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Table of Contents of
The Papers of Thomas Jefferson
Volume 13

edited by
Julian P. Boyd


© 1950 - <2001> Princeton University Press

Reproduced 2003 with permission of the publisher

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CONTENTS

{ 1788 } continued
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y
Note on the Format ILLUSTRATIONS
A Adams, John, letter to, 454 Aleaume, letter from, 520 American trade, 52-91: Jefferson's Suppressed Article in His Observations on Calonne's Letter of 22 October 1786, 56; Rapport sur le Commerce des Etats-Unis de l'Amerique avec la France, 15 October 1787, 57; Memoire pour des Negocians de L'Orient, Interesses au Commerce des Etats-Unis; contre la Ferme Generale, 75 Americans Travelling in Europe, Jefferson's Hints to, 264 Amoureux, M., letters from, 284, 657; letter to, 428 Appleton, Nathaniel, letter from, 207 Appleton, Thomas, letters from, 367, 421, 543; letters to, 429, 560 Arret du Conseil d'Etat du Roi, 22 February 1788, 197 Ast, William Frederick, letter to, 256 B Baldwin, Abraham, letter from, 96 Bancroft, Edward, letters from, 285, 606; letter to, 543 Banister, John, Jr., letters to, 302, 422, 483, 602 Barclay, Mary, letter from, 474; letters to, 435, 478 Barclay, Thomas, letter from, 253; letter to, 492 Barrell, Colborn, letter from, 627 Barrett, Nathaniel, letter from, 523 Barziza, letter to, 314 Barziza, Lucy Paradise, letter to, 314 Beaulieu, Louis Joseph de, letter from, 254 Beef, contract to supply American, to the French government, see Swan, James Bellini, Charles, letter to, 415 Bergasse, H. & L., Freres, letter from, 648 Bernard, Joseph, letter to, 501 Bernstorff, letter to, 257 Bert, Claudius de, letters from 214, 237; letter to, 228 Bingham, Anne Willing, letter to, 151 Blan, letter from, 604 Blome, letter to, 294 Bondfield, John, letters from, 96, 296, 416, 485, 526; letter to, 171 Boyd, Ker & Co., letter from, 149 Brailsford & Morris, letter to, 367 Brehan, Madame de, letter to, 149 Brionne, Madame de, letter from, 553 Brissot de Warville, letter to, 207 Brissot de Warville, Madame, letter from, 360 Brocqueville, Migneron de, letter from, 493; letter to, 560 Broucq, Freres & Soeurs, letter from, 151 Brown, John, letter from, 494; letter to, 211 Burwell, Nathaniel, letter to, 570 C Cabanis, letter to, 110 Calonne, see American trade Cambray, letters from, 244, 479, 641; letters to, 215, 259, 662 Carmichael, James, letter to, 532 Carmichael, William, letters from, 91, 113, 142, 176, 215, 239, 398, 509, 576, 643; letters to, 229, 502 Carnes, Burrill, letters from, [249], 657 Carr, Peter, letter to, 470 Carra, letter from, 113 Carrington, Edward, letters from, 100, 156, 172, 244, 495; letter to, 208 Castaing, Pierre, letter from, 217; letters to, 155, 228 Cathalan, Stephen, Jr., letters from, 95, 249 Cathalan, Stephen, Sr., letter from, 330; letters to, 180, 356 (note), 507 Chamillard, letter from, 282; letter to, 299 Chastel, letter from, [640] Chaumont, Leray de, letter from, 286 Chiappe, Francisco, letter from, 526 Chiappe, Giuseppe, letters from, 200, 400; letter to, 508 Church, Angelica Schuyler, letter from, 391; letters to, 422, 520, 623 Claiborne, Richard, letter from, 308 Claviere, Etienne, letters from, 281, 319, 600; Observations sur le Tableau, 320 Clerici, Gaudenzio, letters from, 426, 480, 553, 558; letters to, 356 (note), 456, 554 Coffyn, Francis, letter from, 123; letter to, 111 Collow Freres, Carmichael & Co., letter to, 417 Commerce, American, see American trade Commissioners of the United States Treasury, letters from, 307, 393; letters to, 123, 168, 574, 637 Cordon, letter from, 312 Cosway, Maria, letters from, 114, 287, 360, 524; letters to, 103, 423, 435, 638 Coulon, letter to, 548 Coxe, William, Jr., letter from, to John Brown Cutting, 3 Crevecoeur, St. John de, letter to, 485 Cutting, John Brown, letters from, 290, 331, 401, 461, 480, 509, 514, 535, 549, 571, 608, 629, 643, 658, 659, 662; letters to, 315, 403, 427, 471, 538, 565, 579, 632, 649; letter to, from William Coxe, Jr., 3 D Dal Verme, Francis, letters to, 356, 605 Darcel, Nicolas, letter to, 429 Derieux, J. P. P., letter to, 418 Digges, Thomas, letter from, 153; letter to, 260 Diriks, Jacob Gerrit, letter from, 302; letter to, 303 Drayton, William, letter to, 368 Duer, William, letter from, 109 Dugnani, letter from, 346; letter to, 339 Dumas, C. W. F., letters from, 220, 279, 407, 439, 453, 474, 481, 511, 547, 597, 601, 613, 639; letters to, 159, 246, 436, 438, 439, 558, 646 E Eppes, Elizabeth Wayles, letter to, 347 Eppes, Francis, letter to, 327 European travel, see Americans Travelling in Europe F Fabbroni, Giovanni, letter to, 356 (note) Fanning, James, letter to, 430 Farmers-general, see American trade Feger, Gramont & Cie., letter from, 526 Foulloy, letters from, 313, 316; letters to, 308, 323 Framery, letter from, 116 French Council of State, see Arret, 22 February 1788 G Gallimard, letter from, 303; letter to, 430 Gautier, letter from, 316; letter to, 391 Geismar, letter from, 527; letter to, 356 (note) Gerna, Anthony, letter to, 177 Gordon, William, letters from, 105, 317, 515; letters to, 362, 560 Gouvion, Jean Baptiste de, letter from, 155 Grand, Ferdinand, letter to, 293 Grand & Cie., letters from, 159, 242, 297, 329, 393, [419] Griffin, Cyrus, letter to, 120 Guiraud & Portas, letter to, 297 H Hall, Edward, Jr., letter to, 529 Holland, see Tour through Holland and the Rhine Valley Homberg & Homberg Freres, letter from, 221; letter to, 299 Hopkinson, Francis, letters from, 38, 369; letters to, 144, 309 Houdetot, Madame d', letter from, 546; letter to, 294 Huger, Daniel, see South Carolina Delegates in Congress I Ingenhousz, Jan, letter from, 487; letter to, 261 Izard, Ralph, letter to, 372 J Jay, John, letters from, 105, 164, 247, 630; letters to, 133, 161, 188, 222, 432, 463, 496, 499, 529, 564, 569, 632 Jones, John Paul, letters from, 44, 580, 585; letter from, to Lafayette, 582; letter from, to William Short, 587 Jones, William, letter from, 251; letter to, 324 K Knox, Henry, letter from, 182 Koenig, Amand, letters from, 203, 240, 411; letters to, 182, 300, 536 L Labat, Pierre de, letter from, 664 La Blancherie, letter from, 116; letter to, 111 Lacretelle, Pierre Louis, letter to, [619] Lafayette, letter from, 348; letter to, from John Paul Jones, 582 La Lande, letters from, 152, 326 Lanchon Freres & Cie., letter from, 641 La Luzerne, see Arret, 22 February 1788 Langeac, letter from, [641] La Rouerie, letters from, 605, 617; letter to, 614 Laurent, Julien, letter to, 432 Laye, Espinay de, letter from, 97 Ledyard, John, letters from, 305, 516, 594 Lee, Arthur, see Commissioners of the Treasury Le Roy, letter from, 647 Lewis, Francis, letter to, 121 Lewis, Nicholas, letter to, 339 Limozin, Andre, letters from, 47, 184, 240, 282, 288, [301], 357, 388, 419, 425, 471, 482, 524, 661; letters to, 137, 172, 255, 298, 344, 365, 419, 437, 533, 573 Lincoln, Benjamin, letter from, 512 Livingston, Walter, see Commissioners of the Treasury L'Orient, see American trade M McCaul, Alexander, letter from, 512; letter to, 349 Madison, James, letters from, 98, 412, 497, 539, 624; letters to, 121, 129, 201, 440, 469 Madison, the Rev. James, letter to, 379 Marks, Anna Jefferson, letter to, 350 Marks, Hastings, letter to, 350 Mason, George, letters from, 204, 392 Mason, John, letter from, 541; letter to, 561 Meier & Cie., letter from, 119; letter to, 433 Monroe, James, letters from, 49, 351; letter to, 488 Montgomery, Dorcas, letter from, 164 Montgomery, Robert, letter from, 252; letter to, 256 Montmorin, letter from, 490; letters to, 438, 450, 598 Motture, letter to, 252 Moustier, letter from, 504; letters to, 173, 491 Murphy, Teresa, letter from, [313] N Nesbitt, Jonathan, letter from, 561 O O'Bryen, Richard, letters from, 229, [241], [627] Osborn, Frances, letter from, 569 Osgood, Samuel, see Commissioners of the Treasury P Paine, Thomas, letters from, 4, 222, 225, 227, 254, 587; letter to, 307 Paradise, John, letters from, 301, [615]; letters to, 366, 374, 472; Jefferson's Affidavit concerning, 309; power of attorney for, drafted by Jefferson, 473 Paradise, Lucy Ludwell, letters from, 457, 522, 533, 599, 601, 602; letters to, 537, 566, 599, 603; Jefferson's Affidavit concerning, 309 Parker, John, see South Carolina Delegates in Congress Parmentier, letter to, 469 Payne, Thomas, letter to, 650 Petry, Jean Baptiste, letter to, 535 Peuchen, Jean Jacques, letter from, 107; letters to, 43, 537 Pigott, Robert, letter to, 235 Plants and cones of Virginia and Carolina, list of, see Tesse, Madame de Platiere, Imbert de la, letter from, 118 Poison, John, letter from, 388; letter to, 433 Price, Richard, letter from, 119; letter to, 344 R Ramsay, David, letters to, 138, 542 Randolph, Edmund, letters to, 122, 166, 304 Rayneval, letter to, 648 Rhine Valley, see Tour through Holland and the Rhine Valley Rieger, letter from, 100 Robertson, William, letter from, 640; letter to, 648 Russell-Greaves, Thomas, letter from, 616 Rutledge, Edward, letter to, 377 Rutledge, John, Jr., letters from, 138, 282, 318, 454, 530, 551, 567, 631; letters to, 124, 262, 358, 506, 593, 615 Rutledge, John, letters from, 41, 426, [492], [549], [594]; letter to, 374 S Sarsfield, letter from, 211 Sasserno, Andre de, letter to, 356 (note) Schweighauser & Dobree, letters from, 361, 517; letters to, 295, 390 Secretary for Foreign Affairs. See Jay, John Shippen, Thomas Lee, letters from, 218, 311, 355, 444, 514, 627; letters to, 276, 359, 642 Shippen, William, letter from, 100; letter to, 146 Short, William, letters from, 41, [47], [107], 634, 652; letters to, 48, [96], 619, 634; letter to, from John Paul Jones, 587; letter to, from William Tatham, 621 Smith, William Stephens, letter to, 458 South Carolina Delegates in Congress, letter from, 107 Stiles, Ezra, letter from, 118 Stockdale, John, letter from, 518; letters to, 177, 366, 375 Swan, James, letters from, 242, 313, [658]; letter to, 278; Proposals for Supplying American Beef, &c. to the French Government, 383 T Tagnerette, Dubu de la, letter from, 237 Tatham, William, letter from, [659]; letter from, to William Short, 621 Terrasson, Antoine, letters from, 117, 475; letter to, 140 Tesse, Madame de, letters from, 110, 187, 476; letter to, 108; list of plants and cones of Virginia and South Carolina, 476; sent by Jefferson to John Banister, Jr., 484 Thomson, Charles, letters to, 122 (2) Tobacco, see American trade Tour through Holland and the Rhine Valley, Notes of a, 8 Trade, American, see American trade Treasury, U.S. Commissioners of the, see Commissioners of the Treasury Trumbull, John, letters from, 140, 199, 241, 279, 288, 345, 434, 519, 563, 570; letters to, 178, 213, 300, 304, 376, 415, 428, 545, 597, 656 Tucker, Thomas Tudor, see South Carolina Delegates in Congress U Unger, Johann Ludwig de, letter from, 151 Unidentified recipient, letter to, 281 United States. See Commissioners of the Treasury; Secretary for Foreign Affairs V Van Damme, letter from, 289; letters to, 181, 420 Van der Schreul, letter from, [319] Vanet, letters from, 617, 640; letter to, 604 Van Staphorst, Nicolas & Jacob, letters from, 147, 185, 301, 477, 575; letters to, 44, 167, 284, 421. See also Willink & Van Staphorst Van Staphorst, Nicolas, letters to, 213, 559. See also Willink & Van Staphorst Vaudreuil, letter to, 182 Vaughan, Benjamin, letters from, 36, 112, 241, 346, 459; letter to, 394 Vernes, Jacob, letter from, 50 Vernon, letter from, 478; letter to, 506 Vitre, letter from, 631 W Walter, Gerard, letter to, 183 Washington, George, letter from, 554; letter to, 124 Whale oil. See American trade Willard, Joseph, letter from, 637 Willink & Van Staphorst, letters from, 149, 188, 294, 568, 600; letters to, 170 (2), 257, 552, 657. See also Van Staphorst, Nicolas & Jacob Wyld, Henry, letter from, 183 Wythe, George, letter from, 329 Y Young, Moses, letter to, 237
ILLUSTRATIONS
FACING PAGE "THE CHIME OF AMSTERDAM WESTCHURCH" 16 This bit of musical annotation was evidently made by Jefferson when he was in Amsterdam in March 1788, but was set down on a separate slip of paper instead of being incorporated into his draft of notes on other observations he made while he was in that city (Notes of a Tour, &c., p. 8-12). The Westerkerk, built between 1620 and 1631, is situated between the Keizersgracht and the Prinsen- gracht and between Leliegracht and Reestraat, facing on Keizersgracht. The chimes are located in the tower, which was described in 1793 as "surpassing all the others of the city in height and in beauty" (Le guide d'Amsterdam, Amsterdam, 1793, p. 182-4). The manuscript is in DLC: TJ Papers, 233:41789. (Courtesy of the Library of Con- gress.) WINE LIST OF JOHN ADAM DICK & SON 16 This price list, in DLC: TJ Papers, 234:42007-9, is the one to which Jefferson refers in his Notes of a Tour as "the annexed bill of prices current" (p. 21, 34). Jefferson there describes John Adam Dick as "keeper of the Rothen-house tavern at Francfort, a great wine merchant, who has be- tween 3. and 400. tons of wine in his cellars" (p. 20); see also his comments in Hints to Americans Travelling in Europe, p. 266. (Courtesy of the Library of Congress.) PRELIMINARY SKETCHES FOR THE MOLDBOARD PLOW 16 It is possible to date with precision these exploratory sketches which represent the very beginning of Jefferson's life-long effort to achieve an improved method of construct- ing an efficient moldboard for this elemental instrument of agriculture. On 19 Apr. 1788, on his journey from Stras- bourg to Meaux, Jefferson observed: "The awkward figure of their mould board leads one to consider what should be it's form" (p. 27, 34-5). Under 23 Apr. 1788 he entered the following in his Account Book: "Espagnol's expenses 44. by a note he now gives in." The "note" contained a list of miscellaneous expenses made by Jefferson's servant, Espagnol, between Strasbourg and Meaux, and it is on the verso of this memorandum that Jefferson made these exploratory sketches. This observing traveller, who also had time under the slow means of travel in the 18th century to contemplate a technological improvement that would develop into one of his major contributions to the welfare of mankind, thus afforded the evidence by which we can be fairly certain that these preliminary sketches were set down sometime during the day of 23 Apr. 1788. For that evening Jefferson arrived in Paris to face a great accumulation of business and, as he ex- pressed it to Maria Cosway, "a bushel of letters presented ...by way of reception" (TJ to Maria Cosway, 24 Apr. 1788). The observing traveller changed abruptly to the busy diplomat with little time for technological speculation; but the seed that had been planted in Champagne would continue to germinate and would flower in Albemarle. See Jefferson's diagrams and description of his proposed method, p. 27; see also, Betts, Farm Book, p. 47-64. As indicated in the notes to Jefferson's Notes of a Tour through Holland, the draft or basic text was actually com- posed en route and then altered and rearranged later. In that draft the description and diagrams of Jefferson's pro- posed method of making a moldboard are set down under date of 19 Apr.-and are in finished form. This concluding part of Jefferson's Notes could not, of course, have been put down in such finished form a week before Jefferson made his first tentative calculations on the verso of Espa- gnol's memorandum of expenses. That memorandum therefore, in addition to its value in dating Jefferson's calculations, proves that the final two pages of the draft of the Notes were revised and made into a fair copy of some now missing rough notes. This revision may have taken place around mid-June when Jefferson utilized his Notes of a Tour for the travel hints that he sent to Rut- ledge and Shippen. (Courtesy of the Massachusetts Histor- ical Society.) "HET WAPEN VAN AMSTERDAM," JEFFERSON'S HOTEL IN AMSTERDAM 16 This lithograph by Desguerrois after a drawing by Arton was executed ca. 1830, but represents nevertheless "The Amsterdam Arms" (right) much as the hostelry appeared when Jefferson stayed there from 10 March to 30 March 1788. In his Account Book, 29 March 1788, he recorded a payment of 187 florins for "entertainment at the Waping van Amsterdam"; in the travel memorandum subsequently prepared for Rutledge and Shippen, 19 June 1788, he noted: "At Amsterdam I lodged at the Wapping van Amsterdam. I liked the Valet de place they furnished me. He spoke French, and was sensible and well informed, his name was Guillaume or William" (p. 264). The building, although no longer used as a hotel and considerably modi- fied, is still standing at the corner of Rusland and the Kloveniersburgwal. (Courtesy of the Prentenkabinet, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, through Howard C. Rice, Jr.) HOPE'S HOUSE, HAARLEM 16 This view of "Welgelegen" in the Wood of Haarlem, a country house belonging to the Amsterdam banker, Henry Hope, was engraved by Chr. Haldenwang (1792) after a drawing made by H. P. Schouten in 1791. The house, completed in 1788, was built by Jean-Baptiste Dubois (b. 1762), a Flemish architect, from plans drawn by Friquetti, Sardinian consul. In 1808 Hope's "Paviljoen" was sold to Louis Napoleon, King of Holland, who signed his act of abdication there on 1 July 1810. The estate later became national property; the house, located in the Fred- eriks Park facing the Haarlem Wood, is now the seat of the North Holland provincial government. Jefferson, who visited Hope's House on 20 March 1788, included a de- scription and sketch of it in his travel memoranda (p. 11-12). The "separation between the middle building and wings in the upper story has a capricious appearance, yet a pleasing one," Jefferson thought; this appearance was subsequently altered by the complete removal of the "wings in the upper story." Hope's House-a cousin to the houses by Chalgrin, Clerisseau, Ledoux, and others that Jefferson admired in France-is a characteristic example of the con- temporary neo-classic style that he later fostered and prac- ticed in the United States. (Courtesy of the Prentenkabinet, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, through Howard C. Rice, Jr.) JEFFERSON'S HOTEL IN STRASBOURG, AND HIS BILL FOR LODGINGS THERE 17 The hotel where Jefferson stayed during his brief sojourn in Strasbourg, 16-18 April 1788 (p. 25-6; 267)--depicted in an engraving executed about 1790 by Benjamin Zix (1772-1811)-was situated on the embankment of the river Ill, facing the Pont Saint-Nicolas, not far from the Douane or Kaufhaus (extreme right of the picture), the center of river trade. It was one of the city's oldest hostel- ries, known in the Middle Ages as the "Hospitium zu dem Heiligen Geist" and celebrated by later generations as the place where Herder and Goethe met in 1770, which con- tinued to receive travellers until the 1830's. Although the Pont Saint-Nicolas now occupies a site slightly to the right of the one shown in Zix's engraving, and although certain of the houses were destroyed in the 1930's to make way for a new thoroughfare (the Rue de la Division Leclerc), the characteristic silhouettes of many of the buildings along the Ill, with the cathedral looming in the background, can still be identified. A narrow street leading away from the embankment-the Ruelle de l'Esprit-pre- serves the name of the former hotel. (View of the hotel: courtesy of the Cabinet des Estampes, Musees de la Ville de Strasbourg, through Howard C. Rice, Jr. Bill for lodg- ings: courtesy of the Massachusetts Historical Society.) AMAND KOENIG'S BOOKSHOP IN STRASBOURG 17 This "true delineation" was painted in gouache in a "Stammbuch," or friendship album, about 1762, by Jean- Georges Treuttel, who has represented himself seated in the center, with his two close friends: Jean-Daniel Lorentz, a theological student, at the left; and Georges-Jacques Eissen, recently promoted Master of Arts, at the right. Treuttel, a brother-in-law of Amand Koenig and then an apprentice-clerk in the shop, later founded the publishing and bookselling' firm of Treuttel & Wurtz. Although Koenig himself is not shown, his initials appear on the bundle of books in the foreground, and a Latin pun on his name is included in the inscription at the top of the page. According to Jefferson, who made purchases in Koenig's shop during his brief visit to Strasbourg in April 1788- and subsequently by correspondence-"Koenig ... has the best shop of classical books I ever saw" (p. 267). When Treuttel's sketch was drawn and when TJ visited it, Koenig's bookshop was situated in the Rue des Grandes Arcades at the corner of the Rue des Hallebardes; the build- ing, which was destroyed by aerial bombardment in 1944, has now been replaced by a modern structure occupied (1956) by a department store, La Belle Jardiniere. (Courtesy of the Cabinet des Estampes, Musees de la Ville de Strasbourg, through Howard C. Rice, Jr.) JOHN TRUMBULL'S SKETCHES OF THE RHINE IN THE VICINITY OF MAINZ 448 The sketches which John Trumbull made when he de- scended the Rhine in 1786 are reproduced here from his Autobiography (N.Y., London, and New Haven, 1841). Of the electoral palace, Trumbull wrote: "on the bank of the Rhine, stands the electoral palace, externally an old, irregular Gothic building; the interior is said to be decent, not magnificent; I did not enter it, but made a slight draw- ing of the river front" (Autobiography, p. 17). On 23 Sep. 1786 he embarked at Mainz for Cologne in a "batteau with oars and an awning," from which he made the second sketch of "Elvent" (Eltville?). He described the morning as "fine, the sky and the river clear and undisturbed," and "the country surrounding us rich, various, and bright; the banks of the river covered with villages, and boats and barges crossing and recrossing" (same, p. 130; see also Trumbull to TJ, 9 Oct. 1786, 10: 438-41). Undoubtedly Trumbull's journey influenced Jefferson, not only in deter- mining his own course along the Rhine, but also in shaping his advice on an itinerary for Shippen and Rutledge. For Jefferson's observations on this region, see p. 18-22; 265-6. PORTRAIT OF MARIA COSWAY BY RICHARD COSWAY 449 Of the number of portraits of Maria Cosway painted by her husband, Richard Cosway, this miniature portrait, or a variation of it, may have been executed while the Cosways were in Paris, for Jefferson must have seen it before he wrote to Mrs. Cosway on 27 July 1788: "with none do I converse more fondly than with my good Maria: not her under the poplar, with the dog and string at her girdle..." (p. 423-4). (Courtesy of The Henry E. Huntington Li- brary and Art Gallery.) "THE HOURS," BY BARTOLOZZI AFTER A PAINTING BY MARIA COSWAY 449 In his letter to Mrs. Cosway, quoted above, Jefferson con- tinued: "...but the Maria who makes the Hours her own, who teaches them to dance for us in so charming a round, and lets us think of nothing but her who renders them si gracieuses. Your Hours, my dear friend, are no longer your own. Every body now demands them; and were it possible for me to want a memorandum of you, it is presented to me in every street of Paris" (p. 423-4). In 1783 Maria Cos- way exhibited a painting of "The Hours" in the Royal Academy in London, No. 261 in the catalogue (Algernon Graves, The Royal Academy of Arts. A Complete Dic- tionary of Contributors and Their Work, London, 1905- 06, II, 174). Francesco Bartolozzi apparently used this painting for his engraving of "The Hours" which appeared as Plate No. 1, dated 4 Apr. 1788, in a portfolio published by Thomas Macklin in London in 1788, entitled British Poets (A. W. Tuer, Bartolozzi and His Works, London, [1881], II, 106-7). It is not certain whether the print that Jefferson saw "suspended against the walls of the Quai des Augustins, the Boulevards, the Palais royale &c. &c. with a 'Maria Cosway delint.' at the bottom," was that by Barto- lozzi or was another by some other engraver. (Courtesy of the New York Public Library.) MADAME DE TESSE'S GARDENS AT CHAVILLE 480 This plan of the De Tesses' country estate at Chaville, on the road to Versailles, and the view of one of the garden ornaments there are both taken from G. L. Lerouge's Jardins Anglo-Chinois (Cahiers XI, III), a series of plates issued periodically in parts beginning in 1777. The fashionable "English gardens" depicted in Lerouge's com- pilation, many of which Jefferson saw and admired when he was in Europe, were inspired in part by Thomas Whately's Observations on Modern Gardening, a volume which Jefferson acquired early in life, which inspired his early dreams for the grounds at Monticello, and which he used on his tour through the gardens of England (Marie Kimball, Jefferson: the Road to Glory, p. 160-5; Vol. 9: 369-75). "Modern gardens" required exotic trees and shrubs and Jefferson was tireless in his efforts to procure plants from America for his friends in France, including Mme. de La Rochefoucauld, Boutin, Malesherbes, but especially for Mme. de Tesse (see p. 108, 110, 187, 476, 484). THE RECEPTION OF THE AMBASSADORS OF TIPOO SAHIB BY LOUIS XVI, 10 AUGUST 1788. 481 This contemporary engraving is not sufficiently inclusive to convey an accurate impression of the audience which Jefferson reported to John Jay as an occasion of "unusual pomp," and the "presence so numerous that little could be caught of what they said to the king, and he answered to them" (p. 497). Jefferson was accurate in his surmise that "nothing more passed than mutual assurances of good will," although there had been speculation about the pur- pose of the event and much preparation at court for it (p. 464, 467, 479, 492). Perhaps if Madame de Brehan had been present, as Jefferson wrote to Moustier (p. 494), to paint what he called "this jeu d'enfants" she might have done justice to the pomp and color. Tipoo Sahib (Tipu Sultan, 1753-1799) was the son of Haidar Ali and suc- ceeded his father as the sultan of Mysore in 1782. "On the conclusion of the treaty with the Madras Government at Mangalore in 1784, Tipu, inflated with notions of his own prowess, and inspired with hostile feelings against the English, was most anxious to unite himself closely with the French, by whose assistance he hoped to subvert the power he both feared and hated. With this object he sent an embassy, which was instructed, after sounding the views of the Sublime Porte, to repair to France to secure the co-operation of that Government. But the reception which his envoys met with at Constantinople, where Tipu's name had probably never been heard of, was so unfavour- able, that they returned in a rage. In 1787 a second em- bassy, headed by Muhammad Darvesh Khan, was des- patched direct to Paris, where the delegates were received most graciously by Louis XVI and hospitably entertained. Louis was himself, however, environed by domestic diffi- culties, and the cataclysm which shortly afterwards over- whelmed his country was rapidly approaching. He therefore contented himself with profuse promises of future support, and the ambassadors returned to India, discredited, to meet the wrath of their master" (L. B. Bowring, Haidar Ali and Tipu Sultan [Oxford, 1899, Rulers of India, W. W. Hunter, ed., XI], p. 137-8). (Courtesy of the Cabinet des Estampes, Bibliotheque Na- tionale, through Howard C. Rice, Jr.) MADAME DE BREHAN'S SKETCH OF NEW YORK HARBOR 481 Jefferson expressed a high regard for Mme. de Brehan's ability as an artist and, at various times, mentioned her interest in painting. In his first letter to her after her arrival in America early in 1788, he wrote: "The season is now approaching when you will be able to go and visit the magnificent scenes which nature has formed upon the Hudson, and to make them known to Europe by your pencil" (p. 150). The "Vue de Paulus hook prise de l'apartement de Mde. la Mquise. de Brehan a Newyork," here reproduced, is a water-color drawing. It has generally been dated ca. 12 Oct. 1789 on the assumption that the ship in the foreground is probably the French frigate l'Active which was in New York on 11 and 12 Oct. 1789. However, since George Washington sent letters, dated 13 and 14 Oct. 1789, to persons in France, by Moustier, in- dicating that he and Mme. de Brehan were on the point of departure for France at that time, it is possible that the sketch was made sometime in 1788 or earlier in 1789 and that it was made from one of the upper windows of her residence on Broadway, near the Bowling Green. See I. N. Phelps Stokes, The Iconography of Manhattan Island, N.Y., 1928, v, 1255; VI, Pl. 90; I. N. Phelps Stokes and Daniel C. Haskell, American Historical Prints, N.Y., 1933, p. 35; Washington, Writings, ed. Fitzpatrick, XXX, 437, 439, 448. (Courtesy of the New York Public Library.)

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