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Index of
Coming to America: A History of Immigration and Ethnicity in American Life

by
Roger Daniels


© 1990 HarperCollins

Reproduced 2001 with permission of the publisher

  Sources cited   |   Table of Contents   |  Catalog record and links to related information from the Library of Congress catalog


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Index

A Acadians, 90, 91-93, 94, 95 Acculturation, 90, 102; See also specific immigrant groups Adams, Henry, 43 Adams, John, 80, 104, 114 Adams, John Quincy, 117-118, 266 Adler, Jacob, 231 Advisory Committee on Refugees, 300 Africa, 15, 56-59, 407; See also Slaves, African Africanisms in the Gullah Dialect (Turner), 60 African Slave Trade: A Census, The (Curtin), 61 Afro-Americans, 60-61, 64, 66, 106 Age of Discovery, 3-4 Aging of U.S. population, 400 Agriculture: African, 57-58; California Alien Land Acts, 211; German farmers, 76, 151-152; illegal workers in, 395-396; Italian farmers, 193-194; Japanese, in California, 253-254; Mexican migrant workers, 312-313 AIDS, 348 Alberti, Peter (Pietro), 190 Aldrich, Thomas Bailey, 275-276 Algren, Nelson, 172 Alien and Sedition Acts (1798), 115 Alien Enemies Act (1798), 115 Altgeld, John Peter, 148 Amalgamated Clothing Workers, 200 American, definitions of, 101-102 American Coalition of Patriotic Societies, 333 American Federation of Labor (AFL), 144, 200, 275 American G.I. Forum, 313 American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association (AHEPA), 205-206 American Immigration (Jones), 103 Americanist heresy, 155 American Jewish Committee, 228 American Jewish Congress, 228 American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 228 American (Know-Nothing) party, 269, 270, 274, 275 American Legion, 333 American Protective Association, 275 American Revolution. See Revolution, American Americas, immigration from, 290, 292-293; See also specific countries Amerindians, 7-8, 10-11, 104-106, 114 Amish, the, 70 Amnesty program, 391, 392-394, 396, 397, 402, 403 Anarchist/syndicalist movement, 200-201 Anglo-conformity, demand for, 105 Anglo-Saxon complex, 276 Anti-Catholicism, 109, 265, 266-269, 275 Anti-immigrant activity. See Nativism Anti-Masonic party, 267 Anti-Semitism, 100, 228, 296-302 Antonini, Luigi, 200 Aquino, Corazon and Benigno, 356 Arabs, 206-209 Arboleya, Carlos, 374 Archdeacon, Thomas, 21, 27, 54, 189, 202 Argentina, immigration to, 24, 25 Arizona, Hispanic population in (1987), 372 Armenians, 209-211 Arroyo, Martina, 326 Articles of Confederation, 112 Arts, Puerto Ricans in, 326 Ashanti, 58, 59 Ashkenazi immigrants, 99 Asian Americans: Emerging Minorities (Kitano and Daniels), 352 Asian Cubans, 375 Asian Indians, 126, 328, 351, 360-364 Asians: Immigration Act of 1965 and, 341- 343; immigration 1930-1984, 334, 335; nativism and exclusion of, 245, 246-247, 265, 271-272, 278, 279; naturalization statutes and, 114; new (1940- ), 350- 370; in New World, 3; population by major ethnic group, 350, 351; quotas for, 304, 328; Refugee Relief Act and, 336; World War II and, 302-305; See also specific Asian groups Askia Muhammad I, 57 Assimilation/acculturation, 90, 102; See also specific immigrant groups Association Canado- Americaine (ACA), 263 Asylum and asylees, 346- 349, 379 Atatürk, Kemal, 205 Augustana College, 171 Augustana Synod, 171 Australia, immigration to, 24, 25, 239, 278 Austria-Hungary, emigration from (1901-10), 188 Austria (ship), 134 Avalon colony, 42 Awful Disclosures of the Hotel Dieu Nunnery of Montreal (Monk), 268 Ayres, E. Durand, 315-316 B Baeck, Leo, 229 Bailyn, Bernard, 36-37, 177 Balkan Wars (1912-13), 205 Ballin, Albert, 187 Baltic republics, pressures from, 406 Bancroft, Hubert Howe, 309 Bankers, immigrant, 158, 194, 374-375 Bank of America, 194 Banneker, Benjamin, 56 Bantu-speaking peoples, 58 Barbarian peoples, 12 Barkan, Elliott R., 263, 264 Bar mitzvah, 229 "Barred Zone" act (1917), 362 Barry, John, 86 Bartök, Bela, 235, 301 Beaugrand, Honore, 259-261, 262 Beecher, Lyman, 267 Beer industry, 150 Beijbom, Ulf, 98, 169 Bell, Daniel, 198 Bellow, Saul, 398 Belmont, August, 157 Benjamin, Judah Philip, 229 Bennett Law (1890), 160 Berkhofer, Robert, 105 Berlin, Irving, 231 Bernardin, Joseph, 197 Bernstorfl, Johann Heinrich von, 148 Bettelheim, Bruno, 398 Bicentennial, American, 407 Bilingualism, 159-160 Billikopf, Jacob, 232 Billington, Ray Allen, 266, 267 Biographical Directory of American Labor Leaders (Fink), 227 Birchall, R. A., 138 Birth Dearth, The (Wattenberg), 400 Bishop's Hill, Illinois, 167-168 Black Cubans, 375 "Black legend," 5 Blacks, 65; great migration of, 310; naturalization statutes and, 113- 114; relations with other ethnic groups, 136-137, 317, 323, 376; white-black race relations, 106-107; See also AfroAmericans; Slaves, African Bloom, Lena, 247 B'nai Jeshurun, 155 Boarder-keepers, 236 Boat people, 369, 379-380 Bodnar, John, 214 Bogen, Boris, 232 Boogaart, Ernst van den, 88 Border controls, 391 Border crossers, 311, 397; See also Illegal aliens Bordley, William, 38-39 Boss politics, 144-145 Boston, immigrants in, 130, 137, 267 Boston's Immigrants (Handlin), 137 Boulter, Hugh, 78 Bowdoin, James, 94 Boyes, Roger, 387 Boyesen, Hjalmar Hjorth, 175-176 Bracero program, 305-306, 310-311 Bradfield, Jonathan, 74 Bradford, William, 44, 50, 56 Brain drain, 19 Brandauer, Klaus Maria, 385 Brandeis, Louis D., 228 Brazil, immigration to, 24-25 Brice, Fanny, 231 Brighton Beach, Soviet Jews in, 385 Bristol records, 35 Britain, emigration from (1901-10), 188; See also English immigrants British Passenger Acts, 128 British Women's Emigration Association, 179 Bronck, Jonas, 177 Brown, Mary, 141 Brumidi, Constantino, 191-192 Bukowczyk, John, 222 Bull, Ole, 173 Bulosan, Carlos, 357 Bureaucracy, creation of immigration, 274 Bush, George, 380, 386, 406 Butler, Jon, 93, 94-95 C Cable Act (1922), 281 Caboto, Giovanni (John Cabot), 189 Cabral, Pedro Alvares, 15 Cahan, Abraham, 230 Cahensly, Peter Paul, and Cahenslyism, 154 Cajuns. See Acadians California: Asian Indians in, 360-361; Chinese immigrants in (1870-1930), 240, 241-243; Cuban Americans in, 373; Filipinos in, 356, 357, 359; German Jews in, 155; gold rush (1849), 239, 314; Hispanic population in (1987), 372; Italian farmers in, 193- 194; Japanese Americans in, 250, 251, 253-254; Mexicans in, 96-97, 308, 314-317; Vietnamese in, 369 California Alien Land Acts of 1913 and 1920, 211 Californians for Population Stabilization, 398 Californios, 313, 314; See also Mexican immigrants and Mexican Americans Calvert, Cecilius, 42 Calvert, Charles, 43 Calvert, George, 41-42 Cambodians, 368, 369-370 Caminetti, Anthony, 199 Camoens, Luis de, 4, 5 Campanilismo, 197 Campbell, Mildred, 33, 35 Canada, 116, 309; immigration from, 258-264, 292- 293, 328; immigration to, 24, 25, 111, 135, 406 Canary Islands, 14 Cane sugar industry, 53-54 Canny, Nicholas, 102 Cape Fear Valley, 84 Capitalism, slavery and, 53-54 Caribbean islands, slaves brought to, 61, 62 Caribbeans, 55, 307, 348-349, 371, 372-380 Carnegie, Andrew, 84 Carroll, Charles, 86, 116 Carroll, John, 86, 116 Carter, Jimmy, 344, 345, 347- 348, 380 Cäsali, G. F. Secci de, 193 Casas, Bartolome de las, 9 Castle Garden, immigrant depot at, 272 Castro, Fidel, 336, 347, 372, 373, 374 Catapusan, Benicio T., 356 Catholicism, 423, 69-70, 85; anti-Catholicism, 109, 265, 266-269, 275; French Canadian, 261-263; Irish, 138-140, 319, 320; Italian, 197-198; Mexican American, 319-320; Polish American, 220-222; Puerto Rican, 325 Cavalier vs. Puritan archetypes, 43 Celtic fringe of Britain, 87 Census Bureau, U.S., 308, 311, 312, 318, 320, 323, 400 Censuses, 31, 276, 280, 282, 283 Center for Immigration Studies, 398 Central Americans, 307, 380- 384, 405 Central Intelligence Agency, 331 Cermak, Anton, 282 Chain (serial) migration, 19, 130, 141 Chamberlain, Joseph, 187 Chan, Sucheng, 243 Charitable Irish Society, 86 Chavez, Cesar, 319, 320 Chavez, Linda, 399 Chazanoff, William, 197 Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 114 Chesapeake region, tobacco industry in, 40 Chew, Ng Poon, 249 Chicago, immigrants in, 148, 169-171, 200 Chicanos, 313, 319 Children, forced immigration of, 35-36 China, new pressures from, 40506 China Men (Kingston), 355 Chinatowns, 171, 242- 243, 355 Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association, 244 Chinese Educational Mission of 1872-81, 248 Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, 239, 245, 246- 247, 265, 271-272, 304, 311 Chinese immigrants and Chinese Americans, 126, 138, 171, 252, 253; acculturation, 247-250; age distribution in 1920, 251; community, 243- 246, 354-355; in contiguous U.S. (1870-1930), 240; coolie trade, 240-241, 248; crime, 245; discrimination against, 245-247, 271-272; education, 354; financing of migration, 241; income, 354; from 1940-1980, 351, 353-356; nineteenth century, 239-250; occupations, 243, 355; quota for, 328; religion, 244; settlement patterns, 240, 241-243, 355; sex ratio, 241, 246, 251; World War II and, 302, 304-305 Chinese Six Companies, 244-245 Cholera, 135, 169 Chung family (musicians), 368 Cilicia, 209 Cincinnati, German Jews in, 155 Cities, migration to, 185; See also specific cities Citizenship, uniform national, 270-271 City of Glasgow (ship), 134-135 Civil Rights Act of 1964, 338 Civil War, immigrants in, 270 Clans, Chinese, 244 Clap, Roger, 47 Clark, Dennis, 137-138 Clay, Henry, 266 Clemente, Roberto, 325 Clergy, absence of educated, 82 Cleveland, Grover, 270, 272, 277 Clifford, Mary Dorita, 357 Clines, Francis X., 401 Code Napoleon, 91 Cold War, 305, 331, 334, 335-337 College of New Jersey (Princeton), 82 Colombians, 378 Colonial identity, 8-9, 102, 104 Colonial period, immigration in, 30-100; Dutch, 66, 67- 68, 88-90, 97; English, 30-52; French, 66, 90- 96; German, 69-77; indentured immigrants, 34- 41, 46, 48; Irish, 85-87; Jews, 98-100; in Maryland, 41-43, 75; in New England, 43-52; Scotch Irish, 52, 69, 77-82; Scots, 82-85; Spanish, 67-68, 88, 96-97; Swedes, 97-98; in Virginia, 32-35, 36, 40-41, 63; Welsh, 87; See also Slavery Colorado, Hispanics in (1987), 372 Columbus, Christopher, 15 Commerce clause of Constitution, 269 Commission on Immigration and Naturalization, 332-333 Commission on the Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, 303 Communism, refugees from, 335-337 Congress. See specific immigration legislation Connor, Roger, 398, 399 Constantine I, King, 205 Constitution, U.S., 112-113, 246, 269, 270-271, 281 Convict immigrants, 35 Conzen, Kathleen N., 150, 151-152 Cooke, Alistair, 398 Coolidge, Calvin, 281, 283 Coolie trade, Chinese, 240-241, 248 Cornelius, Wayne, 396-397 Coronado, Francisco Väsquez de, 10 Cortes, Hernän, 4, 9 Cotton industry, slavery and, 54 Coughlin, Charles E., 154 Council of Economic Advisors, 390 Counterstream migration, 20-21 Coureurs de bois, 10 Courtship of Miles Standish, The (poem), 44 Cream William, 38 Creoles, 9 Cressy, David, 34, 45-46, 47, 50, 51 Crevecoeur, Michael-Guillaume-Jean de, 17, 101-102 Crime, 83, 198, 245 Cromwell, Oliver, 83, 85 Cronkite, Walter, 398, 399 Crosby, Alfred, 7, 133 Crusades, 13 Cuba, 336, 347-349, 373, 374 Cuban Americans, 323, 371, 372-376, 380 Cuban missile crisis (1962), 373 Cuban Refugee program, 376 Cultural pluralism, 305 Cunard Line, 186-187 Curtin, Philip, 61 Czechoslovakia, post-1948 refugees from, 331 D Dabroski, Joseph, 221 da Gama, Vasco, 15 Dahomey and Dahomeans, 58, 59 Daignault, Elphege, 263 Dale, Thomas, 35 Damrosch, Leopold and Walter, 163 Daniels, Josephus, 1 u Danish, 164, 176-18 da Ponte, Lorenzo, Dare, Virginia, 32 Darien, settlement at, 83 Darwinian evolution, misapplication of, 276 Daughters of the American Revolution, 296 Davis, Kingsley, 400 Dawes Act (1887), 114 Dayal, Har, 361 Declaration of Independence, 111-112, 116 DeConcini, Dennis, 402 DeLancey, Oliver, 99 DeLancey family, 94, 111 Democratic party, Irish and, 144 Department of Defense, 331 Deportation, 83, 85, 312-313 Depression of 1890s, 275 Detente, 384 Detroit, Arab immigrants in, 208 Dias, Bartholomeu, 15 Diaz, Jose, 315 Diaz, Justino, 326 Dick, James, 84 Dickinson, John, 111 Dickinson College, 82 Dietrich, Laura J., 383 Di Giorgio brothers, 193-194 Dillingham, William P., 280 Dillingham quota bill, 280-281 Dinnerstein, Leonard, 331 Discrimination. See Nativism; specific immigrant groups Displaced persons, 301, 329-335 Displaced Persons Act of 1948, 330-332 Dolan, Jay P., 139 Dominican Americans, 371, 376-378 Donaldson, Gordon, 82, 83 Donato, Pietro di, 195 Dongan, Thomas, 86 Doräti, Antal, 235 Douglass, Frederick, 56 Draft riots in New York City (1863), 136 Dreiser, Theodore, 149 Duarte, Jose Napoleon, 382 DuBois, W. E. B., 59, 65 Dukhobors, 210 Duncan, John Donald, 105-106 Dunkards, 70 Du Pont, Victor Marie, 114 Dutch immigrants, 66, 67-68, 88-90, 97 Duvalier, Francois and Jean-Claude, 378 E Eastern Europeans, 212-214, 406; See also Hungarians; Jews; Poles East Friesland, 88 Eburne, Richard, 33 Economy, volume of migration and, 22 Edding, Friedrich, 26 Edict of Nantes (1598), 93 Education. See under specific immigrant group Edwards v. California, 112 Efficiency of migratory streams, 20-21 Einstein, Albert, 300, 301, 359 Eisenhower, Dwight D, 148, 333, 336, 338, 373 Elective Governors Act (1947), 321 Eliot, John, 105 Ellis Island, 272- 274, 289, 340, 408 El Postillön (newspaper), 321 El Salvador, refugees from, 381, 382 Emancipation Act of 1829, 133 Emergency Quota Act of 1921, 289, 292 Emigrants, The (Moberg), 167 Emigration from United States, 25-28, 111; 1921-1945, 287-288, 289, 294, 295; See also under specific immigrant groups Employers, sanctions against, 392, 395-396, Employment eligibility, 392, 394-395 Enemy alien status, 302-303 English as official language, 318, 398-399 English colonial society, 10-11 English immigrants: attitudes of, 103-104. colonial and early-post- colonial period 30-52; conflicting claims of loyalty for 104; convicts, 35; impediments faced by, 48-49 489; indentured, 34-41; kidnapped 35; in Maryland, 413; mortality among seventeenth- century, 32-33, in New England, 43-52; provisioning 478; return migration, 26; sea transport and fare. 49-51; settlement patterns, 67-68; in Virginia, 32-36, 40-41 English Revolution, 51 Entertainment industry, Jews in, 231-232 Era of Good Feeling, 266 Erickson, Charlotte. 212 Erie Canal, 130 Eriksson, Leif, 14 Erwin, Sam, 340 Eskimos, 3 Esterlin, Richard A., 28-29 Ethnic enclave, 170-171 Ethnicity, 25, 94-95, 198; ethnic relations, 107-112; See also Nativism; specific immigrant groups Ethnocide, 105 Ettor, Joseph J., 200 Europe: intra-European movements, 25-27; population (1600-2000), 15-16; premodern mass migrations into, 11-13 Europe, migration from, 3-29; Age of Discovery and, 3-4; colonial identity problem and, 8-9; before Columbus, 11-16; in comparative perspective, 23-29; destinations, 23-25; gender ratios, 27-28; immigration myths and, 17-18; laws of migration and, 16-22; major streams of (ca. 1820), 6; motives for migration, 4, 5; in 1921-1945, 290; population and/or labor policies of colonizers and, 5-11; population growth and, 15-16, 24; Portuguese navigators, 14-15; return migration, 25- 26; Thistlewaite's thesis on, 23-24, 26; Vikings, 14; See also specific immigrant groups European Economic Community, 396 European superiority, notion of, 4-5 Evangelise (Longfellow), 91 Expatriation Act of 1907, 281 F Fabricy, Mihäly Koväts de, 232 FAIR (Federation for American Immigration Reform), 398, 399 Family: Chinese associations, 244; preference system, 341, 342, 343, 399-400, 401, 402; reunification of, 255, 293, 305, 332, 339, 340, 342 Famine in Ireland, 126- 127, 133-140 Faneuil, Andre, 94 Farmer-Labor party, 172 Farm Workers movement, 319 Far West, Irish experience in, 138 Federal government, immigration administration by, 272-274 Federalists, 114-115, 116 Felsenthal, Bernhard, 158 Ferrer, Jose, 326 Ferris, Elizabeth G., 383 Festa, 197 Fifth Chinese Daughter (Wong), 355 Filipinos, 278, 279, 294, 328, 351, 356-360 Fink, Gary, 227 Finns, 98, 235-236 Fitzgerald, Joseph P., 324 Flemings, 88, 89 Flores Magon brothers, 309 Florida, immigrants in, 96, 372, 373, 374 Flynn, Elizabeth Gurley, 144 Folk religion, 325 Foraker Act (1900), 321 Ford, Gerald R., 303, 345 Foreign-born population (1910.-80), 403-404 Fort Christina, 97 Fort Nassau, 88, 97 Fourteenth Amendment, 246, 270-271 France, 27, 114 Franciscans, 96 Frankfurter, Felix, 297 Franklin, Benjamin, 52, 104, 109-110, 161, 190, 218, 265, 391 Franklin, John Hope, 63 Franks, Jacob, 99 Franks, Phila, 99 Frazier, E. Franklin, 60 Frederickson, George, 110 Free-Soil party, 270 Free willers, 72 French Canadians, 258-264 French colonial society, 10 French in colonial America, 66, 67-68, 88, 90-96 Fresno region, Armenians of, 210-211 Freyre, Gilberto, 61 Frisians, 88, 89 Fürstenwarther, Moritz von, 73-74 Fur traders, 10 Furuseth, Andrew, 174 G Gadar Movement, 361-362 Galbraith, John Kenneth, 390 Galenson, David, 51 Garibaldi, Giuseppe, 192 Garment industry, 200, 226-227 Gastarbeiter (guest workers), 23 Gender ratios, 27-28, 141-142, 179-180, 241, 246, 251 Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907-8, 255, 256, 280, 293, 357 George, Henry, 314 German-American Alliance, 278 Germanic invasions, 12 German immigrants and German Americans, 52, 145- 164; in colonial America, 69-77; culture, 159- 164, 171; defined, 69; discrimination against, 108, 109-110, 265, 267-269; divisions among, 152-159; indentured servitude, 71-75; Irish compared with, 145-146; Jews, 155-158, 194, 227-228; language maintenance, 152, 159-161; migration patterns, 19, 73; motives for migration, 70, 147-149; occupations, 76, 148- 152; in Pennsylvania, 76-77, 151; problems in identifying, 147; radicals, 148; refugees in 1930s, 296-302; religion, 70, 147-148, 265, 267-269; Scotch Irish compared with, 81; settlement patterns, 66, 67-68, 76, 79, 149-150, 151; stereotypes, 151; volume of immigration, 146, 188, 292 German Society of Maryland, 75 Germantown, Pennsylvania, 19, 69 Germany, 149, 152 Ghana, 57 Ghettos, 170, 195 Giannini, Amadeo Pietro, 194 Gibran, Kahlil, 208 Gibson, Woolman, "the 3d.," 38 Giovannitti, Arturo, 200 Glasnost, 384, 386, 387, 406 Glazer, Nathan, 17-18, 338, 408 Gleason, Philip, 117, 305 Glengarry County, 111 Godfather, The (film), 199 Gold, Mike, 227 Golondrinas, las, 26 Gorbachev, Mikhail, 386, 406 Goren, Arthur, 225, 226 Graft, honest, 145 Graham, Otis, 398 Graham, Richard, 39 Grant, Madison, 296 Greasers, 314, 315 Great Depression of 1930s, 21, 22, 237, 283, 287, 294- 296 Great Migration of 1630s, 44-46 Great Philadelphia Road, 79 Great Plains Indians, 8 Great Society, 338, 339 Greek American Progressive Association (GAPA), 205, 206 Greeks, 11-12, 20, 188, 201-206 Greene, Victor R., 220 Greenland, 14 Grosse Isle, 135 Grundtvig faction, 182 Guadalupe-Hidalgo, Treaty of (1848), 308 Guatemala, refugees from, 381, 382 Guggenheim, Simon, 229 Guggenheim family, 156 Gustavus Adolphus College, 171 H Haiti, history of, 378 Haitian immigrants, 348-349, 378-380 Haitian religion, 59 Hakluyt, Richard, 32 Haley, Alex, 55 Hall, Prescott F., 276 Hamburg-Amerika line, 186 Hamilton, Alexander, 111, 114 Hampden-Sydney, 82 Handlin, Oscar, 129-130, 131, 132, 13 7, 214 Hansen, Marcus Lee, 128-129, 183, 407 Hanson, John, 98 Haraszthy, Agaston, 232 Harding, Warren G., 280, 281 Harney, Robert, 19-20 Harris, Joel Chandler, 60 Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups (HEAEG), 212, 294, 308 Hatch, Orrin G., 39900, 402 Hawaii, immigrants in, 250, 356, 357 Hawgood, John, 163-164 Hayakawa, Samuel L, 362, 398, 399 Haymarket riot (1886), 148, 200 Hazard of New Fortunes. A (Howells), 148 Head taxes, 269, 272 Hebrew, 223, 224 Hebrew Union College (HUC), Refugee Scholars Project, 298 Henderson v. Mayor of New York, 272 Henrique Navegador, Infante, 14-15 Herskovits, Melville J., 56, 59, 60-61 Hesburgh, Theodore M., 389, 390, 391 Hessians, 75-76 Hickey, William, 262-263 Higginson, Francis, 47-48 Higham, John, 100, 109, 183, 281 Hispanics, 326, 372; See also Central Americans; Cuban Americans; Mexican immigrants and Mexican Americans; Puerto Ricans History of Plimmoth Plantation (Bradford), 44 Hitler, Adolf, 296, 297, 331 Hmong, 368, 369-370 Hoar, George Frisbie, 271 Ho Chi Minh, 27, 368 Hod Carriers and Building Laborers, 200 Hodur, Francis, 221 Hofstadter, Richard, 11, 28, 122 Hong Kong, 355, 397, 405-406 Hoover, Herbert, 281, 295, 399 Howells, William Dean, 148 Huerta, Victoriano, 309 Hughes, John, 139 Huguenots, 90, 93-95, 96 Huguenots in America, The (Butler), 93 Hull, Cordell, 297 Hungarians, 232-237 Hutchinson, Anne, 51 Hvidt, Kristian, 166, 176-177, 178, 180, 181 I Iacocca, Lee, 407 Iceland, discovery of, 13-14 Icelanders, 165-166 Identity card, forgery-proof, 391, 395 Iglesias, Santiago, 321 Illegal aliens, 293, 311- 313, 377, 391-397, 401-402, 403 "Immigrant gifts," 98 Immigrant tradition, rediscovery of, 407 Immigration: economic arguments for continued, 400; migration vs., 3; 1921--45, 288, 289, 290; 1931-84 (by region), 334-335; 1941-87, major streams of, 291; 1977-80, volume and categories, 344; 1981-90, legal, 404; volume and source of, at turn of century, 274- 275 Immigration Act: of 1924, 69, 265, 282-284, 292- 294, 328; of 1965, 336-344, 345, 363 Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), 311, 312, 331, 392, 397 Immigration bill (1989), 402-403, 406 Immigration law (1948-80), 328-349; Cold War refugees and, 335-337; displaced persons and new pattern of immigration, 329-335; family preference system, 341, 342, 343, 39900, 401, 402; Immigration Act of 1965, 336-344, 345, 363; McCarran-Walter Act, 329, 332-334, 335-336, 339, 341, 342, 358; Mariel crisis and ambiguity of refugee policy, 347- 349; Refugee Act of 1980, 344, 345-347 Immigration Reform Act of 1986, 344, 389, 391-397 Immigration Restriction League, 276, 283 Income. See under specific immigrant group Indentured immigrants, 341, 46, 48, 74-75, 241 Indian Freedom movement, 361 Indians, American, 7-8, 10-11, 104- 106, 114 Indians, Asian. See Asian Indians Industrialization, 122 Inge, Robert W., 164 In-hwan, Chang, 365 Inner Mission faction, 182 Instad, Helge, 14 Intelligence, immigrant, 166 Internal Security Act of 1950, 1950, 115 International Ladies Garment Workers' Union (ILGWU), 200 International Refugee Organization (IRO), 330 Inuit, 3 Invisible immigrants, 212 Involuntary migration, 83 Iranian hostage crisis, 388 Ireland: emigration from, 18, 121, 188; famine years, 126-127, 133-140; migration to, 34; women's position in, 141 Irish Echo (newspaper), 402 Irish immigrants and Irish Americans, 126-145, 184; blacks' relations with, 136-137; Catholicism of, 138-140, 319, 320; chain (serial) migration pattern, 130, 141; in colonial America, 85-87; to countries other than United States, 127, 128, 135; discrimination against, 108-109, 131, 138-139, 265, 267-269; from 1864-1930, 140-145; famine period of immigration, 126, 133-140; French Canadians' relations with, 262-263; illegal aliens, 401-402; impact of, 127-128; indentured servitude, 86; networks of, 143; nonfamily character of immigration, 141-142; occupations, 133, 136, 142-143; in politics, 144-145; prefamine immigration, 128-132; return migration, 26, 127; "second colonization of New England" by, 128-130, 142; settlement patterns, 67-68, 133, 136, 142; sex ratio, 141-142; shipboard mortality, 134-135; socioeconomic status, 136-137; Swedes' relations with, 170; trade unionism, 144; working women, 131-132, 143 Irish Immigration Reform Movement, 402 Islamic invaders, 12-13 Israel, Soviet Jews in, 385 Issei (first-generation Japanese), 255 Italian immigrants and Italian Americans, 24, 188-201; in American radical movement, 200-201; crime and, 198; Emergency Quota Act and, 292; explorers and conquerors, 189-190; motives for migration, 190, 192; occupations, 190-196, 203, 204; political aspirations, 199-200; political exiles, 192; refugees, 331; religion, 192, 197-198; return migration, 25- 26, 189, 194-195; settlement patterns, 192-193, 195; stream pattern of migration, 19-20; village organization and loyalties, 196-197; volume of migration, 188-189, 292 Italy, uneven modern development of, 190 J Jackson, Andrew, 80, 266 Jackson, Henry M., 374 Jackson, Jesse, 317 Jackson amendment (1972), 374 Jacobites, 83 James, Henry, 289 James I of England, King, 40 Jamestown, New York, 171 Jamestown, Virginia, 32-33 Jansson, Eric, 167-168 Janssonists, 167-168 Japan: Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907-8, 255, 256, 280, 293, 357; Immigration Act of 1924 and, 283; occupation of Korea, 365, 366 Japanese American Citizens League, 333, 341 Japanese Association of America, 256 Japanese immigrants and Japanese Americans, 24-25, 315; acculturation, 256-257; age and sex distribution (1920), 252; in contiguous United States (1900-1930), 250; demographic data 1940-1980, 351, 352-353; discrimination against, 254-255, 278, 279, 302-304; early (1869-1924), 250-258; education, 257, 353; income, 353; motives for migration, 250, 253; occupations, 203, 204, 253, 255-256; outmarriage, 353; religion, 257; settlement patterns, 250-251, 253- 254; World War II and, 302-304 Jay, John, 107-108 Jeanne La Fileuse (Jeanne the Mill Girl) (Beaugrand), 259-261 Jefferson, Thomas, 41, I11- 112, 116, 190-191, 372 Jeffersonians, 115, 116 Jesuits, 96 Jewish Daily Forward (newspaper), 230- 231 Jewish Joint Distribution Committee, 387 Jews, 276, 329; admitted from 1948-1952, 331-332; anti- Semitism, 100, 228, 296-302; in colonial America, 98-100; culture, 227-228; Eastern European, 223- 232; educational commitment, 229-230; German, 155-158, 194, 227-228; Hungarian, 235; motives for migration, 223, 224; obstacles to migration, 224- 225; occupations, 226, 230-232; in politics, 229; press journalism, 230-231; refugees from 1930s and World War II, 296-302; religious devotion, 229; religious persecution of, 223-224; return migration. 26, 225, 386; Russian, 224-225, 226; settlement patterns, 226; Soviet, 384-387, 406 Johanson, Donald, 3 Johnson, Albert, 282-284 Johnson, Hiram W., 358 Johnson, Lyndon B., 339, 340-341, 345, 373 Johnstown, Pennsylvania, 236-237 Jones, Benjamin Franklin, 229 Jones, Maldwyn A., 54, 103 Jones Act of 1917, 321 Jordan, David Starr, 254 Josselyn, John, 50 Jouges, Isaac, 89 Jufvrouw Johanna (ship), 75 Julia, Raul, 326 K Kahn, Otto, 163 Kellogg, Mary L., 248 Kelly, Paul (Paolo Antonio Vaccarelli), 199, 200 Kennedy, Edward M., 347, 402, 403 Kennedy, John F., 338- 339, 373 Kennedy, Robert F., 319-320 Kensington Stone, 14 Kern, Jerome, 231 Kidnapped persons, forced immigration of, 35-36 Kiernan, Rosie, 401 Kingston, Maxine Hong, 355 Kino, Eusebio Francesco, 190 Kirk, Dudley, 26-27 Kissinger, Heinz (Henry), 302 Kitano, Harry H. L., 352, 366 Kjellberg, Isador, 170 Kleindeutschland, 150 Knobel, Dale T., 110 Know-Nothing party, 269, 270, 274, 275 Koch, Ed, 312 Koerner, Gustave, 164 Korea, occupation by Japan, 365, 366 Korean Americans, 351, 364-368 Korean War, 310 Koreatown (Los Angeles), 367 Kösciuszko, Tadeusz, 219 Kossuth, Lajos, 232 Krefelders, 70 Kristallnacht, 298, 300 Kruska, Wenceslaus, 221 Kupperman, Karen, 32-33 Ky, Air Vice Marshal, 369 L Labor contractors, 196 La causa, 319 La Follette, Robert M., 172 La Guardia, Fiorello H., 195-196, 199, 273-274 Laguerre, Michel, 379 Landsmanschaftn, 228 Language maintenance, 159 L'Anse aux Meadows, 14 Laotians, 368, 369-370 Laqueur, Walter, 301 Lassen, Peter, 177 Latin American immigration, 305-306, 307, 333-334; See also Caribbeans; Central Americans; specific countries Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 13 Laud, William, 43 Law, Negro slavery and, 106 Lazarus, Emma, 17, 271 League of Nations, 297 League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), 313 Lebanese, 206 L'Echo du Canada (newspaper), 260 Le Havre, 149 Lehman, Herbert H., 297, 299 Lehman family, 155 Lemon, James, 76, 87 Letters from an American Farmer (Crevecoeur), 101-102 Lewkowitz, Albert, 298- 299 Leyburn, James, 78, 81 Liberty Weekend (1986), 407-408 "Likely to become a public charge" (LPC) clause, 274, 295, 296, 310, 340, 362 Lincoln, Abraham, 248 Lippman, Walter, 281 List, Friedrich, 73 Literacy test, 276-279, 310 Literature, contributions to, 162, 355 Little Haiti (Miami), 379 Little Havana (Miami), 374 Little Sicily (Chicago), 170 Lodge, Henry Cabot, 276 Logan, James, 80 Log cabin, 98 London, migration to, 34 Londos, Jim, 206 Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth, 44, 91 Longtime Californ' (Nee and Nee), 246 Los Angeles, immigrants in, 254, 315-317, 367 Louisiana, immigrants in, 90-92, 96 Louis XIV of France, king, 70, 93 Loyalists, 111 Lusiads, The (Camoens), 4 Lutherans/Lutheranism, 152-153, 171- 172, 174-175, 182 Lyon, Matthew, 36 M McCarran, Patrick A., 329, 333 McCarran-Walter Act (1952), 329, 332-334, 335-336, 339, 341, 342, 358 McCarthy, Eugene, 319-320 McCarthy, Margaret, 130 McGee, Thomas D'Arcy, 132 Machine politics, 144-145 McIntyre, James Francis Cardinal, 320 McKinley, William, 279 McWilliams, Carey, 253, 316 Madero, Francisco, 309 Mafia syndrome, 198-199 Maggio, Antonio (James March), 199-200 Magyar immigrants. See Hungarians Maine, anti- Catholicism in, 267-268 Makemie, Francis, 77-78 Mali, 57 Manhattan Project, 301 Manigault family, 94 Mann, Thomas, 162, 300 Mansfield, Lord, 106 March, James (Antonio Maggio), 199-200 Marcos, Imelda and Ferdinand, 356 Marcus, Jacob Rader, 156, 174 Mariel crisis (1980), 347-349, 374 Marimpetri, Anzuino D., 200 Marin, Francisco Gonzalo, 321 Marshall, F. Ray, 390 Marshall, John, 269 Marshall, Louis, 228 Marti, Jose, 373 Martinique, 5. Marty, Martin, 95 Marx, Karl, 148 Maryland, immigrants in, 41-43, 75 Mascagni, Pietro, 191 Masons, 267 Massachusetts, immigrants in, 446, 93-94, 105, 107, 267-268 Massachusetts Bay Company, 49 Matamoros, 12 Mather, Cotton, 43, 93 Mather, Richard, 49 Mayflower, 44 Mazzei, Philip, 190 Mazzoli, Romano L., 392 Mazzoli-Simpson Bills, 39I-392, 398 Mazzuchelli, Samuele C., 192 Means, defined, 17 Mediterranean, immigrants from, 185-188; See also Arabs; Armenians; Greeks; Italian immigrants and Italian Americans Meier, August, 55 Meitner, Lise, 301 Melting Pot myth, 8, 17-18 Menard, Russell, 42 Mennonites, 70 Mestizos, 9-10 Mexican immigrants and Mexican Americans, 326-327; acculturation, 317-320; blacks and, 317; bracero program, 305-306, 310-311; community, 308, 313-320; discrimination against, 313-320; education, 317-318; emigration during Great Depression, 295; illegal aliens, 311-313; income, 318; language, 318-319; motives for migration, 309-311; naturalization rates, 317; occupations, 26, 309, 312-313, 318; population estimates on, 308-309; religion, 319-320; repatriation program for, 307, 310; settlement patterns, 96-97, 307-308, 309, 310, 314-317, 318; twentieth century migration, 292-293. 294, 309-320 Mexican revolution (1909), 307, 309, 333 Mexican War (1846-47), 307-308 Mexico, 7, 309, 382 Meyer, Michael A., 298 Meyer, Robert T., 161 Meyer v. Nebraska, 161 Miami, immigrants in, 374, 379 Michigan Bureau of Labor, 275 Migrants, characteristics of, 18-19 Migrant workers, Mexican, 312-313 Migration: immigration vs., 3; laws of, 16- 22; myths, 8, 11, 17-18, 43, 52, 56-61, 79-81 Milieu - Frömmigkeit, 229 Miller, Kerby, 134, 135-136, 141 Miller, William, 339 Mill towns, New England, 259-261 Milne, Alexander, 84 Milwaukee, 162 Minnesota, Swedish immigrants in, 168-169 Mintz, Sidney, 53 Missionaries, 105 Missouri Synod, 153 Mittelberger, Gottlieb, 72-73 Moberg, Vilhelm, 167 Modell, John, 254 Modernization, 149 Moley, Raymond, 297 Molnär, Ferenc, 235 Molokans, 210 Moltmann, Günter, 72, 73-74 Mondale, Walter, 296 Monk, Maria, 268-269 Montezuma, 9 Moors, 12 Morais, Sabato, 192 Moravians, 70 Moreschi, James, 200 Morgan, Edmund S., 32, 36, 63 Morgenstern, Julian, 298 Morison, Samuel Eliot, 15, 46 Mormino, Gary, 373 Mormons/Mormonism, 177-178, 274 Morris, Gouverneur, 112 Morrison, Bruce, 348-349 Mortality, immigration and, 32-33, 36, 50, 63, 64, 134-135 Morton, John (ne Mortenson), 98 Morwaska, Eva, 214, 219, 236-237 444 Moscowitz, Belle, 232 Mother tongue data, 215-218 Motion picture industry, 204, 231 Mount Lebanon, 206 Moynihan, Daniel P., 17-18 Mozygemba, Leopold, 220 Mühlenberg, Henry M., 109 Minder, William, 168 Munch, Peter, 173 Mundelein, George Williams, Cardinal, 153-154 Munoz Marin, Luis, 321 Musa, Mansa, 57 Music, German American, 162-163 Muslims, 208-209 Myrdal, Gunnar, 317, 323 Myth of the Negro Past, The (Herskovits), 56 Myths, migration, 8, 11, 17-18, 43, 52, 56-61, 79-81 N Naff, Alixa, 207, 208, 209 Naipaul, V. S., 334--335 Nash, Gary, 106, 110 Nassy, David, 99 Nast, Thomas, 144 National Association of Manufacturers, 280 National Catholic Welfare Council, 333 Nationalism: American, 115-118; English, 108 National Origins Act. See Immigration Act of 1924 National origins system, 280-284, 332-334, 338, 339, 341 National Research Council, 312 Nation of Immigrants, A (Kennedy), 338 Native American Association, 269 Native Americans, 7-8, 10-11, 104-106, 114 Native Sons of the Golden State, 248-249 Nativism, 265-284; anti-all immigrants, 265, 275-284; anti-Asian, 245, 246-247, 265, 271-272, 278, 279; anti-Catholicism, 109, 265, 266-269, 275; economic grounds for, 275-276; "English only" movement of 1980s, 318, 398-399; in Era of Good Feeling, 266; Franklin and, 109; literacy test, 276-279, 310; modified, 333; in 1920s, 279-284, 399; in 1930s, 300; in 1980s, 388, 391, 397-407; Roosevelt (FDR) and, 296; white collar, 398; World War I and, 277- 278 Naturalization, 113-115, 266, 269-271 Naturalization Act: of 1795, 116; of 1870, 245-246 Natural-rights philosophy, 116 Navajo Indians, 8 Nazism, 296-302, 331 Nebraska, anti-German hysteria in, 160-161 Nee, Victor, and Brett de Barry, 246 Negro Family in the United States (Frazier), 60 Negro past, myth of, 56-61 Negro slavery, 9, 59-60, 63-64, 106-107 Neilsen, Neils Jensen, 180-181 Nelli, Humbert, 196 Netherlands, 88 Neumann, John von, 235 New Brunswick Seminary, 90 New Canal, 137 New England, immigrants in: English, 43-52; French Canadians, 259-264; Great Migration of 1630s, 44-46; indentured servants, 48; Irish, opposition to, 52; motives for migration, 46-47; myths about, 43; Pilgrims, 43-44; population growth, 51-52, 103-104; return migration, 51; "second colonization," 128-130; upward mobility, 46 Newfoundland, 41-42 New France (Canada), 10 New Jersey, English minority in, 103 New Mexico, immigrants in, 97, 308, 313- 314, 372 New Netherland, 88, 89 New Orleans, 91 New vs. old immigrants, 121-122, 183-184 New World, 3, 5, 15, 59 New World immigrants. See Mexican immigrants and Mexican Americans; Puerto Ricans New York: immigrants in, 93-94, 372, 373, 374; reception centers in, 272-274 New York City, 89-90; anti- Catholicism in, 267-268; Arab immigrants in, 208; draft riots (1863), 136; Italian immigrants in, 195; naturalization process in Era of Good Feeling, 266; Puerto Ricans in, 320, 321, 324; slavery in, 106-107 Nicaraguans, 381, 382-383, 405 Nicola, Louis, 191 Nineteenth Amendment, 281 Ninfo, Salvatore, 200 Nisei (second-generation Japanese), 255 Nixon, Richard, 338 Nizza, Marco da, 190 No Chinese Stranger (Wong), 355 Nonquota immigrants, 293-294 Norsemen (Vikings), 8, 14 North Carolina, Scotch-Irish settlement in, 79 Norwegians, 164, 172-176, 188 Nova Scotia, 91 Nuns, anti-Catholicism and view of, 268-269 O Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind (Franklin), 109 Occupational patterns, 122; See also specific immigrant groups Ocean Monarch (ship), 134 O'Connell, Daniel, 133 O'Faoläin, Sean, 133 Ohio, immigrants in, 159, 267-268 Old South culture, Africans and, 30 Old vs. new immigrants, 121-122, 183-184 On, Sing, 247 Operation Paperclip, 331 Operation Wetback, 312 Ormandy, Eugene, 235 Orsi, Robert, 197 Orthodox churches, 201, 204-205 Ostdeutsche, 331 Ottoman Turks, 13 Outmarriage, immigrant, 263-264, 324-325, 353 P Pacheco, Romualdo, 199 Pacific Northwest, Asian Indians in, 360 Padrone system, 19, 196 Pagden, Anthony, 102 Paine, Thomas, 190 Palatines, 70-71 Panama, 380 Pantages, Alexander, 204 Paper sons, 246-247, 253 Parker, Eli Samuel, 114 Parnas, 99 Parochial schools, 222, 262, 263 Parole programs, presidential, 300, 345 Passenger Cases, 269 Passenger shipping industry, 185-187 Pastorius, Francis Daniel, 70 Patroonships, 89 Peddlers, Arab, 207-208 Peel, Robert, 134 Peerson, Cleng, 173 Pei, I. M., 355 Peninsulares, 9 Pennsylvania, 76-79, 87, 103, 109-110, 151, 159 Pennsylvania "Dutch," 19, 70 Perestroika, 406 Perpetual Emigration Fund, 178 Peru, 347 Phelan, James, and James D. (son), 138 Philadelphia, Irish immigrants in, 137-138 Phillips, Ulrich Bonnell, 30 Picasso, Pablo, 58 Picon, Molly, 231 Picture-bride marriage, 255 Pierce v. Society of the Sisters, 161 Pilgrims, 43-44 Plaine Pathway to Plantations, A (Eburne), 33 Plantation, 64 Plunkitt, George Washington, 145 Pluralism, cultural, 305 Plymouth, 44 Plymouth Rock myth, 17 Poland, changing statuses of, 215 Poles, 214-223, 292; motives for migration, 219; nationalism, 221-222; occupations, 220; politics, 223; religion, 220-222; return migration, 219-220; settlement patterns, 220; unions and, 222-223; volume of immigrants, 214-219 Polish National Alliance (PNA), 222 Polish National Catholic Church, 221 Polish Roman Catholic Union (PRCU), 222 Political dissenters, deportation of, 83 Political refugees. See Refugees Politics, 144-145, 279; See also specific immigrant groups Polo, Marco, 4 Popular Democratic Party (Puerto Rico), 322 Population growth, immigration and nineteenth-century, 124-126 Population Reference Bureau, 397 Ports, emigrant (1907), 186 Portuguese explorers, 14-15 Potato famine, Irish, 126- 127, 133-136 Powderly, Terrence V., 144 Powell, Colin, SS Pozzetta, George, 373 Preference system, family, 341, 342, 343, 399-400, 401, 402 Prejudice. See Nativism; specific immigrant groups Presbyterians, 82 Press, ethnic, 161-162, 171-172, 175, 230-231, 321, 402 Priestley, Joseph, 114 Priests, 192, 268 Prohibition, 151, 281 Proportion of Provisions Needful for Such as Intend to Plant Themselves !n New England for One Whole Yeare, 48 Protestantism, 69, 85, 108; anti- Catholicism and, 109, 265, 266-269, 275 Puerto Rican Federal Relations law (1950), 321 Puerto Ricans, 22, 320-327 Puerto Rico, 320-323 Pulaski, Count Casimir, 218-219 Pull: defined, 17; migrants, 18 Purcell, John B., 194 Puritanism, 46-47 Puritan vs. Cavalier archetypes, 43 Push: defined, 17; migrants, 18 Puskäs, Julianna, 233-234 Puzo, Mario, 199 Q Quakers, 70, 83, 110 Quebec, French-speaking population of, 258-264 Queen Anne's War, 70 Quill, Michael J., 144 Quota systems: for Asians, 304, 328; Dillingham plan, 280-281; displaced persons and, 330, 331; Immigration Act of 1924, 69, 265, 282-284, 292-294, 328; McCarran-Walter Act as continuation of, 332; provisions for nonquota immigrants, 293-294 R Race relations, 104-107, 113-114; See also Slavery Racism, 4, 275-276, 283-284, 302-304; See also Nativism Rack renting, 77 Radicalism, 148, 200-201, 236, 279 Radical Republicans, 271 "Rainbow coalition," 317 Raleigh, Walter, 40 Ramgavars, 211 Rauber, professor, 179 Ravage, Marcus Eli, 102 Ravenstein, E. G., 16-22, 368, 380 Rayner, Isidor, 229 Reagan, Ronald, 80, 303, 380, 381, 386, 388, 390, 407 Reagan administration, 348 Reconquista, 12 Redemptioners, 36-37, 72-75; See also Indentured immigrants Red scare, 279 Reed, Rebecca T., 268 Refugee Act of 1980, 344, 345- 347 Refugee Relief Act (1953), 336 Refugees: admitted from 1981-1985, 346; ambiguity of policy toward, 347-349; camps, 71; Central American, 380-384; Cold War, 335-337; Cuban, 373-376; definitions of, 335, 346; Displaced Persons Act of 1948, 330-332; Haitians as economic, 379, 380; Hungarian, 232; Immigration Act of 1965 and, 337, 339, 345; Italian, 331; Japanese, 250; during 1930s and World War II, 296-302; persons admitted as (1945-80), 337; Southeast Asian, 345, 368- 370 Register, 75 Reimers, David, 374 Refiner, Fritz, 235 Religion, 59, 95, 116-117, 325; See also specific immigrant groups and religions Religious dissenters, deportation of, 83 Remigration. See Emigration from United States Rensselaer, Stephen Van, 90 Republican party platform of 1864, 270 Restauration (sloop), 173 Restrictive immigration policy, 271-284 Return migration. See Emigration from United States Revere, Paul, 94 Revolution, American, 80-81, 86, 104, 107-108, 111, 116-117, 218- 219, 378, 407 Rhee, Syngman, 365-366 Rhodesia, 57 Richman, Julia, 232 Rise of David Levinsky, The (Cahan), 230 Rivkind, Perry, 349 Roanoke, Virginia, 32 Rogers-Wagner bill, 299 Rolfe, John, 40 Rolph, James, Jr., 254 R¢lvaag, Ole E., 175-176 Roman Catholic Church in America, 138-140, 153-155; See also Catholicism Romans, 12 Roosevelt, Franklin Delano, 145, 153, 282, 295, 303, 304, 321, 336, 345; refugees of 1930s and World War II under, 296, 297-302 Roosevelt, Theodore, 4-5, 248, 254-255, 257, 270, 366, 380 Roots (Haley), 55 Rosati, Giuseppe, 192 Rosenblatt, Angel, 7 Rosenwald, Julius, 158 Ros-Lehtinen, Ileana, 376 Rowan, Carl, 390 Rowse, A. L., 33 Royce, Josiah, 314 Rubin, Yevgeny, 385-386 Rudwick, Elliott, 55 Rural vs. urban immigrants, 121-122 Rush, Benjamin, 100 Russell, John, 134 Russia, emigration from (1901-1910), 188 Russian Revolution, 211 Russian/Soviet Jews, 224-225, 226, 384-387, 406 Rust belt, 213 Rutgers College, 90 Ryan, John A., 154 S Sacco, Nicola, 201 Sagres, 15 Saint Augustine settlement, 96 St. John, J. Hector. See Crevecoeur, Michael -Guillaume-Jean de Saint Louis, bilingualism in, 159-160 Saint Louis (ship), 300 Saint Raphael Society, 154 Salem witchcraft trials (1692), 107 Saloutos, Theodore, 20, 118, 202 Saltonstall, Richard, 33 Sanctuary movement, 382, 383-384 Sandburg, Carl, 172 San Francisco, 242-243, 246; School Board Affair (1906), 256-257 Sängerfeste, 162-163 Sängvereine, 162 Saroyan, William, 210 Sauer, Christopher, 161 Saund, Dalip Singly 362, 363 Sbarboro, Andrea, 193 Scandinavians, 164-166; See also Danish; Norwegians; Swedes Scarface (film), 198 Schönberg, Arnold, 301 Schools, 159-161, 222, 262, 263 Schumer, Charles E., 396 Schurz, Carl, 148, 164 Schwartz, Maurice, 231 Schwenkfelders, 70 Scotch Irish, 52, 69, 77-82, 110 Scots in colonial America, 67-68, 82-85 Seaflower (ship), 78 Sea Islands, 60 Sea voyages, colonial, 49-51 Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy (1981), 345, 388, 389-391 Self-Realization Fellowship, 361 Seligman, Joseph, 156, 158 Sephardic Jews, 99 Serial (chain) migration, 19, 130, 141 Serra, Junipero, 96, 105 Servants, reluctance of native-born Americans to work as, 131-132 Settlement patterns, 66-69, 122; See also specific immigrant groups Shaplen, Robert, 328 Shearith Israel (synagogue), 155 Shelley v. Kraemer, 211 Shenandoah Valley, German settlement in, 79 Sherman, John, 248 Shima, George, 253-254 Shtetls, 227 Sikhs, 360 Simon, Joseph, 229 Simpson, Alan K., 391, 402, 403 Simpson-Mazzoli bills, 391-392, 398 Singh, Jagjit, 328, 362 Six Companies, Chinese, 244-245 Six Months in a Convent (Reed), 268 Skärdal, Dorothy Burton, 176 Skouras, Spyros, 204 Slavery: African, 9, 59-60, 63-64, 106-107; capitalism and, 53- 54; Constitution and, 112-113; cotton industry and, 54; Indian, 105-106; in Puerto Rico, 322-323 Slaves, African: Americanization of, 64-65; historical studies of, 54-55; illegal, 63, 113; lack of primary sources on, 55-56; material conditions, 64; mortality, 63, 64; myth of Negro past, 56-61; Old South culture and, 30; plantation, 64; rebellions of, 106-107; in Virginia, 63 Slave trade, African, 53-54, 56, 58, 61- 65, 113 Sleepy Lagoon case, 315 Slovaks, 212 Smith, Abbot, 33 Smith, Adam, 31-32, 51 Smith, Alfred E., 145, 282, 399 Smith, John, 32-33, 56 Social mobility, upward, 36, 42, 46, 73, 78-79, 198-199; See also specific immigrant groups Social reform and social work, Jewish influence on, 231-232 Society of Sons of St. George, 103 Socioeconomic status. See specific immigrant groups Sojourners, 51 Solomon, Barbara Miller, 276 Sold, Georg, 235 Songhai, 57 Soto, Mario, 377 South, absence of Roman Catholic churches in, 95 South Africa, 407 South Americans, 307 South Carolina, immigrants in, 66, 79, 94 Southeast Asian refugees, 345, 351, 368-370 Southwestern Louisiana, University of, 92 Soviet/Russian Jews, 224-225, 226, 384-387, 406 Spain, tricultural civilization in, 12 Spanier, Arthur, 298-299 Spanish Americans, 313; See also Mexican immigrants and Mexican Americans Spanish- American War of 1898, 320, 372 Spanish colonial society, 9-10 Spanish immigrants, 24, 67-68, 88, 96-97 Standish, Miles, 44 State Department, 297-300, 331 Statue of Liberty, 17, 40708 Steam-powered transportation, 185-186 Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 13 Steinbeck, John, 194 Stevens, Durham W., 365 Stratton, William G., 330 Strauss, Levi, 155 Stream migration, 19-20, 123 Streets of Fire (film), 385 Stricken Land, The (Tugwell), 321 Strikes, 200 Sudan, 57 Suffrage, legal alien, 266 Sumner, Charles, 271 Sunset Boulevard, 20 Sun Yat-sen, 192 Survivals, African cultural, 60 Swamis, 361 Swansea settlement, 87 Sweden, emigration from (1901-1910), 188 Swedes, 164, 166-172; in colonial America, 66-67, 97-98; settlement patterns, 66-69, 1220 168-171 Swede Town, 169, 170 Swierenga, Robert P., 89 Synagogues, 155 Syndicalist/anarchist movement, 200-201 Syrians, 206 Szell, George, 235 Szilard, Leo, 235, 301 T Tacitus, 12 Tacksmen, 83-84 Taft, William Howard, 277 Tammany Hall, 266 Tannenbaum, Frank, 61 Tanton, John, 398 Tashnags, 211 Tateos Cartozian case, 211 Taxes, head, 269, 272 Taylor, Albert Henry, 247 Taylor, George Washington, 247, 248 Taylor, Myron C., 300 Tejanos, 313; See also Mexican immigrants and Mexican Americans Teller, Edward, 235 Tennent, William, 82 Texas, Hispanics in, 96-97, 313, 372 Texas Rangers, 313 Thayer, Webster, 201 Theater, German American, 163 They Remember America (Saloutos), 20 Thistlewaite, Frank, 23-24, 26 Thomas, Theodore, 163 Thompson, Charles, 36, 79 Thompson, William "Big Bill," 282 Three-fifths compromise, 112 Thucydides, 11 Thurmond, Strom, 347 Tiananmen Square (1989), 355, 405, 406 Tickets, prepaid, 186 Tobacco industry, 42 Togoda Satsanaga Society, 361 Tongs, Chinese American, 245 Tourain, Levon, 211 Trade unionism, 144, 200, 222-223, 227, 275 Transplanted, The (Bodnar), 214 Transportation, 21-22, 185-186 Traveling salesmen, 157-158 Trevelyan, Charles, 134 Triangle Shirt Waist fire of 1911, 227 Triangular trades, 54 Truman, Harry S., 322, 329-330, 332, 339, 343 Tubman, Harriet, 384 Tucker, Sophie, 231 Tugwell, Rexford Guy, 321 Turkish migration, 13, 23, 202 Turner, Frederick Jackson, 76, 213, 276 Turner, Lorenzo, 60 Twain, Mark, 408 Tweed, William Marcy, 144 Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934), 358 U Ulster, 77, 82; See also Scotch Irish Underground Railroad, 384 "Unguarded Gates, The" (Aldrich), 275-276 Uniform national citizenship, 270-271 Unionism, 144, 200, 222-223, 227, 275 Union St. Jean-Baptiste D'Amerique (USJB), 263 United Farm Workers, 319 United Fruit Company, 380 United Nations, 322, 330, 382 United States Catholic Conference, 325 United States Immigration Commission, 388, 389 United States Navy, Filipinos in, 358-359 United States Supreme Court, 269, 272 Uprooted, The (Handlin), 214 Urbanization, 122 Urban vs. rural immigrants, 121-122 Ursuline Convent, burning of (1834), 267 US English, 398-399 Ushijima, Kinji. See Shima, George US Inc, 398 Utrecht, Treaty of (1713), 91 V Vaccarelli, Paolo Antonio (Paul Kelly), 199, 200 Vandals, 12 Vanzetti, Bartolomeo, 201 Vecoli, Rudolph J., 196-197 Vedanta Society, 361 Venizelos, Eleutherios, 205 Verrazano, Giovanni da, 189-190 Vespucci, Amerigo, 189 Veterans of Foreign Wars, 333 Vietnamese immigrants, 345, 351, 368-370 Vietnam War, 344, 345, 368 Vigo, Giuseppe Maria Francesco, 191 Vikings (Norsemen), 8, 14 Vineland, New Jersey, 193 Vineland Map hoax, 14 Virginia, colonial immigrants to, 32-36. 40-41, 63, 66 Visa abusers, 311 Visas for refugees in 1930s, 297-300 Vivekananda, Swami, 361 Vladeck, B. Charney, 230 VOLAGS (voluntary agencies), 330, 376, 392-393 Volkerwanderungen, 12 Volksblatt (newspaper), 162 Volksdeutsche, 331 Volume of migration, 18, 20-22, 122-124; See also specific immigrant groups Voodoo, 59 Voting Rights Act of 1965, 338 W Wade, Richard, 64 Wagner, Robert F., 145 Wahlgren, Erik, 14 Wald, Lillian, 232 Waldensians, 190 Walker, Francis Amasa, 28-29 Walker, Mack, 146 Walsh, Louis S., 262 Walther, C. F. W., 153 Wang, An, 355 Wang, Ling-chi, 354-355 Ward, John William, 80 War of Spanish Succession, 70 War Refugee Board (WRB), 301 Warren, Avra M., 298 Washington, George, 37-38, 100, 111, 116 Wattenberg, Ben J., 400 Wealth of Nations (Smith), 31-32 Welsh, 87 West Africa, 57, 58, 59 West Indies, immigrants from, 307 We Who Built America (Wittke), 213 Wheatley, Phillis, 56 White, Lynn, Jr., 4 White-black race relations, 106-107; See also Slavery White-collar nativism, 398 White Hand Society, 199 Whitfield, James, 139 Whitman, Marcus and Narcissa, 105 Wiback, Stina, 169 Wigner, Eugene, 235 Williams, George Washington, 106-107 Williams, Roger, 51, 56 Wilson, Woodrow, 145, 222, 277, 278, 280 Winthrop, John, 4, 7, 45, 51, 56 Winthrop, John (son), 45 Wisconsin, Bennett Law (1890), 160 Wise, Stephen S., 228, 297 Wittke, Carl, 132, 151, 163, 213 Woman Warrior, The (Kingston), 355 Women: Asian Indian, 364; Chinese, 249, 304-305; citizenship of, 281; Puerto Rican households headed by, 323; working, 131-132, 143, 150-151, 236-237 along, Jade Snow, 355 Wood, William, 49 Woodham-Smith, Cecil, 126 Woodson, Carter G., 59 Wool Act of 1699, 77 Worcester, Massachusetts, 171 World Bank, 378 World's Parliament of Religions (1893), 361 World War 1, 237, 277-278, 302, 310 World War II: Asian Americans and, 302-305; bracero program during, 305-306, 310; cultural pluralism and, 305; discrimination against Mexican Americans during, 315-317; Filipino image and, 358; labor shortages during, 310-311; refugees of, 296-302 Wright, Carroll D., 258 Wrigley, E. A., 34 Wu Ting-fang, 256 Y Yiddish, 223, 224 Yogananada, Swami, 361 Yulee, David Levy, 229 Yung Wing, 247-248 Z Zangwill, Israel, 17 Zayats, Alex, 386 Zerrahn, Carl, 163 Zimbabwe, 57 Zoot Suit riots, 316-317

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