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Table of Contents of
The Papers of Thomas Jefferson
Volume 10

edited by
Julian P. Boyd


© 1950 - <2001> Princeton University Press

Reproduced 2003 with permission of the publisher

Table of Contents, All Volumes   |  Catalog record and links to related information from the Library of Congress catalog
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CONTENTS

Guide to Editorial Apparatus vii Jefferson Chronology 2
{ 1786 } continued
June 22-30 July August September October November December ILLUSTRATIONS
June 22-30 The Article on the United States in the Encyclopedie Methodique 3 I. Answers to Demeunier's First Queries, 24 January 11 II. Additional Queries, with Jefferson's Answers [ca. January-February] 20 III. From Jean Nicolas Demeunier [February?] 30 IV. Jefferson's Observations on Demeunier's Manuscript, 22 June 30 V. To Jean Nicolas Demeunier [26 June] 61 VI. From Jean Nicolas Demeunier [26 June] 64 To John Adams, 23 June 65 From Madame d'Houdetot, 23 June 66 From John Bondfield, 24 June 66 From John Adams, 25 June 68 From Lucy Ludwell Paradise, 25 June 69 To Rayneval, 25 June 70 From John Adams, 26 June 70 From Thomas Barclay to the American Commissioners, 26 June 71 To Thomas Elder, 26 June 72 From David Rittenhouse, 26 June 73 To Du Portail and Others, 27 June 73 To John Paul Jones, 27 June 74 From John Paradise, with Enclosure, 27 June 75 From Taher Fennish to the American Commissioners [28 June] 76 From Francis Hopkinson, 28 June 77 From John Adams, 29 June 79 From Robert Murdoch, 29 June 79 From Pierre Castaing, 30 June 81 From St. Victour & Bettinger, 30 June 81 From Samuel Chase, June 82 July From Ralph Izard, 1 July 83 From Lefevre, Roussac & Cie., 1 July 85 From Du Portail, 2 July 85 From John Adams, 3 July 86 From Henry Champion, 3 July 87 Court of Naples to De Pio, 4 July 88 From John Paul Jones, 4 July 88 From Maupin, 4 July 89 From Madame de Doradour, 5 July 90 To Ebenezer Gearey, Jr., 5 July 91 To John Paul Jones, 5 July 91 From William Stephens Smith, 5 July 92 From Duperre Delisle and St. John de Crevecoeur, 7 July 92 From John Paul Jones, with Enclosure, 7 July 93 To John Lamb, 7 July 95 American Commissioners to John Lamb, 29 June 96 From John Ledyard, 7 July 97 From Abbe Gibelin, 8 July 98 To John Jay, 8 July 99 To William H. Sargeant, 8 July 101 From Charles Thomson, 8 July 102 To John Adams, 9 July 105 From James Currie, 9 July 107 To James Monroe, 9 July 111 From Thomas Smith, 9 July 115 To William Stephens Smith, 9 July 115 To Charles Burney, 10 July 117 To Abbe Gibelin, 10 July 119 To John Paul Jones, 10 July 119 From John Paul Jones, 10 July 120 [To John Ledyard, 10 July] 120 [To Maupin, 10 July] 120 To John Paradise, 10 July 120 To Lucy Ludwell Paradise, 10 July 121 To David Ramsay, 10 July 122 [To Rayneval, 10 July] 122 To John Adams, 11 July 123 From Lewis Alexander, 11 July 125 To Mary Barclay, 11 July 126 To St. John de Crevecoeur, 11 July 127 To Ferdinand Grand, 11 July 128 To John Paul Jones, 11 July 129 From Lefevre, Roussac & Cie., 11 July 129 From De Pinto, 11 July 129 From Ferdinand Grand, 12 July 130 From Lewis Littlepage, 12 July 130 From Richard O'Bryen, 12 July 131 From Edmund Randolph, 12 July 133 From John Banister, Jr., 14 July 134 From John Jay, 14 July 134 From John Bondfield, 15 July 136 From William Carmichael, 15 July 137 From John Lamb, 15 July 139 From John Adams, 16 July 140 Thomas Barclay to the American Commissioners, 16 July 141 From Cambray, 16 July 142 From James Monroe, 16 July 142 To Lafayette, with Enclosure, 17 July 145 From John Banister, 18 July 148 From William Carmichael, 18 July 149 From John Lamb, 18 July 151 From William Stephens Smith, 18 July 152 From Giovanni Fabbroni, 20 July 155 From Maupin, 20 July 156 From Madame de Tesse, 20 July 157 From Madame de Tott, 20 July 160 From James Bowdoin, 22 July 160 To Francis Eppes, 22 July 160 To the Governor of Virginia, 22 July 161 From Abigail Adams, 23 July 161 To John Banister, Jr., 24 July 162 From Boyetet, 24 July 163 To Andre Limozin, 24 July 164 From Dumoulin de Seille & Son, 24 July 164 To John Stockdale, 24 July 165 From Eliza House Trist, 24 July 166 [From John Banister, Jr., 27 July] 170 To John Ledyard, 27 July 170 From St. Lambert, 27 July 171 [To John Stockdale, 27 July] 172 To Boyetet, 28 July 172 From Stephen Cathalan, Jr., 28 July 173 From John Paradise, 28 July 174 From Charles Thomson, 30 July 175 From John Adams, 31 July 176 From William Carmichael, 31 July 178 Thomas Barclay to the American Commissioners, July 181 August From Cavelier, Fils, 1 August 181 From Abbe Morellet [1 August] 181 To Jean-Armand Tronchin, with Enclosures, 1 August 182 From George Washington, 1 August 186 [From Madame d'Anterroches, 2 August] 188 From Lafayette, 2 August 188 From Andre Limozin, 2 August 188 From Jean-Armand Tronchin, 2 August 189 From G. K. van Hogendorp, 2 August 190 From Letombe, 3 August 191 From John Bondfield, 5 August 191 From Schweighauser & Dobree, 5 August 192 [From John Banister, Jr., 6 August] 193 To Achard Freres, 7 August 193 To Anthony Garvey, 7 August 193 From Ferdinand Grand, 7 August 194 From William Macarty, 7 August 195 To John Adams, 8 August 195 To John Bondfield, 8 August 196 To Stephen Cathalan, Jr., 8 August 197 To Andre Limozin, 8 August 197 To John Paradise, 8 August 198 To Lefevre, Roussac & Cie., 8 August 199 To St. Lambert, 8 August 200 To Dumoulin de Seille & Son, 8 August 200 From John Stockdale, 8 August 201 To Abigail Adams, 9 August 202 From Paul Bentalou, 9 August 204 To Jean Jacques Berard & Cie., 9 August 205 To Pierre Dessin, 9 August 206 To the Governor of Virginia, 9 August 206 From John Paul Jones, 9 August 208 To Francis Lewis, 9 August 210 To William Stephens Smith, 9 [i.e., 10] August 211 Jefferson's Suggestions for Republishing the Cruz Cano Map of South America [ca. August] 216 From Ferdinand Grand, 10 August 217 John Lamb to the American Commissioners, 10 August 218 From Abbe Morellet [10 August] 219 Thomas Barclay to the American Commissioners, 11 August 220 To John Jay, 11 August 220 From Andre Limozin [11 August] 223 To James Monroe, 11 August 223 To Abbe Morellet, 11 August 225 To Richard Cary, 12 August 226 To the Governor of Virginia, 12 August 228 From James Madison, 12 August 229 From Abbe Morellet [12 August] 236 To the Commissioners of the Treasury, 12 August 237 To John Adams, 13 August 238 From Madame de Gregoire, 13 August 239 To Benjamin Hawkins, 13 August 240 To John Jay, 13 August 241 [To John Stockdale, 13 August] 242 To George Wythe, 13 August 243 To John Banister, with a Note to Anne Blair Banister, 14 August 246 To Benjamin Franklin, 14 August 247 From Plowden W. Garvey, 14 August 248 To Francis Hopkinson, 14 August 248 To David Humphreys, 14 August 250 From John Paul Jones, 14 August 253 From Andre Limozin, 14 August 253 From Zachariah Loreilhe, 14 August 254 From Champagne, 15 August 255 From Lucy Ludwell Paradise, 15 August 255 To John Banister, Jr., 16 August 256 From Andre Caron, 16 August 257 From John Paul Jones, 16 August 258 To John Ledyard, 16 August 258 From John Ledyard, 16 August 258 From Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., 16 August 260 To Vergennes, 16 August 261 To Brissot de Warville, 16 August 261 To Samuel Adams and John Lowell, 17 August 264 From William Carmichael, 17 August 265 To Dangirard & De Vernon, 17 August 267 [To R. & A. Garvey, 17 August] 269 [To Andre Limozin, 17 August ] 269 Deposition of Richard Riddy, 17 August 269 From Hugon de Bassville, 18 August 269 To De Blome, 18 August 270 From John Jay, 18 August 271 To Schweighauser & Dobree, 18 August 272 From the Abbes Arnoux and Chalut, 19 August 273 To Andre Limozin, 19 August 273 To William Macarty, 19 August 274 From James Monroe, 19 August 274 From Dangirard & De Vernon [ca. 20 August] 279 To Edward Bridgen, 21 August 280 From the Georgia Delegates in Congress, 21 August 280 From John Paul Jones, 21 August 281 To John Paul Jones, 21 August 282 To Dorcas Montgomery, 21 August 282 To Mirabeau [21 August] 283 From Robert Robertson, 21 August 283 To William Carmichael, 22 August 284 From John Richard, 22 August 289 From Sarsfield, 22 August 289 From Jean Jacques Berard & Cie., 23 August 290 From Zachariah Loreilhe, 23 August 290 From William Stephens Smith, 23 August 291 From St. Victour & Bettinger, 24 August 292 To Pierre Dessin, 24 August 292 To Lafayette, 24 August 293 To Robert Robertson, 24 August 294 [From Valade, 24 August] 295 From Hugon de Bassville [25 August] 295 To Hugon de Bassville, 25 August 295 To Paul Bentalou, 25 August 296 To C. W. F. Dumas, 25 August 297 To G. K. van Hogendorp, 25 August 297 To De Vernon, 25 August 300 To St. John de Crevecoeur, 26 August 300 From V. & P. French & Nephew, 26 August 301 To John Adams, 27 August 302 From John Banister, Jr., 27 August 303 To Zachariah Loreilhe, 27 August 304 To Lucy Ludwell Paradise, 27 August 304 To Thomas Mann Randolph, Jr., 27 August 305 From Madame de Lafayette, 28 [August] 309 To Zachariah Loreilhe, 28 August 309 [From Achard Freres, 29 August] 310 From Lafayette, 30 August 310 To Thomas Barclay, 31 August 313 September From William Stephens Smith, 1 September 315 To Ezra Stiles, 1 September 316 Polytype and Other Methods of Printing [1786] 318 I. Invitation to David Harris 325 II. Estimate for Printing Notes on Virginia by Polytype 325 III. Notes on Abbe Rochon's Method 325 From Paul Bentalou, 2 September 326 From Andre Limozin, 2 September 327 From John Paul Jones, 3 September 329 From William Carmichael, 4 September 329 From Zachariah Loreilhe, 4 September 331 [From Badon, before 5 September] 331 To John Banister, Jr., 7 September 332 From ____ to Madame d'Enville, 8 September 332 From Pierre Dessin, 9 September 333 From Abbe Morellet [9 September?] 333 Thomas Barclay to the American Commissioners, with Enclosure, 10 September 334 From John Adams, 11 September 348 From Abbe Morellet [11 September?] 350 From Benjamin Putnam [before 11 September] 351 From Francois Soules, 11 September 352 From Biron, 12 September 353 From C. W. F. Dumas, 12 September 354 From Lefevre, Roussac & Cie., 12 September 356 From Lewis Littlepage, 12 September 357 Thomas Barclay to the American Commissioners, 13 September 357 To William Stephens Smith, 13 September 362 To Francois Soules, 13 September 363 Jefferson's Comments on Francois Soules' Histoire [July-September] 364 I. Comments on Soules' Histoire 368 II. Answers to Soules' Queries 377 To John Stockdale, 13 September 384 [To Mary Barclay, 14 September] 384 [To Biron, 14 September] 384 From Etienne Clavitre, 14 September 384 From Ezra Stiles, 14 September 385 From John Banister, Jr., 16 September 387 From James Maury, 17 September 387 Thomas Barclay to the American Commissioners, 18 September 389 From William Stephens Smith, 18 September 393 From Maria Cosway [20 September] 393 From Fantin Latour, 20 September 394 To Charles Thomson, 20 September 395 [From Nathaniel Tracy, before 20 September] 396 To Thomas Barclay, 22 September 396 To William Carmichael, 22 September 396 To C. W. F. Dumas, 22 September 397 From William Stephens Smith, 22 September 398 From John Bondfield, 23 September 399 To William Stephens Smith, 23 September 400 From La Rouerie, 25 September 400 From James Smith [25 September] 401 To John Adams, 26 September 402 From Thomas Barclay, 26 September 403 From C. W. F. Dumas, 26 September 404 To John Jay, 26 September 405 American Commissioners to John Lamb [26 September] 407 To the Prevot des Marchands et Echevins de Paris, with Enclosure, 27 September 407 From Jean Baptiste Le Roy, 28 September 410 From William Carmichael, 29 September 411 From Madame de Tesse, 29 September 413 To Rayneval, with Enclosure, 30 September 414 October From Richard Peters, 1 October 416 From William Stephens Smith, 1 October 417 Thomas Barclay to the American Commissioners, 2 October 418 Treaty with Morocco 419 From Jose da Maia, 2 October 427 From William Carmichael, 3 October 427 From John Jay, 3 October 430 From William Stephens Smith, 4 October 431 To Maria Cosway [5 October] 431 From Maria Cosway [5 October] 433 From C. W. F. Dumas, 6 October 434 From Thevenard, 6 October 435 From Abbe Andre, 7 October 436 To William Macarty, 7 October 436 From Benjamin Franklin, 8 October 437 From John Trumbull, with a Note from Maria Cosway, 9 October 438 From John Lamb, 10 October 441 To Lewis Littlepage, 10 October 442 From Jean Chas, 11 October 442 [From De Langeac, 11 October] 443 To Maria Cosway, 12 October 443 From John Jay, 12 October 455 To De Langeac, 12 October 455 From James Monroe, 12 October 456 To Maria Cosway, 13 October 458 From Madame de Marmontel [13 October] 459 To John Trumbull, 13 October 460 From John Bondfield, 14 October 461 From the Rhode Island Delegates in Congress, 14 October 461 From Edward Rutledge, 14 October 463 To Achard Freres, 15 October 465 From Louis Guillaume Otto, 15 October 465 To Vergennes, with Enclosure, 15 October 467 From Circello, 17 October 468 From C. W. F. Dumas, 17 October 468 From Charles Boromee LeBrun, 17 October 469 From C. W. F. Dumas, 19 October 470 To De Corny, 20 October 470 From Plowden W. Garvey, 20 October 471 From Zachariah Loreilhe, 20 October 472 To Stael de Holstein, 20 October 472 To Vergennes, 20 October 472 From Achard Freres, 21 October 473 From Calonne, 22 October 474 To William Stephens Smith, 22 October 478 To John Adams, 23 October 479 From C. W. F. Dumas, with Enclosures, 23 October 480 From Francis Eppes, 23 October 483 To John Jay, 23 October 484 From Lafayette [23 October] 486 To John Adams, 27 October 487 To John Jay, 27 October 487 From John Jay, 27 October 488 To David Ramsay, 27 October 490 From John Bondfield, 28 October 492 Circular, Letter to United States Consular Agents, 29 October 493 From Maria Cosway [30 October] 494 To Charles Boromee LeBrun, 30 October 496 To Zachariah Loreilhe, 30 October 497 From William Macarty, 30 October 497 From Vergennes, 31 October 497 To Chastellux [October] 498 To Martha Jefferson [October] 499 November From Jean Durival, with Enclosure, 1 November 499 From Antoine-Felix Wuibert, 1 November 501 From John Banister, Jr., 2 November 503 To John Bondfield, 2 November 503 To Calonne, 2 November 504 To Andre Limozin, 2 November 504 From C. W. F. Dumas, 3 November 504 To Lafayette, 3 November 505 From John Trumbull, 3 November 506 [From Cavalier, Fils, 4 November] 507 To Martha Jefferson, 4 November 507 From Vergennes, 4 November 507 To John Bondfield, 6 November 508 To St. John de Crevecoeur, 6 November 509 Thomas Barclay to the American Commissioners, 7 November 509 To Jean Durival, 7 November 511 From Francis Hopkinson, 8 November 511 From David Ramsay, 8 November 513 From Brissot de Warville, 10 November 514 From William Jones, 10 November 515 From John Paradise, 10 November 516 [From John Bondfield, 11 Novemberl 516 To Famin, 11 November 517 To Anthony Garvey, 11 November 517 From William Stephens Smith, 11 November 518 To John Banister, 12 November 519 To John Jay, with Enclosure, 12 November 519 From Zachariah Loreilhe, 12 November 523 From James Smith, 12 November 524 To Jean Baptiste Le Roy, 13 November 524 From [Madame de La Rochefoucauld?] 13 November 530 [From Vergennes, ca. 14 November] 531 To George Washington, 14 November 531 Thomas Barclay to the American Commissioners, 15 November 535 From William Carmichael, 15 November 536 From Maria Cosway [17 November] 538 From C. W. F. Dumas, 17 November 540 To Ralph Izard, 18 November 540 From Presolle, 18 November 542 To Maria Cosway, 19 November 542 To Zachariah Loreilhe, 19 November 543 To Dorcas Montgomery, 19 November 543 To Martin Oster, 19 November 544 To ____ Wernecke, 19 November 545 From John Stockdale, 20 November 545 To John Trumbull, 20 November 546 From Jose da Maia, 21 November 546 To Achard Freres, 22 November 547 [From Stephen Cathalan, Jr., 22 November] 547 To Colonia, 22 November 547 [From Tarbe, 23 November] 548 [From Brissot de Warville, 23 November] 548 From John Ledyard, 25 November 548 From James Madison, 25 November 549 From Chenier de St. Andre, 26 November 550 From Vergennes, 26 November 551 From Abraham Walton, 26 November 551 [From Henry Champion, for Zachariah Loreilhe, 27 November] 552 From Maria Cosway [27 November] 552 From Duler, 27 November 552 From William Stephens Smith, 28 November 553 To Madame de Tott, 28 November 553 From Madame de Tott, 28 November 554 To John Bondfield, 29 November 554 To Maria Cosway, 29 November 555 [From Guiraud & Portas, 29 November] 555 From John Trumbull, 29 November 556 From John Adams, 30 November 556 To Abigail Adams [November] 557 December From C. W. F. Dumas, 1 December 558 From John Jay, 1 December 559 [To the Ambassadors of Portugal and Russia, 1 December] 559 Jefferson's Proposed Concert of Powers against the Barbary States [July-December] 560 I. Proposed Convention against the Barbary States 566 II. Proposed Confederation against the Barbary States 569 To Philippe-Denis Pierres, 1 December 570 From Jean Chas, 2 December 571 [From C. W. F. Dumas, 2 December] 571 From Abigail Adams Smith, 2 December 572 From Thomas Barclay, 4 December 573 From Madame de Doradour, 4 December 573 From James Madison, 4 December 574 From William Macarty, 5 December 578 From William Stephens Smith, 5 December 578 From Wilt, Delmestre & Co., 6 December 579 To Jean Chas, 7 December 580 To Gelhais, 7 December 580 To Abraham Walton, 7 December 581 From Hilliard d'Auberteuil, with Enclosure, 8 December 582 From Michel Capitaine, 8 December 583 To St. John de Crevecoeur, 8 December 583 To Duler, 8 December 583 From Ezra Stiles, 8 December 584 To John Stockdale, 8 December 586 [From Lewis Alexander, 9 December] 587 From Francis Hopkinson, 9 December 587 From James Maury, 10 December 588 To R. & A. Garvey, 11 December 588 To Wilt, Delmestre & Co., 11 December 589 From John Bondfield, 12 December 589 From St. John de Crevecoeur [13 December] 591 From John Jay, 13 December 592 From Andre Limozin, 13 December 592 From George Wythe, 13 December 592 From John Bartram, 14 December 593 To Elizabeth Wayles Eppes, 14 December 594 To Francis Eppes, 14 December 594 From John Jay, 14 December 596 To Eliza House Trist, 15 December 599 From St. John de Crevecoeur, 16 December 601 To Andre Limozin, 16 December 601 To James Madison, 16 December 602 From William Carmichael, 17 December 606 To Charles Thomson, 17 December 608 To John Trumbull, 17 December 610 To James Monroe, 18 December 611 To Nicholas Lewis, 19 December 614 From Andre Limozin [19 December] 616 From John Stockdale, 19 December 617 To John Adams, 20 December 618 To Colonia, 20 December 619 TO William Stephens Smith, 20 December 620 To Abigail Adams, 21 December 621 From S. J. Neele, 21 December 621 From Abraham Walton, 21 December 622 From De Blome, 22 December 622 From George Wythe, 22 December 622 To Brissot de Warville, 23 December 623 To Benjamin Franklin, 23 December 624 To Francis Hopkinson, 23 December 625 [From Francis Coffyn, 24 December] 627 To Maria Cosway, 24 December 627 To James Maury, 24 December 628 To Ezra Stiles, 24 December 629 [From John Banister, 25 December] 630 From Nathaniel Barrett, 25 December 630 From Brissot de Warville, 25 December 630 To C. W. F. Dumas, 25 December 630 To James Buchanan and William Hay, 26 December 632 To William Carmichael, 26 December 632 To Richard Cary, 26 December 635 To Fantin Latour, 26 December 636 To Jose da Maia, 26 December 636 From Brissot de Warville [26 December] 637 To Thomas Barclay, 27 December 637 From Brissot de Warville, 27 December 638 From Ducrest, 27 December 639 To the Georgia Delegates in Congress, 27 December 640 To Mezieres, 27 December 640 To Ferdinand Grand, 28 December 641 From Jan Ingenhousz, 28 December 641 From the Rev. James Madison, 28 December 642 From C. W. F. Dumas, 29 December 644 To Benjamin Vaughan, 29 December 646 From Peter Carr, 30 December 648 To John Jay, 31 December 649 To La Valette, 31 December 651 From David S. Franks, December 651 From David S. Franks [December] 651 From Madame de Tott [December?] 652 From La Rochefoucauld 652 Petition of an Impostor, with Jefferson's Comments 653
ILLUSTRATIONS
FACING PAGE MADAME DE TOTT PAINTING THE PORTRAIT 178 OF MADAME DE TESSE This miniature on ivory by an unidentified artist brings to- gether in appropriate relationship two of Jefferson's French friends and correspondents: the Comtesse de Tesse (Adrienne- Catherine de Noailles, 1741-1814) and her protegee, Sophie- Ernestine de Tott (ca. 1759-ca. 1840?). The Comtesse de Tesse encouraged her protegee's talent for "pallet and pencil," as did Jefferson (see TJ to Madame de Tott, 5 Apr. 1787). The miniature reproduced here was painted in the 1780's, when Jefferson was a frequent visitor at the Hotel de Tesse; it was perhaps painted by the Baron de Tott, who was himself an amateur artist of some ability. On the relationship of the two women, see Madame de Tesse to TJ, 20 July 1786, note. (Courtesy of the Comte de Pusy Lafayette, Chateau de Vol- lore, Puy-de-Dome, through Howard C. Rice, Jr.) "LES PLAISIRS DE CHAVILLE" 178 Watercolor, executed ca. 1785 by the Baron de Tott, who has included himself at the extreme left. This intimate glimpse of the salon at Chaville, the country residence of the De Tesses near Versailles, shows Madame de Tesse seated before a lec- tern, at the right. Facing her, engrossed in knitting, is Madame de Tott. The drowsy gentleman at Madame de Tesse's right is her husband, Rene-Mans, Sire de Froulay, Comte de Tesse, Grand d'Espagne, Premier Ecuyer de la Reine, &c. &c. (1736- 1814). Next to him is M. Senac de Meilhan (1736-1803), a habitue of Madame de Tesse's salon, a writer of some note in his day, now remembered chiefly for his novel L'Emigre. The other gentleman is possibly the Marquis de Mun, another faith- ful follower. (Courtesy of Madame Michel de Larminat, nee Hennocque de Lafayette, Paris and Chateau de Beaumont, Le Chartre-sur-le-Loir, Sarthe, through Howard C. Rice, Jr.) JOHN TRUMBULL'S SKETCH FOR "TIIE 179 DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE," WITH JEFFERSON'S FLOOR PLAN OF INDEPENDENCE HALL These sketches, both on the same sheet of paper, were made while Trumbull was staying with Jefferson in Paris in Sep- tember 1786. On 28 Dec. 1817, when Trumbull was working on the life-size replica of his famous painting for the rotunda of the Capitol at Washington, he wrote Jefferson: "I have made considerable progress in the large picture of the Declaration of Independence, for the Capitol .... You recollect the Composi- tion which you kindly assisted me to sketch at Chaillot; the Committee who drew up the Declaration form the principal Group, by which means I place yourself and some other of the most eminent Characters conspicuously-the figures large as Life." See TJ to David Humphreys, 14 Aug. 1786; The Auto- biography of Colonel John Trumbull, ed. Theodore Sizer, p. 146-7 (note 268), 311; John Trumbull to TJ, 3 Mch. and 28 Dec. 1817. (Courtesy of The Yale Gallery of Fine Arts.) SPECIMEN PAGES OF POLYTYPE PRINTING 210 These two specimens, probably presented to Jefferson by Hoff- man himself, contain portions of Abbe Rochon's report on Hoff- man's invention as read before the Academie des Sciences on 8 Feb. 1786 and illustrate one of the features claimed for the invention-that is, that the printer required only enough type to compose a page or even a few lines, which could then be printed, the type distributed, another page or part of a page be composed and printed, and so on. These two examples were clearly printed from polytype plates made from the same type. The full page is on a thin, buff colored, laid paper without watermark; the outlines of the plate are clearly discernible be- cause of ink smudge, but there is no plate-impression in the paper. The page of nine lines, evidently printed first, has simi- lar characteristics save that the paper has a greenish tint. For a description of Hoffman's method, see the Editorial Note to the series of documents entitled "Polytype and Other Methods of Printing," p. 318-24, especially p. 322-3. In DLC: TJ Papers, 19:3263 (immediately following the two pages illus- trated here) there is another sheet of paper endorsed by Jeffer- son "Printing"; it also contains a partial description of the Hoffman method, but it is on a larger sheet of paper than the two here illustrated and there is a well-defined plate-impression such as that produced by ordinary intaglio engraving. (Cour- tesy of The Library of Congress.) PARIS IN 1787, SHOWING EARLIER CITY WALLS AND 211 THE NEW WALL OF THE FARMERS-GENERAL Map engraved by P. F. Tardieu. The new "wall of circumvalla- tion," as Jefferson called it-designated here as "Cloture sous Louis XVI"-was not a fortification like several of the earlier city ramparts shown, or like the later wall built by Thiers in the 1840's, but a tax barrier designed to make the collection of municipal customs duties more effective. It served to increase public criticism of the farmers-general, provoking a storm of pamphlets, satirical verse, puns and witticisms.. The wall, which considerably extended the city limits, was authorized in 1782; in January 1785 the plans drawn up by the architect Claude-Nicolas Ledoux were approved and work continued thenceforward for several years. Ledoux's plan included neo- classic toll-houses (bureaux), flanking each of the forty-seven gates (barrieres). General hostility to the wall made it difficult for people to view objectively Ledoux's imaginative gateways, which were nicknamed "Calonnades" in derision of the Min- ister of Finance, and which even Jefferson ironically referred to as the "palaces by which we are to be let out and in" (see TJ to David Humphreys, 14 Aug. 1787). The so-called "boulevards exterieurs" of the present day mark the line of the wall of the farmers-general. (Courtesy of the Bibliotheque Nationale, through Howard C. Rice, Jr.) THE HALLE AUX BLEDS, PARIS, BY MARECHAL, 1786 434 These two pen and wash drawings of the Grain Market ("Meal Market" or "Corn Market") were executed by the French artist Marechal the same year that Jefferson went to study its construction-a utilitarian object that took on a romantic aspect when Jefferson met Maria Cosway there. The market, a cir- cular edifice around an open court, was completed by the architect Le Camus de Mezieres in 1767; some ten years later the work of covering this courtyard with a rotunda was en- trusted to Legrand and Molinos, who revived a method of con- struction described by the Renaissance architect Philibert De- lorme in his Nouvelles inventions pour bien batir et a petits frais (first edition, 1561). Jefferson, who first studied this dome with a public market for Richmond in mind, later recalled it when discussing the rotunda of the Capitol in Washington with Benjamin Latrobe, and also when devising a plan for a dock in Washington. The market as Jefferson knew it was demolished in the 1880's to make way for another structure, built on the same circular site, the present Bourse du Com- merce. The curious column visible in Marechal's drawing, how- ever, is still extant; it was built in 1572 by the architect Jean Bullant for Catherine de Medici who, according to tradition, used to wind her way up its inside staircase to read the stars with her astrologer. Thus this column still marks the spot where Jefferson met Maria Cosway on a summer day in August 1786. See TJ to Maria Cosway, 12 Oct. 1786; Benjamin La- trobe to TJ, 18 Feb. 1804; TJ to Latrobe, 8 Sep 1805; TJ to Lewis Wiss, 27 Nov. 1825. (Courtesy of the Cabinet des Es- tampes, Collection Destailleur, Bibliotheque Nationale, through Howard C. Rice, Jr.) JEFFERSON'S FIRST LETTER TO MARIA COSWAY 435 WRITTEN WITH HIS LEFT HAND The earliest extant letter written by Jefferson with his left hand after an accident which dislocated his right wrist. See this letter and note under 5 Oct. 1786. (Courtesy of Charles Geigy-Hagenbach, Basel, Switzerland.) TRUMBULL'S MINIATURES OF JEFFERSON PAINTED FOR 466 MARIA COSWAY AND ANGELICA SCHUYLER CHURCH These miniatures, both replicas of the portrait of Jefferson ex- ecuted by John Trumbull in Paris in 1787 in the original small painting of "The Declaration of Independence," were presented in 1788 to Mrs. Cosway and Mrs. Church by Trumbull. On 21 July 1788 Mrs. Church wrote Jefferson: "accept the good wishes of Maria and Angelica. Mr. Trumbull has given us each a picture of you. Mrs. Cosways is a better likeness than mine, but then I have a better elsewhere and so I console myself." On 19 Aug. 1788 Mrs. Cosway wrote Jefferson: "Wish me joy, for I possess your Picture. Trumbull has procured me this happiness which I shall ever be gratfull for."-The miniature painted for Maria Cosway was discovered in 1952 by Miss Elizabeth Cometti at the Collegio di Maria SS. Bambina, at Lodi, Italy, the college established by Mrs. Cosway in 1812. See Elizabeth Cometti, "Maria Cosway's Rediscovered Minia- ture of Jefferson," WMQ, 3d ser., IX (1952), 152-5. (Courtesy of Collegio di Maria SS. Bambina, and of Miss Cometti.)- The miniature painted for Angelica Schuyler Church was be- queathed to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1924 by Cornelia Cruger, a descendant of Mrs. Church. See Fiske Kimball, "The Life Portraits of Jefferson," American Philo- sophical Soc., Proceedings, LXXXVIII (1944), 504-5. (Cour- tesy of The Metropolitan Museum of Art.) RICHARD COSWAYS MINIATURE OF MARIA COSWAY 467 Miniature on ivory, painted by Maria Cosway's husband, whose miniatures on ivory were notable for the exquisite transparent effect achieved on that medium, his distinctive treatment of the hair, and the clear brightness of the eyes. George C. William- son (Richard Cosway R.A., London, 1905) describes Cosway's miniatures as "so lightly laid upon the ivory as to appear almost as though . . . blown into position, .. . an aerial thing of graceful lightness, that, like a bit of gossamer, had rested upon the ivory and had become fixed there." (Courtesy of The Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery.) JOHN TRUMBULL'S PORTRAIT OF ANGELICA 467 SCHUYLER CHURCH Group portrait of Mrs. Church, her son Philip, and servant, painted in London in 1784. Trumbull had met John Barker Church in America in 1777. Soon afterward Church met and married Angelica Schuyler, eldest daughter of Gen. Philip Schuyler, and their acquaintance with Trumbull continued in Boston in 1778 and 1779 where they lived and Trumbull was studying. The friendship was renewed in London in 1784. Church not only remained on friendly terms with Trumbull but assisted him financially while the latter was in England (The Autobiography of Colonel John Trumbull, ed. Theodore Sizer, p. 90, 93-5). Mrs. Church visited Paris in the winter of 1787- 1788 and was doubtless introduced to Jefferson by Trumbull, who was staying with Jefferson at the time. The correspond- ence between Jefferson and Mrs. Church, which began early in 1788 and continued until 1802, equals that with Maria Cos- way, Abigail Adams, and Mme. de Tesse in sprightliness, mutual understanding, and affection. (Courtesy of Peter B. Olney, Old Saybrook, Conn.)

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