed. Thomas Wyatt, in his Description of the national medals, of America, presented to the officers of the wars of the Revolu- tion and 1812, published to accompany an 1854 issue of bronze fac- similes of the medals, related a story without giving his authority for it to the effect that one Hyams of London "in the year 1790...cut at his own expense dies of several of the Revolutionary Medals: it is be- lieved that five were executed by him, which accounts for the copper medals of Washington, Howard, Wm. Washington, &c. &c., being occasionally offered for sale in London, but when compared with the originals are soon detected" (Wyatt, Description, New York, 1854, p. [3]; The story was repeated, as having occurred about 1791, by C. H. Hart, in A historical sketch of the national medals issued pursuant to the resolution of Congress, 1776-1815, Philadelphia, 1867, p.[139]). Since the latter half of the 19th century, authorized copies of many of these medals have been struck at the United States Mint, where facsimiles of all of the Revolutionary medals are available. Except for the detailed purposes of the numismatist, one need not go further for an exact description of the medals than Jefferson's own explication (Document III, Notes on American medals made in France, p. 69). In the following notes to the individual medals, in which the obverse is shown on the left and the reverse on the right, the dates given are those of the events commemorated. Unless otherwise indicated, all re- productions are from the silver copies in the Washington group and are reproduced through courtesy of the Massachusetts Historical Society. I. George Washington. Evacuation of Boston, 17 March 1776. The gold original which Jefferson handed to Washington in 1790 descended to a collateral branch of the family, from whom it was purchased in 1876 by fifty citizens for presentation to the City of Boston and placed in the collections of the Boston Public Library. In his study of the medallic portraits of the first president, William S. Baker described this medal by Pierre Simon Benjamin Duvivier (usually designated as Benjamin Duvivier) as being historically and aesthetically the most important of Washington medals. The Boston Public Library also possesses white metal proofs of both sides of this medal. The original dies are in the Musee Monetaire, Paris. The portrait on the obverse is sculptured from the bust by Houdon which Jefferson also commis- sioned (Vol. 15: xxxvii). The high quality of Duvivier's work on this medal won it a place in the Salon of 1789 (William S. Baker, Medallic portraits of Washington, Philadelphia, 1885, p. 27-30; George L. Washington to Daniel Webster, 28 Jan. 1850; affidavit of Louisa Wash- ington, 25 Mch. 1876; deed of ownership, 11 Mch. 1876-all in MB; Loubat, Medallic history, I, xlvi, xlix). For Jefferson's description, see p. 69. II. Horatio Gates. Saratoga, 17 Oct. 1777. The gold example, transmitted to Gates by Washington (p. 77-8), was presented to the New-York Historical Society in 1889 by a descendant of Albert Galla- tion. For Jefferson's description, see p. 70. III. Anthony Wayne. Stony Point, 15 July 1779. In both this and the Stewart medal, Nicolas Marie Gatteaux appropriated as a symbol for the United States the conventional icon used in the 18th century to represent the most recently discovered of the four continents (H. Gravelot, Almanach iconologique, Annee 1770, Sixieme Suite, plate No. 8; James H. Hyde, "L'Iconographie des quatre parties du monde dans les tapisseries," reprint from Gazette des beaux-arts, Nov. 1924; "The Four Parts of the World as represented in Old-time Pageants and Ballets," reprint from Apollo: a journal of the arts, Lon- don, 1927). America is represented as an Indian maiden in a head dress and girdle of feathers, with a bow and full quiver and an alligator as attribute, in accordance with well established convention. But the addition of the striped shield suggests a limitation of the geographical extent of the maiden's dominion, transforming what had been a symbol for both Americas into a specific emblem of the United States (see notes on Morgan and Diplomatic medals). For description, see p. 70. IV. John Stewart. Stony Point, 15 July 1779. See note above on the Wayne medal. For Jefferson's description, see p. 71. v. William Augustine Washington. Cowpens, 17 Jan. 1781. The Washington medal was also included for exhibition in the Salon of 1789. The original dies are in the Musee Monetaire, Paris (Loubat, Medallic history, I, xliv, xlvi). For Jefferson's description, see p. 71. VI. John Eager Howard. Cowpens, 17 Jan. 1781. The Howard medal was also included for exhibition in the Salon of 1789. The original dies are in the Musee Monetaire, Paris (Loubat, Medallic history, I, xlvi, xlix). For Jefferson's description, see p. 72. VII. Nathanael Greene. Eutaw Springs, 8 Sep. 1781. By Augustin Dupre. For Jefferson's description, see p. 72. VIII-XVII. Daniel Morgan. Cowpens, 17 Jan. 1781. More material has survived to document the progress of the design for the Morgan medal than for any of the other medals executed in France under Jef- ferson's supervision. The variety of this material has given rise to questions concerning the relationship of some of these sketches to the final medal and even to speculations that at least one aspect of this variation might be supposed to offer commentary on Jefferson's taste (Carl Zigrosser, "The Medallic Sketches of Augustin Dupre in Ameri- can Collections," Procs., Am. Phil. Soc., 101 [1957], p. 536; Andre Girodie, "Un dessin d'Augustin Dupre pour le medaille du general americain Daniel Morgan," Bulletin des Musees de France, 7e annee, No. 2 [Feb. 1935], p. 24-5). While it is known that Jefferson followed the progress of the medals closely and in one instance asked the Academie des Inscriptions to correct the inscriptions that had been given in 1785 to the Morgan medal (see p. 65), no documentary evidence exists to show any direct influence by him on the design of the medals. The episode illustrates well the characteristic habits of business and dispatch with which he discharged this public responsi- bility, and it is certain that, attentive as he always was to-matters touching the fine arts, he had an alert interest in the artists' conceptions. But the question of influence must rest upon inference, and the hypothesis advanced by Girodie (see below) that one change in the design of the Morgan medal reflected Jefferson's personal taste in a puritanical manner is demonstrably untenable. What appears to be the earliest of Dupre's sketches for the obverse of the Morgan medal is in the collections of the American Philosophical Society (VIII). It depicts America in the conventional icon of the Indian maiden, standing at Morgan's left and holding a laurel crown above the general's head with her right hand. The enemy trophies forming the background include cannon, unfurled standards, a cuirass, and a helmet. But in the finely executed, more finished drawing for the obverse that is in the Musee de Blerancourt (XII), the positions of America and Morgan are reversed, so that the Indian maiden honors the general with her left hand, not her right as had been prescribed by the Academie des Inscriptions. It is to be noted, too, that the figure of the soldier has undergone a striking change: the most obvious and remarkable evidence of this is the plumed hat-a hat which also appears in the sketch of the figure of Morgan that is in the collections of the American Philosophical Society (X). But there are other changes scarcely less striking. The officer's hair is dishevelled, his clothes are baggy and ill-fitting, his boots are sagging and ill-kempt. These char- acteristics are all present in the drawings by Dupre in the Musee de Blerancourt and in the American Philosophical Society (X and XII) and they offer a striking contrast to the trim military figure in VIII. That figure might have been any European officer, but he certainly could never have passed for the slouchy, profane, rough frontier fighter who won at Cowpens. Two inferences are to be drawn from these facts. The first is that the sketch of Morgan in the American Philosophical Society (X) is unmistakably one of the sequence of sketches made by Dupre for the Morgan medal and is clearly preliminary to the finished Blerancourt drawing (XII). The medal as executed (XVI) shows that, though the positions of the Indian maiden and the general are the same as in the Blerancourt drawing, she is crowning him with a wreath of laurel held in her right hand rather than in her left as in the drawing. This led Girodie to conjecture that the handsome form of the maiden in the earlier sketches was rejected by Jefferson as being offensive to the "principes respectables...[du] Congres americain." But this over- looks the fact that the design approved by the Academie des Inscriptions required the figure representing America to crown Morgan with a wreath held in her right hand. It overlooks the even more emphatic contradiction of Girodie's supposition in Jefferson's suggestion made to Dupre through Short in 1790 for the obverse of the Diplomatic medal which called for the use of a "Columbia (a fine female figure)"-a suggestion with which Dupre complied (see notes below). The second inference is that the rumpled hair, the slouchy clothes, and especially the plumed hat of the intermediate sketches represent an effort to achieve a realistic portrait of the distinctive, unmilitary hero of Cowpens. The plumed hat especially suggests this: but it also raises a puzzling question, for a plumed hat of that character belongs to an earlier century and it is doubtful if any like it had been seen in America since the days of the Cavaliers. What this in turn suggests is that Morgan may have worn a feather in his hat to designate his status as an officer, that this was called to Dupre's attention, and that the plumed hat was thus placed in the Blerancourt drawing. But, since no one who knew him could possibly mistake Daniel Morgan for a Cavalier, it is quite understandable that this plumed article should have disappeared from the medal as executed, giving way to a sword, and that the military costume of the soldier should have been made somewhat more correct. But it is to be observed that the tousled hair remained-and that the facial features were greatly strengthened. It seems clear from these circumstances that someone had been urging Dupre to achieve verisimilitude in the likeness and that in the evolution of the design the exaggerated or inappropriate results had been re- jected while the essential characteristics of the head were retained and even accented. If this conjecture is correct, it is plausible to assume further that it was Jefferson who provided the stimulus for these developments in the design. There are several reasons to support this. The first is that no one had more immediate responsibility for supervising the execution of the medals than the American minister. He was in constant touch with Dupre early in 1789, and he was very far from being unaware of the critical reception that might be accorded an inappropriate medal- lic portrait of so individual and recognizable a figure as Morgan. The experience with Houdon had taught him that "statues are made every day from portraits but if the person be living, they are always con- demned by those who know him for a want of resemblance." It had taught him also that "no statue could be executed so as to obtain the approbation of those to whom the figure of the original is known, but on an actual view by the artist" (TJ to Harrison, 12 Jan. 1785). Dis- liking criticism as much as he did and being unable to bring Dupre and the frontier fighter together, Jefferson must have described Mor- gan's distinctive characteristics as best he could. He was the one person in Paris who certainly had a personal knowledge of Morgan, and, in addition to his public responsibility in the matter, he also possessed high admiration for the fighting quality of the "men beyond the moun- tains." If, as is almost certainly the case, Dupre showed him what seems to be the earliest sketch (VIII), Jefferson could scarcely have refrained from pointing out an obvious fact. The soldier being crowned might well have been Banastre Tarleton, the enemy commander at Cowpens, but he assuredly could not have been Daniel Morgan. In view of this it seems plausible to conclude that Jefferson had a direct influence on the design of the Morgan medal. If equally full materials existed for tracing the development of the design of the other medals, it is very likely that these would reveal similar evidences of influence. For on matters of public duty committed to his hands, Jefferson was invariably attentive, patient, and meticulous in his effort to discharge the responsibility. The design of the reverse of the Morgan medal was realized with changes that only refined the first proposal recorded in the sketch (IX) in the American Philosophical Society. The enlarged wax sketch (XI), the raised die of the reverse (XV)-both at the Boston Public Library- the drawing in the Musee de Blerancourt (XIII), and a working proof in soft metal (Fig. 15 in Zigrosser) in the American Philosophical Society differ only in slight details. For Jefferson's description, see p. 72. (Courtesy of the Massachusetts Historical Society, the American Philosophical Society, the Boston Public Library, and the Musee de Blerancourt) XVIII-XXI. John Paul Jones. Engagement of Bon Homme Richard and Serapis, 23 Sep. 1779. The "copy of the medal" which Jefferson pur- chased at Jones's suggestion from Jean Martin Renaud early in 1789 was perhaps a temporary duplication of a unique medallion or a pre- liminary study for a medal which was never struck (Jean Babelon to the Editors, 19 Jan. 1961). Apparently the only depiction of this medallion which has survived is the engraved frontispiece to Andre's biography of Jones (XXI). Jones anticipated that the reverse of this medal could be of use to the artist composing that authorized in his honor by Congress, but he urged that it was "by no means to be Copyed." A comparison of the reverse of the Renaud view of the battle with Dupre's representation of the engagement indicates that Dupre took the latter suggestion seriously (Jones to TJ, 9 Sep. 1788; TJ to Jones, 23 Mch. 1789; Andre, Memoires de Paul Jones, Paris, 1798). Jones' most recent biographer, Samuel Eliot Morison, regards the reverse of the Dupre medal (XIX) as the most accurate visual depiction of the battle, but points out that Renaud's rendition of the scene is nevertheless more accurate in one respect: it correctly shows the Serapis at anchor (Mori- son, John Paul Jones, Boston, 1959, p. 353). Dupre's drawing of the profile of the Houdon bust which the medal- list used for the likeness of Jones on the obverse of the medal survives in the Musee de Blerancourt (XX). The medal is reproduced here (XVIII and XIX) from the bronze example in the Boston Public Library. The original dies are possessed by the Musee Monetaire, Paris (Loubat, Medallic history, I, xlix). For Jefferson's description, see p. 71. In telling Jones of the progress of his medal, Jefferson appraised the artistic competence of the three medallists engaged to execute the American medals in words that are still valid: Dupre, he wrote, was "the best among them" (TJ to Jones, 23 Mch. 1789). He made the same sort of unerring choice of excellence when he selected Houdon for the Washington statue and described him as "being unrivalled in Europe" (TJ to Harrison, 12 Jan. 1785). (Courtesy of the Princeton University Library, the Musee de Bleran- court, and the Boston Public Library; the Editors are particularly in- debted to Howard C. Rice, Jr. for his assistance in connection with the Morgan and the Diplomatic medals) THE DIPLOMATIC MEDAL OF 1790, XXII-XXIX. While Jefferson prepared both verbal and visual descriptions of the design for the reverse of the Diplomatic medal, he left the design for the obverse to the discretion of the medallist. But his suggestion of a "Columbia (a fine female figure) delivering the emblems of peace and commerce to a Mercury, with the legend 'Peace and Commerce' circum- scribed, and the date of our Republic, to wit, IV Jul. MDCCLXXVI. subscribed as an Exerguum" was so carefully followed by Augustin Dupre that it can serve as a description of the obverse of the executed medal (TJ to Short, 30 Apr. 1790). Examples of the medal struck from the original dies, despite an extensive search by Loubat in the 19th century and by the Editors (particularly assisted in this by Howard C. Rice, Jr.) have not been found. The whereabouts of the gold examples struck for La Luzerne and De Moustier are unknown to present members of their families (the medal owned by the Marquis de Vibray and reproduced in Con- tenson, La Societe des Cincinnati de France et la guerre d'Amerique, Paris, 1934, Plate IX, numbers 6 and 7, is one of the copies struck from the 1876 die by Charles Barber). Besides these two gold copies- the only presentations of the medal ever made to foreign diplomats by the United States-eight bronze copies were originally struck. But the subsequent location of only one of these-that owned by Charles I. Bushnell in 1878-has ever been recorded. This example was sold in June of 1882 at the Bushnell Sale, where it was described as a unique specimen. Fortunately it was included among the medals illustrated in the heliotype plates that accompany a special printing of the catalogue of the sale (S. H. and H. Chapman, Catalogue of the celebrated and valuable collection of American coins belonging to the late Charles Ira Bushnell, Philadelphia, 1882). This 1882 heliotype reproduction of the Bushnell copy is reproduced here in the absence of an original ex- ample of the medal (XXVIII and XXIX). The raised die (or "hub" that is the matrix used in producing the final die) of the obverse (xxII), the damaged die of the obverse (XXIV), the die of the reverse (XXV), and the intaglio medallion in plaster (XXVI) are all in the Boston Public Library. The soft medal proof of the reverse (XXVII) is in the Ameri- can Philosophical Society. Although the damaged die for the obverse shows none of the "repairing" promised by Short in his letter to Jefferson of 25 Sep. 1791, this may be the die which "failed, as often happens, in the hardening." Jefferson had noted that the medal which Holland presented to Adams on his departure from his ministry there bore the arms of the Union on one side, and the particular arms of each province on the other" (see note to Document III, p. 366). Both precedent and propriety sug- gested that the arms of the United States, authorized on 15 Sep. 1789 as attributes of the seal of the United States and placed under custody of the secretary of state, could appropriately appear on the reverse of the Diplomatic medal. The act of 1789 made specific provisions for the use of the seal and stated that it "shall not be affixed to any com- mission, before the same shall have been signed by the President of the United States, nor to any other instrument or act, without the special warrant of the President therefor" (U.S. Statutes at Large, I, 68-9). While the use of the arms of the United States as the icono- graphic device of the Diplomatic medal did not, strictly speaking, come under this injunction by which the passing of commissions, acts, and other instruments under the seal was governed, it is nevertheless a fact that Jefferson sought and obtained Washington's approval for making use of the arms in this manner (TJ to Washington, 29 Apr. 1790, note). Jefferson's letter to Short of 30 Apr. 1790 contained not only a careful description of the reverse of the medal but also "several im- pressions in wax, to render that more intelligible." These impressions were undoubtedly identical to that reproduced here, which has been reproduced from the die of 1782 (XXIII; it should be noted that, as secretary of state, Jefferson not only had custody of the seal of the United States but also of the "seal of office," which differed from the former only in the addition of the legend "Secretary of State" [as indi- cated, e.g., in the attestations of the printed Acts of Congress of 28 Aug. 1790 and 25 Feb. 1791 (DLC: Short Papers; VtMS)-both in TJ Editorial Files]). Dupre's pencil sketch and large wax sketch of an eagle in the col- lections of the American Philosophical Society have been related to the Diplomatic medal by Zigrosser (p. 549). But the eagle grasping lightning and fire was a widely-used iconographic device associated exclusively with Benjamin Franklin. A number of engravings, including that published by Bligny on 14 July 1780, document the fact that these two sketches belong to designs executed by Dupre for the Franklin medals. (Courtesy of the Boston Public Library, the American Philosophical Society, and the National Archives) ENGLEHART CRUSE APPLIES FOR A PATENT FOR HIS "PERPETUAL CYLINDER" James B. Pleasants claimed to have made the improvement involved in Cruse's application for a patent, but gave this unlettered mechanician permission to apply in his own name (Pleasants to TJ, 5 May 1790). Cruse applied to Washington in an undated letter to which this draw- ing is attached. The plan for the improved steam engine for applying power directly shows the basic elements of the engine on the left hand page, keyed by letters to their corresponding parts on the right hand page. If any further explanation of the plan was attached to the draw- ing or accompanied Cruse's application to Washington (see p. 413 for a summary of the application), it evidently has not survived. (Courtesy of the National Archives) THE CHARLES RIVER BRIDGE, 1786 The first major bridge across the Charles was completed in June 1786 after thirteen months of work and was considered to be an ac- complishment imposing enough to be marked by a special meeting of the General Court of Massachusetts and by a procession of distinguished public and private persons, by inaugural ceremonies and cannon salutes, and by the initial crossing of the bridge to Charlestown where some 800 people were seated at an improvised table and spent the day in what was described as "sober festivity." The bridge was distinguished for its length (over 1500 feet) and for the machinery of the draw- bridge, which required only two men to operate. This remarkable evidence of progress-occurring, it should be noted, in the year of Shays' Rebellion-became even more impressive to Jefferson in June 1790 when Lemuel Cox, the builder, described to the new secretary of state his method of preserving timbers. Jefferson was so captivated by the overflowing "spring of invention" manifested in the activity of Cox and other applicants for patents that he at once transmitted the information to Benjamin Vaughan so that it could be passed on to the Royal Society. Cox's idea of impregnating the timber of his bridges with oil, Jefferson explained to Vaughan on 27 June 1790, was prompted by the observation that "whaling vessels would be eaten to a honeycomb except a little above and below water where the whale is brought into contact with the vessel and lies beating against it until it is cut up." For the Charles River bridge Cox had used "the liver oil of the codfish." At the time of Cox's visit to Jefferson, the bridge builder may have only recently returned to the United States. For the Massachusetts Magazine had reported the previous September that "Mr. Cox, the master builder, is now employed in a foreign kingdom, to construct a bridge upon nearly similar principles; and employed by those, who a few years since, held Americans upon a par with savages" (Massachu- setts Magazine, I [Sep. 1789], 533-4). Thus early did the technological influence of such Americans as Cox, Rumsey, Paine, and others move eastward, and among them all, of course, the name of Franklin stood first. The view here reproduced is an engraving by Samuel Hill, taken from Atkin's Wharf. It appeared in the Massachusetts Magazine, I (Sep. 1789), 533.

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