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Table of Contents of
The Cambridge survey of world migration

edited by
Robin Cohen


© 1995 Cambridge University Press

Reproduced 2001 with permission of the publisher

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Contents

List of illustrations page xi List of tables xii Notes on the contributors xiii 1 Prologue Robin Cohen 1 2 European colonization and settlement 11 The British colonies of settlement. Hugh Tinker 14 Emigration to the Dutch colonies and the USA Jan Lucassen 21 Spanish migration to the Americas Ida Altman 28 French colonial migration Michael Heffernan 33 The growth of restrictive immigration policies in the colonies of settlement Roger Daniels 39 3 Asian indentured and colonial migration 45 Indentured migrants from Japan Mitsuru Shimpo 48 Chinese indentured labour: coolies and colonies Ong Jin Hui 51 Indian indentured migration to the Caribbean Steven Vertovec 57 Indian indentured workers in Mauritius, Natal and Fiji Ravinder K. Thiara 63 Sikh free and military migration during the colonial period Darshan Singh Tatla 69 The settlement of South Asians in East Africa Michael Twaddle 74 4 The great Atlantic migration to North America 77 The Irish and the `famine exodus' of 1847 Robert Scally 80 The Scandinavian migrants Jon Gjerde 85 Unbroken links: Portuguese emigration to the USA Maria Ioannis B. Baganha 91 East Europeans on the move Ewa Morawska 97 Migration from the German and Austro-Hungarian empires to North America Walter Nugent 103 A continuing presence: North America's Ukrainians Lubomyr Y. Luciuk 109 The Italian diaspora, 1876-1976 Rudolph J. Vecoli 114 5 Migration in Europe, 1800-1950 123 Moving Europeans: historical migration practices in western Europe Leslie Page Moch 126 Germany: migrations in Europe up to the end of the Weimar Republic Klaus J. Bade 131 Wanderers or migrants? Gypsies from eastern to western Europe, 1860-1940 Leo Lucassen and Wim Willems 136 Italians and Poles in France, 1880-1945 Gerard Noiriel 142 Russians and Armenians in France Gerard Noiriel 145 Jewish economic and refugee migrations, 1880-1950 Colin Holmes 148 The resettlement of displaced persons in Europe, 1946-1951 Diana Kay 154 6 Migration in Africa 159 Forced labour and migration in Portugal's African colonies Shubi L. Ishemo 162 The politics of international migration in post-colonial Africa Aderanti Adepoju 166 Cheap gold: mine labour in southern Africa Jonathan Crush 172 Migrant labour and the state under apartheid, 1948-1989 Alan H. Jeeves 178 Regional labour migration systems in East Africa: continuity and change W. T. S. Gould 183 Labour migration in French North Africa Neil MacMaster 190 People on the move in West Africa: from pre-colonial polities to post-independence states Kenneth Swindell 196 7 Latin and Central American migration 203 Uruguayan migration Henry Finch 205 European and Asian migration to Brazil Herbert S. Klein 208 European migration to Argentina, 1880-1930 Jeremy Adelman 215 The Chinese of Peru, Cuba and Mexico Evelyn Hu-DeHart 220 The migration of labour in Colombia Luz Marina Diaz 223 Central American refugees to the USA Elizabeth G. Ferris 226 Chile's exiles and their return: two faces of expatriation Jaime Llambias-Wolff 229 8 Migration to North America after 1945 233 Mexican immigration to the USA: the contradictions of border control Kitty Calavita 236 Anglophone Caribbean migration to the USA and Canada Ceri Peach 245 Migratory trends in Puerto Rico: 1950 to the present Juan E. Hernandez-Cruz 248 A comparative view of Asian immigration to the USA John M. Liu 253 Contemporary migration from Africa to the USA Laura Bigman 260 Migration to Canada in the post-war period Lawrence Lam and Anthony H. Richmond 263 9 Labour migration to western Europe after 1945 271 'New Commonwealth' migration to the UK Muhammad Anwar 274 Turkish migration to Europe Nermin Abadan-Unat 279 Former Yugoslavia: long waves of international migration Carl-Ulrik Schierup 285 Labour migration to France Philip E. Ogden 289 Labour migration to Sweden: the Finnish case Tomas Hammar 297 Switzerland: a non-immigration immigration country Hans-Joachim Hoffmann-Nowoty 302 From workers to immigrants: Turks and Moroccans in the Netherlands, 1965-1992 Hans van Amersfoort 308 Italy and Greece: from emigrants to immigrants Rossettos Fakiolas 313 Portugal and Spain: from exporters to importers of labour Carlota Sole 316 10 Repatriates and colonial auxiliaries 321 The repatriation of Soviet citizens at the end of the Second World War Keith Sword 323 The repatriation of Indian Tamil plantation workers from Sri Lanka to India Valli Kanapathipillai 326 The migration of East African Asians to the UK Vaughan Robinson 331 The repatriation of Portuguese from Africa Maria Beatriz Rocha-Trindade 337 East and West Indian migration to the Netherlands Han Entzinger 342 Repatriation of African exiles: the decision to return Peter Koehn 347 11 Migration in Asia and Oceania 353 The separation of India and Pakistan Victor Kiernan 356 Bangladeshi migration: an impact study Muinul Islam 360 Migration: Nepal and India David Seddon 367 Illegal migrant workers in Japan Helmut Loiskandl 371 Asian migration to Australia Jock Collins 376 The Vietnamese boat people in Hong Kong Chan Kwok Bun 380 Southern European migration to Australia: diasporic networks and cultural transformations Gillian Bottomley 386 Migration and the formation of Malaysia and Singapore Lian Kwen Fee 392 Illegal international migration in Asia Graeme Hugo 397 12 Migration in the Middle East 403 Zionist immigration and colonization in Palestine until 1948 Gershon Shafir 405 The displacement of the Palestinians Janet Lippman Abu-Lughod 410 The Palestinian diaspora Howard Adelman 414 Asian migrant and contract workers in the Middle East Manolo I. Abella 418 Displaced people after the Gulf crisis Nicholas Van Hear 424 13 Refugees from political conflict 431 Refugees, displaced people and returnees in southern Africa K B. Wilson 434 Hunger, war and flight: the Horn of Africa Abebe Zegeye 441 US admission policies towards Cuban and Haitian migrants Naomi Flink Zucker and Norman L. Zucker 447 Refugees from Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, 1975-1993 Michel Mignot 452 Refugees and asylum in the Muslim world Astri Suhrke 457 Development and forced migration: the case of Afghan refugee women in Pakistan Diana Cammack 461 14 Migrants and asylum-seekers in contemporary Europe 467 European East-West migration, 1945-1992 Heinz Fassmann and Rainer Münz 470 Internal movement in the European Community Ann Dummett 481 Migration and Soviet disintegration Klas-Göran Karlsson 486 Migrations in socialist and post-socialist Russia Alexei Polyakov and Igor Ushkalov 490 Whose protection? European harmonization on asylum policy Daniele Joly 496 Soviet Jewish emigration. Tanya Basok and Alexander Benifand 502 15 Emerging trends 507 Contract labour migration Stephen Castles 510 Skilled transients: the invisible phenomenon? Allan M. Findlay 515 The many faces of immigrant entrepreneurship Chan Kwok Bun and Ong Jin Hui 523 The emergence of trans-Pacific migration Ronald Skeldon 532 Illegal migration Mark J. Miller 537 The urbanization of the globe Josef Gugler 541 Women migrants: from marginal subjects to social actors Giovanna Campani 546 Ethical problems of immigration control and citizenship Rainer Baubock 551 International security and population movements Gil Loescher 557 Acknowledgements and credits 561 Index 565

Illustrations

Plates 1 Scottish boys on Ellis Island, c. 1901 15 2 Indian children at breakfast on a `coolie ship', some time between 1900 and 1914 58 3 Indentured Indian women on a tea plantation in Natal, c. 1900 65 4 Indian women trenching and planting sugar cane in Natal, c. 1900 66 5 Children on the roof of the detention centre at Ellis Island 88 6 Orphaned Jewish children at Ellis Island 101 7 German emigrants on board ship destined for the USA in 1904 105 8 Ukrainians detained in the Castle Mountain concentration camp, Alberta, during the First World War 111 9 Serbian gypsies arriving at Ellis Island, c. 1904 137 10 Miners destined for the South African gold mines 174 11 A Moroccan grocery shop in Groningen, the Netherlands 309 12 Returning from Africa at the end of the Portuguese empire 318 13 The docks at Lisbon. Portuguese repatriates from Africa 340 14 A reception centre for repatriates, Portugal 340 15 West Indian street carnival in the Netherlands 345 16 Rohingya refugees arrive in Bangladesh from Burma, 1992 361 17 Proud Greek-Australian proprietors outside their refreshment rooms, New South Wales, 1911 388 18 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, showing Italian cafes and influence, Australia, 1993 389 19 The grim mass housing of Gaza, home for many Palestinians 412 20 An Indian printer at work in Kuwait 422 21 Egyptian migrant workers in Jordan 425 22 Afghan women refugees weaving carpets in Surkhab, Baluchistan, 1982 463 23 Village life in the Chittagong Hills, Bandarban, Bangladesh, 1990 543 Figures 6.1 Pass law arrests in South Africa, 1859-84 180 8.1 Landed immigrants arriving in Canada, 1945-90 264 9.1 Evolution of foreign nationals in France, 1881-1990 290 9.2 Evolution of the foreign population in France by nationality, in 1946-90 291 9.3 Annual arrivals of permanent foreign workers in France, 1950-90 292 9.4 Migration flows between Sweden and Finland, 1946-86 299 9.5 Age structure of the population with a Moroccan background in the Netherlands, 1990 311 Maps 1 Regions of Italy showing key cities 115 2 Volumes and destinations of migration flows from Italy, by period 117 3 Major migration routes to the South African gold mines, pre-1970 173 4 East Africa: major source and destination areas of migrants 184 5 Seasonal labour migration in French North Africa, c. 1930 191 6 Distribution in the UK of `ethnic Indians' born in East Africa, 1991 334 7 Population density in districts of Nepal and India's border districts, 1961 369 Tables 3.1 Indentured Indian migration to the Caribbean 59 4.1 Portuguese-born residents in continental USA and Portuguese arrivals, 1850-1910 92 4.2 International migration, 1820s-70s 104 4.3 International migration, 1880s-1940s 106 5.1 Number of Hungarian coppersmiths and their families passing through the Netherlands, 1868-1924 139 5.2 Number of Bosnian bear leaders and their families passing through the Netherlands, 1868-1924 139 5.3 Principal immigrant communities established in France, 1881-1946 142 7.1 Characteristics of the principal immigrant groups arriving in the port of Santos, 1908-36 210 7.2 Foreign ownership of coffee fazendas in Säo Paulo, 1934 211 7.3 Classification of industries in the state of Sao Paulo by nationality of owners, 1934 212 7.4 National make-up of migrants to Argentina, 1880-1930 215 7.5 Immigration to and emigration from Argentina, 1880-1929 ('OOOs) 216 9.1 Immigration from the New Commonwealth, 1971-83: all acceptances for settlement ('OOOs) 275 9.2 Ethnic minorities in Britain, 1991 ('OOOs) 277 9.3 Turkish citizens living in Europe, April 1993 279 9.4 Turkish citizens living in West Germany according to age and sex, 1991 280 9.5 Changes in the number of migrants in Europe and from Yugoslavia in Europe, 1973-78 286 9.6 Foreign population and naturalized population resident in France by nationality, 1990 293 9.7 Evolution of the foreign population in France by major national groups, 1975-90 (in 'OOOs) 294 9.8 Applications for asylum in Switzerland, 1991 306 9.9 Citizens from `recruitment countries' legally residing in the Netherlands, 1965 and 1992 310 10.1 Tamil repatriation from Sri Lanka to India under the 1964 agreement 328 11.1 Importance of overseas remittances for the Bangladesh economy 362 11.2 Registered aliens in Japan by nationality, 1960-89 372 11.3 Japan: aliens apprehended for illegal employment, by nationality and sex, 1982-89 373 11.4 Settlers in Australia from southern Europe, 1891-1947 387 12.1 Jewish immigration waves and Jewish population in Palestine, 1882-1948 407 12.2 Distribution of Arabs of Palestinian birth or descent, 1948-92 (in percentages) 411 12.3 A profile of the Palestinians, 1991 415 12.4 Estimated mid-year stock of Asian workers in the Middle East, 1975-90 419 12.5 Annual flows of migrant labour from Asia to the Middle East 420 13.1 Size and locations of major liberation struggle refugee populations in southern Africa 435 13.2 Refugees and displaced people in post-independence conflicts in southern Africa 437 14.1 European East West migration, 1945-50 471 14.2 European East West migration, 1950-92/3 473 14.3 European East West migration: main countries of origin and destination, 1950-93 475 14.4 European migration balance by groups of countries, 1950-90 475 14.5 The balance of inter-republican migration in the USSR, 1961-90 492 14.6 Emigration from the USSR after the Second World War, 1948-90 493 14.7 Emigration from various Soviet republics, 1987-89 493 14.8 Soviet Jewish emigration, 1968-92 502 15.1 International migration of British citizens, 1979-90 515 15.2 Professional and managerial immigration to the UK under the work permit scheme, 1984-90 516 15.3 Expatriates working for companies involving overseas investment in Hong Kong, 1991 518 15.4 Skill mobility in Europe in relation to university educational exchange programmes, 1992/3 520

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