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Fast Sailing Ships: Their Design and Construction, 1775-1875.

David R. MacGregor

© 1988

Reproduced 2001 with permission of the publisher  Naval Institute Press

  Table of Contents   |   Index   |  Catalog record and links to related information from the Library of Congress catalog



Ships plans and models   |   Manuscripts    |   Newspapers and Periodicals   |   Printed Works
Abbreviations used in the references


A S & Sons             Alexander Stephen & Sons
CH                     Custom House
LR                     Lloyd's Register
MM                     The Mariner's Mirror
NMM                    National Maritime Museum
PP                     Parliamentary Papers


Ships plans and models

The structure of the book depends on the plans, which have been redrawn or photographed fron old originals, or which have been prepared from measurements taken from models. In a majority of cases, the source of the plan is fully described in the text, and the scope of any large collection is referred to, so it is not proposed to repeat such information here. The following list comprises collec- tions consisting of more than one model or plan which have been consulted. National Maritime Museum. Admiralty Collection of Draughts; plans of merchant ships embodying drawings from various ship- builders and collectors, including the Croad Collection, Denny Col- lection, Hilhouse Collection, Lisslie Collection and Longstaff Collec- tion; also numerous models. Alexander Stephen & Sons. Plans and half-models from 1852 onwards for almost all vessels launched at the Glasgow yard; plans now housed at National Maritime Museum. Nothing located from Dundee yard except two plans and one half-model which were found in the Glasgow yard. Barclay, Curle & Co. From about 1850 onwards, plans of almost all vessels; now housed at National Maritime Museum. Science Museum. Geddie Collection of plans; sail plans drawn by G C Watson; photographic negatives of Hilhouse Collection and vessels from other sources. Liverpool Museum. Many models, including Kellock Collection. Whitehaven Museum. Some half-models; sail plans from William Kennaugh. Glasgow Museum. Half-models of clippers built by Alexander Hall & Sons; also of ships by John Reid; many other models. Sunderland Museum. Half-models of ships built by Robert Thomp- son; other models of locally-built ships. Whitby Museum. Plans of locally-built ships. Brixham Maritime Museum. Half-models of locally-built vessels. Bristol Museum. Half-models of ships built by G K Stothert from 1851; other models, some of locally-built vessels. Thos & Jno Brocklebank. Plans of ships built in Whitehaven. Smith's Dock Co. Models at N Shields and Middlebrough offices. The late James Steele. Half-models of ships built by Robert Steele & Co. Their whereabouts are now unknown. J W & A Upham. Half-models of ships built in their yard. B E Nicholson. Half-models of ships built at Annan 1853-65. Howard I Chapelle. Various plans; lines taken off half-models. Janes Henderson. Models of Aberdeen-built ships; plans drawn from models or redrawn from originals. William Salisbury. Some models; plans drawn from models or redrawn from originals. Author's Collection. Some models; plans drawn from models or redrawn from originals. F Holm-Petersen Coll. Models and plans of Danish-built vessels. Mariners Museum, Newport News. G Hillman Plans (c 1850-65) and eighteenth-century plans of French vessels. Francis Russell Hart Nautical Museum, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Some models; original plans of Mckay's clippers. Peabody Mus, Salem. Some models; plans from various sources.


It is a harder task to establish lists of ships according to their builder rather than their owner, perhaps because most research in the past has been directed towards shipowning. This has been accentuated by the material readily available in such publications as Lloyd's Register of Shipping where the builder's name was never published prior to 1859 and the place of building was often inaccurately named. Shipowning-research has been further assisted in the past by the detailed information as to division of shares in a ship, obtainable in the Custom House registers, and by the fleet lists given in Lloyd's Register as from 1878. By contrast, particulars on shipbuilders require more research. A valuable source of shipbuilders' lists is that formed by Arthur C Wardle at the Liverpool Museum. In addition, I have located others at shipbuilder's offices, in the Museums and Libraries of ship- building towns, and in private collections. A systematic transcription of the Custom House registers would eventually provide complete lists of vessels constructed by every builder, but this is a time- consuming occupation. In the case of a small port whose ships are almost entirely locally-built, the Custom House records at that port alone can provide a fairly complete list of ships built there; but in larger ports, this is impossible. A very valuable way of obtaining data on shipbuilders and their ships is by consulting the Lloyd's Register survey reports, now at the National Maritime Museum. Although many ships were never classed by Lloyd's Register, these reports provide the surest way to obtain an accurate sample of any shipbuilder's activities, together with a surveyor's coments on the ships produced. The principal manuscript sources consulted are listed below: Barclay, Curle & Co. List of ships built. Baring Brothers. Specification and operating costs of the clippers Black Prince and Norman Court; letters and specification about the Falcon (1824); and Captain Andrew Shewan's writings. Blyth, Greene, Jourdain & Co. Letters from James Blyth and list of ships owned. Custom House registers: consulted at London and Glasgow. Dr and Mrs Donald. Log-books and letters of Captain Thomas Mitchell, master in the Aberdeen White Star Line. L E Evans. Log books and documents of Captain Joseph E McGill and his son Captain J Edward McGill. Grahame Farr. Lists of ships built in the Ports of Bideford, Barn- staple &c, compiled from Custom House registers and other sources. Glasgow Museum. List of ships built by William Simons, including spar dimensions. India Office Library. Log-books of Farquharson and St Helena. James Henderson Collection. Cost accounts of ships built by Alexander Hall & Sons. Sir James Laing & Co Ships built, with spar and rigging dimensions. Liverpool Museum, Shipping Collection. List of ships built by Jones, Quiggin & Co; MS lists compiled by Arthur C Wardle of shipbuilders in the British Isles together with lists of ships built. Lloyd's Register. Visitation Committee Reports to shipbuilding centres from 1851; Surveyor's Committee Reports 1838-74; survey reports of some ships. London Missionary Society. Papers relating to ships John Williams II and to Samoa, later John Williams III. National Maritime Museum. Lists of ships built at the Blackwall Yard, London; Lubbock Collection, letters from James MacCunn; various log-books; Lloyd's Register survey reports from c 1834. B E Nicholson. Voyage account books of ships owned by John Nicholson & Co. W Salisbury Collection. MS lists of ships built and owned in north- west England and compiled by W Stewart-Rees. Alexander Stephen & Sons Ltd. Diaries kept by Alexander Stephen Snr 1824-51, and by Alexander Stephen Jnr 1856 onwards; also note books kept by the latter 1851-56. Letter books for Clyde-side yard from 1856. (All now deposited with Department of Economic History, Glasgow University, since I examined them.) Tower Hamlets Borough Council (formerly Poplar). Collection of records compiled by Daniel R Bolt, including individual sailing ship histories. J W & A Upham. List of ships built, 1856 onwards. Whitehaven Library and Museum. Lists of locally-built ships and particulars of shipbuilders, compiled by Daniel Hay; also account books. Author's Collection. Lists of ships built by William Pile of Sunder- land, beginning at no 52 (1858); and of Robert Steele & Co (complete); also log-books and voyages accounts.


This list comprises those most frequently consulted. Aberdeen Journal Albion (Liverpool) American Neptune (Salem, Mass, from 1941) Argus (Melbourne) Artizan (London) Australia and New Zealand Gazette (London, from 1851) Canton Register Chronicle of London Missionary Society Cornwall Chronicle (Launceston, Tasmania) Economic History Review (Cambridge) Glasgow Herald Illustrated London News (London, from 1841) Lloyd's Lists Log Chips (Washington, 4 vols, 1948-59) London and China Telegraph (London, from 1859) Marine Models (London, c 1927-39) Mariner's Mirror (London, from 1911) Mechanics' Magazine (London) Mercantile Marine Magazine (London, 1856-64) Monthly Nautical Magazine and Quarterly Review (New York) Nautical Magazine (London) Nautical Research Journal (USA, from c 1948) Norfolk Sailor (Norwich, from 1959) North British Daily Mail (Glasgow) Sea Breezes (Liverpool, from 1919) Ships and Ship Models (London, from 1931) Ships Monthly (London, from 1966) Smith's Dock Monthly (North Shields) Sunderland Echo Sydney Morning Herald The Times (London) Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects (London, from 1860)


The following are the principal books and articles referred to, but the Notes, Queries and Answers in the Mariner's Mirror are too numerous to list here, with one or two exceptions, although they are given fully in the References. Abell, Sir Westcott, The Shipwright's Trade, Cambridge 1948. 'The "Aberdeen Bow"', Aberdeen Journal, 12th July 1848, p5. Albion, Robert G, Forests and Sea Power 1652-1862, Cambridge, Mass 1926. - Square-riggers on Schedule, Princeton, NJ 1938. Anderson, R C, 'Eighteenth-Century Books on Shipbuilding, Rigging, and Seamanship', MM, 1947, vol 33, pp 218-25. - Catalogue of Ship-Models at the National Maritime Museum, London 1952. Annesley, William, A New System of Naval Architecture, London 1822. Ansted, A, A Dictionary of Sea Terms, Glasgow 1933. Baker, William A, From Paddle Steamer to Nuclear Ship, London 1965. - Sloops and Shallops, Barre, Mass 1966. Baugean, Collections de toutes les especes de batiments de guerre et de batiments marchands, Paris 1814. Benham, Hervey, Last Stronghold of Sail, London 1948. - Once upon a Tide, London 1955. Bennett, J, 'Observations on the Effects Produced by Iron Masts...', Papers on Naval Architecture (edited by William Morgan and Augustin Creuze), vol I, London 1826, pp 100-9. Biddlecombe, George, The Art of Rigging, London 1848. Blake, George, Lloyd's Register of Shipping 1769-1960, London c1961. - Gellatly's 1862-1962, London 1962. Bouquet, Michael R. No Gallant Ship, London 1959. Bowen, Frank C, The Golden Age of Sail, London 1925. - The Sea, its History and Romance, 4 vols, London 1926. - The Flag of the Southern Cross: Shaw Savill Albion Co., 1858-1939, London c 1939. Brett, Henry, White Wings, 2 vols, Auckland 1924 and 1928. Brewington, M W, Shipcarvers of North America, Barre, Mass 1962. - and Dorothy Brewington, The Marine Paintings and Drawings in the Peabody Museum, Salem, Mass, 1968. British Association, Report from a Committee... to Inquire into the Defects of the Present Methods of Measuring and Registering the Tonnage of Shipping, London 1857. Burstall, Aubrey F, A History of Mechanical Engineering, London 1965. Bury, J P T (editor), The New Cambridge Modern History, vol X, Cambridge 1960. Cable Boyd, 'The World's First Clipper', MM, 1943, vol 29, pp 66-91. Cammell Laird & Co, Builders of Great Ships, Birkenhead 1959. Campbell, G E, China Tea Clippers, London 1954. Carr, Frank, G G, 'The Restoration of the Cutty Sark', Transactions of the Royal Institution of Naval Architects, 1966, vol 108, pp 193-216. - The Story of the Cutty Sark, London 1969. Chapelle, Howard I, The Baltimore Clipper, Salem, Mass, 1930. - 'The Bermuda Sloops and Dinghies', Yachting, April 1933, pp 57-60. - The History of American Sailing Ships, New York 1935. - Yacht Designing and Planning, New York 1936. - 'The First Clipper', MM, 1948, vol 34, pp 26-33. - The History of the American Sailing Navy, New York 1949. - The National Watercraft Collection, Smithsonian Museum, Washington 1960. - The Search for Speed under Sail, New York 1967. Chaplin, W R, 'The Four-Masted Ship Transit', MM, 1933, vol 19, pp 312-26. Chapman Charles, All About Ships, London c 1869. Chapman, Fredrik H, af, Architectura Navalis Mercatoria (half-size reprint of 1768 eds), Magdeburg c 1956. Chatterton, E Keble, Fore and Aft: the Story of the Rig, London 1912. Cheal, Henry, The Ships and Mariners of Shoreham, London 1909. Clark, Arthur H, The Clipper Ship Era 1843-1869, New York 1910. 'Clipper Ships', Naval Science, July 1873, vol II, pp 265 et seq. Clowes, G S Laird, Sailing Ships, Science Museum, 2 vols, London 1932. Coates, W H, The Good Old Days of Shipping, Bombay 1900. Cooke, E W, Fifty Plates of Shipping and Craft, London 1829. Cotton, Sir Evan, East Indiamen, London 1949. Course, A G, Painted Ports, London 1961. Court, W H B, A Concise Economic History of Britain from 1750, Cambridge 1954. Craig, Robert S, 'The African Guano Trade', MM, 1964, vol 50, pp 25-55. Creuze, Augustin F B, Theory and Practice of Naval Architecture, Edinburgh 1841. Crowe, Austin M, Warrington: Ancient and Modern, Warrington 1947. Cunningham, H D P, 'On Working Ships' Yards', Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects, 1867, vol VIII, pp 183-6. - Cunningham's Patent Mode of Reefing Topsails &, (instructions), 1854. HM Customs, Instructions to Measuring Surveyors, London 1861. Cutler, Carl C, Greyhounds of the Sea, New York 1930. - Five Hundred Sailing Records of American-Built Ships, Mystic, Conn 1952. - Queens of the Western Ocean, Annapolis Maryland 1961. Danish Maritime Museum, Maritime History in Pictures, Helsingor 1967. Davis, Charles G, The Ways of the Sea, New York 1930. - The Ship Model Builder's Assistant (1926 ed), New York 1955. - The Built-up Ship Model (reprint of 1933 ed), New York 1960. Davis, Ralph, Rise of the English Shipping Industry, London 1962. Dingley, E A, 'Gwyn's Book of Ships', MM, 1921, vol 7, pp 46-52. Edye, John, Calculations Relating to Equipment & of Ships and Vessels of War, London 1832. Encyclopedie Methodique: Marine, vol V, plates only, Paris 1787. Evans, James, Recollections: or Incidents from the Lives of our Sea-Faring Men, Berwick-on-Tweed 1908. Facts versus Fiction: Sir Wm Symonds' Principles Vindicated, London 1845. Fairbairn, William, Treatise on Iron Ship Building, London 1865. Falconer, William, An Universal Dictionary of the Marine, London 1780. (editor William Burney), A new Universal Dictionary of the Marine, London 1815. Farr, Grahame, Records of Bristol Ships 1800-1838, Bristol 1950. - The Steamship Great Britain, Bristol 1965. Fayle C Ernest, A Short History of the World's Shipping Industry, London 1933. Finberg, H P R (editor), Approaches to History, London 1965. Fincham, John, 'Dimensions and Calculated Elements of some of the Vessels of the Royal Yacht Club', Papers on Naval Architecture (edited by William Morgan and Augustin Creuze), vol 1, London 1826, pp 208-17. - A History of Naval Architecture, London 1851. - An Outline of Shipbuilding, 2 vols (text and plates), London 1852. - A Treatise on Masting Ships and Mast Making, 2 vols (text and plates), London 1st ed 1829 and 3rd ed 1854. Fishbourne, E Gardiner, Lectures on Naval Archirecture, London 1846. Forfait, Traite elementaire de la mature des vaisseaux, Paris 1815. Gavin, C M, Royal Yachts, London 1932. Gibson, John F, Brocklebanks, 1770-1950, 2 vols, Liverpool 1953. Goodwin, S [= Carr Laughton], 'Cutter and Sloop', MM, 1911, vol I, pp 306-12, and 1912, vol II, pp 20-1. Gower, Richard Hall, Supplement to the Practical Seamanship, London 1807. - Improvements in Naval Architecture, London 1811. - Original Observations ... as Practised on brd the Transit, Ipswich c 1835. Graham, Gerald S, 'The Ascendancy of the Sailing Ship 1850-85', Economic History Review, vol IX, no 1, pp 74-88. Grant, Gordon and Henry B Culver, The Book of Old Ships, New York 1936. Grantham, John, Iron, as a Material for Ship-Building, London 1842. - Iron Ship-Building, 2 vols (text and plates), London text 1st ed 1858 and 5th ed 1868, plates 2nd ed 1859. - 'On the Richard Cobden Iron Sailing Ship', Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects, 1871, vol XII, pp 252-9. Greenhill, Basil, The Merchant Schooners, 2 vols, London 1951 and 1957. - 'Note on the Lisslie Collection of Ships' Draughts, MM, 1961, vol 47, pp 58-60. Gregory, Dickson, Australian Steamships, Past and Present, London 1928. Griffiths, John W, A Treatise on Marine and Naval Architecture, New York 1853. Grimwood, V R, American Ship Models, New York 1942. Groenwegen, G, Verzameling van ... Hollandsche Schepen (reprint of 1789 ed), Rotterdam 1967. Guest, Montague, List of Members of the Royal Yacht Squadron and their Yachts: from its Inception in 1815 to 1897, London 1897. - and William B Boulton, The Royal Yacht Squadron, London 1903. Hain, Gustaf (editor), Svenskt Skeppsbyggeri, Malmo, Sweden 1963. Hardy's Register of Ships Employed by the East India Co, London 3rd ed 1820 and 4th ed 1835. Harper, Lawrence A, The English Navigation Laws (reprint of 1939 ed), New York 1964. Hasslof, Olof, 'Wrecks, Archives and Living Tradition', MM, 1963, vol 49, pp 162-77. - 'Sources of Maritime History and Methods of Research', Mm, 1966, vol 52, pp 172-44. Heaton, Peter, Yachting; a History, London 1955. Heckstall-Smith, B, Yachts and Yachting in Contemporary Art, London 1925. Hedderwick, Peter, A Treatise on Marine Architecture, 2 vols (text and plates), Edinburgh 1830. Henderson, Andrew, 'On Ocean Steamers and Clipper Ships', Report of British Association, 1854. Hidy, R W, The House of Baring in American Trade and Finance, 1763-1861, Harvard 1949. Hill, John C G, Shipshape and Bristol Fashion, Liverpool c 1955. Holland, A J, 'The Beaulieu River: its Rise and Fall as a Commercial Waterway', MM, 1963, vol 49, pp 275-87. Holm-Petersen, F, Skibsportraetmalere, Denmark 1867. Hover, Otto, Von der Gallito zum Funfmaster, 1780-1930, Bremen 1934. Howe, Octavius T and Frederick C Matthews, American Clipper Ships 1833-1858, 2 vols, Salem, Mass 1926 and 1927. Hutchinson, Will, A Treatise on Naval Architecture, London 1794. Jardine, Matheson & Company, London 1965. Kemp, Dixon, A Manual of Yacht and Boat Sailing, London 1895. - Yacht Architecture, 2 vols (text and plates), London 1897. Kierkegaard, N C, Plancher till Praktisk Skeppsbyggnadskonst, plates, Gothenburg 1864. Kipping, Robert, The Elements of Sailmaking, wnd ed, London 1851. - Sails and Sailmaking, 1st ed, London 1858. - Masting, Mast-Making and Rigging of Ships, 10th ed, London 1866. Kirkaldy, Adam W, British Shipping, London 1919. La Roerie, G and J Vivielle, Navires et marins de la Rame de l'Helice, 2 vols, Paris 1930. Laing, Alexander, American Sail, London 1961. Landstrom, Bjorn, The Ship, London 1961. Laughton, L G Carr, Old Ship Figure-heads and Sterns, London 1925. Learmont, J S, 'Speed under Sail', MM, 1957, vol 43, pp 225-231. Leather, John, 'The Shipbuilding Bayleys', MM, 1965, vol 51, pp 131-45. Lescallier, Antoine, Vocabulaire des termes de marine, Paris 1777. - Traite pratique de greement des vaisseaux, 2 vols, Pars 1791. Leslie, Robert C, Old Sea Wings, Ways, and Words (with notes by L G Carr Laughton), London 1930. Lever, Darcy, Young Sea Officer's Sheet Anchor, London 1808 and 2nd ed 1819. Lewis, Michael, The Navy of Britain, London 1948. Lindsay, W S, History of Merchant Shipping 1816-1874, 2 vols, London c 1874. Identical to vols 3 and 4 of larger work, puba 1876 in 4 vols. Lissignol, E, Navaires en fer a voiles, Paris 1866. List of the Shipping Registered in the Ports of Scotland, 3rd ed, Glasgow 1828. Lloyd, Christopher, The Navy and the Slave Trade, London 1949. Lloyd's Register, Report on Dismasting of Large Iron Sailing Ships, London 1886. - Register of Shipping, annually, London. Since 1834 entitled Lloyd's Register of British and Foreign Shipping. - Annals of Lloyd's Register, London 1934. Longridge, C Nepean, The Cutty Sark, 2 vols, London 1949. Lubbock, Basil, The Blackwall Frigates, Glasgow 1922. - The China Clippers, Glasgow 1922. - The Colonial Clippers, Glasgow 1924. - The Log of the Cutty Sark, Glasgow 1924. - Last of the Windjammers, 2 vols, Glasgow vol I 1927 and vol II 2nd ed 1935. - The Opium Clippers, Glasgow 1933. Lyman, John, 'The Scottish Maid as the World's First Clipper, MM, 1944, vol 30, pp 194-9. - 'Register Tonnage and its Measurement', American Neptune, 1945, vol V, pp 223-33 and 311-25. - 'Composite and Diagonal Building', Log Chips, 1951, vol 2, pp 77-80 and 82. - 'The Cutter Brig', MM, 1969, vol 55, pp 17-21. Lythe, S G E, Gourlays of Dundee, Abertay Historical Society, Dundee 1964. MacGregor, David R, 'Some Early British Tea Clippers', MM, 1948, vol 34, pp 67-82, 184-98 and 280-293. - The Tea Clippers, London 1952 and 1983. - The China Bird, London 1961 and 1986. - Merchant Sailing Ships 1775-1815, London 1985. - Merchant Sailing Ships 1815-1850, London 1984. - Merchant Sailing Ships 1850-1875, London 1984. - 'Tendering and Contract Procedure in Merchant Shipyards in the Middle of the Nineteenth Century', MM, 1962, vol 48, pp 241-64. Mackrow, Clement, The Naval Architect's and Shipbuilder's Pocket Book, London 1889. MacLean, Duncan (Editor John Lyman), Clipper Ships and Packets 1851-1853, Washington 1952. Marriett, P R, Yachts and Yacht Building, London 1865. Marryat, Captain, Code of Signals for Use of Vessels in the Merchant Service, London 1841, 1854 and 1856. Maudslay, Joseph, 'An Improvement in the Form of Ships', Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects, 1860, vol I, pp 54-6. McEwen, W A and A H Lewis, Encyclopedia of Nautical Knowledge, Cambridge, Maryland 1953. McKay, Richard C, Some Famous Sailing Ships and their Builder Donald McKay, New York 1928. McLellan, R S, Anchor Line 1856-1956, Glasgow 1956. Mitchell, B R, and P Deane, Abstract of British Historical Statistics, Cambridge 1962. Montagu, Lord, Buckler's Hard and its Ships, London 1909. Moorsom, George, A Brief Review and Analyses of the Laws for the Admeasurement of Tonnage, London 1852. Morgan, William, and Augustin Creuze (editors), Papers on Naval Architecture, 4 vols, London, 1826, 1828, 1830, 1832-65. Morris, E P, The Fore-and-Aft Rig in America, New Haven, Conn 1927. Moses, Henry, Sketches of Shipping and Craft, London 1824. Munro, G W, 'East Indiamen', Marine Models, June 1934, vol 7, no 3, pp 64-5. Murphy, John M'Leod, and W N Jeffers Jnr, Spars and Rigging from Nautical Routine (reprint of 1849 ed), Providence, RI 1933. Murray, Andrew, Theory and Practice of Ship-Building, Edinburgh 1861. Murray, Mungo, A Treatise on Ship-Building and Navigation, London 1765. Naish, G P B, Royal Yachts, Nat Maritime Museum, London 1953. Napier, James, Life of Robert Napier, Edinburgh 1904. Nares, George S, Seamanship, Portsea 1862. Norway, Arthur, History of the Post-Office Packet Service, 1793-1815, London 1895. Paasch, Capt H, From Keel to Truck, Antwerp 1985. - Illustrated Marine Encyclopedia, Antwerp 1890. Paris, Vice-Adml Edmond, L'Art naval jusqu'en 1769, Paris c 1870. - Souvenirs de marine (second selection), Rostock 1962. Parker, Capt H and Frank C Bowen, Mail and Passenger Steamships of the Nineteenth Century, London 1928. Parkinson, C Northcote, Trade in the Eastern Seas, 1793-1813, Cambridge 1937. - (editor), The Trade Winds: British Overseas Trade, 1793-1815, London 1948. Parliamentary Papers, Fifth Report from the Select Committee on the Road from London to Holyhead, July 1819. - Report on the Admeasurement of Shipping, 21st February 1834. - First to Fifth Reports from the Select Committee on Navigation Laws, 26th March to 17th July 1847. - Mortality on Emigrant Ships, 1852-3, XCVIII. - Liverpool Compass Committee: First and Second Reports 1857, Third Report 1862. - Royal Commission on Unseaworthy Ships: Preliminary Report 1873, Final Report 1874. Patent Office, Abridgements of Specifications Relating to Ship Building, Repairing, Sheathing, Launching, &, 1618-1860, London 1862. - Abridgements of Specifications Relating to Masts, Sails and Rigging, 1625-1866, London 1874. - Abridgements of Specifications Relating to Steering and Manoevring Vessels, 1763-1866, London 1875. Payne, Peter L (editor), Studies in Scottish Business History, London 1967. Peake, James, Rudiments of Naval Architecture; or, an Exposition of the Practical Principles of the Science, London 1851. - Rudiments of Naval Architecture; or, an Exposition of the Elementary Principles of the Science, London 1855. Petrejus, Door E W, Model van de Oorlogsbrik Irene, Hengelo, Holland 1947. Philips-Birt, Douglas, Ships and Boats: the Nature of their Design, London 1966. Phipps, John, Ship Building in India, Calcutta 1840. Pinckney, Pauline A, American Figureheads and their Carvers, New York 1940. Plimsoll, Samuel, Our Seamen, London 1873. Powell, J W Damer, Bristol Privateers and Ships of War, Bristol 1930. Prouty, Roger, The Transformation of the Board of Trade, 1830-1855, London 1957. Rankine, W J MacQuorn (editor), Shipbuilding, Theoretical and Pracical, London 1866. The plates are sometimes bound separately. Reed, E J, Shipbuilding in Iron and Steel, London 1868. Rees, Abraham, 'Naval Architecture', Cyclopedia, London 1820. 'Register Tonnage in Practice', Naval Science, July 1873, pp 370-4. Registrar-General of Shipping and Seamen, Mercantile Navy List, London, annually since 1857. Richardson, Pelham, A Practical Digest of the Law of Merchant Ships and Seamen, London 1847. Richardson, Thomas, Mercantile Marine Architecture, London 1833. Robinson, H, Carrying British Mails Overseas, London 1964. Rogers, Inkerman, Record of Ships Built in the Port of Bideford 1568-1938, Bideford 1947. Rostow, W W, British Economy of the Nineteenth Century, Oxford 1963. Russell, John Scott, The Modern System of Naval Architecture, 3 vols London 1865. Salisbury, W, 'A Post Office Packet of c 1800', MM, 1943, vol 29, pp 57-8. - 'Hollow Water-lines and Early Clippers', MM, 1946, vol 32, pp 237-41. - 'Early Tonnage Measurement in England', MM, 1966, vol 52, pp 41-51, 173-80 and 329-40; 1967, vol 53, pp 251-64; 1968, vol 54, pp 69-76. Seppings, Sir Robert, 'On a New Principle of Constructing His Majesty's Ships of War', Philosophical Transactions, 10th March 1814. - 'On a New Principle of Constructing Ships in the Mercantile Navy', Philosophical Transactions, 9th March 1820. Sharp, James A, Memoirs of the Life and Serivces of Rear-Admiral Sir William Symonds, London 1858. Shewan, Capt Andrew, The Great Days of Sail, London 1927. Shields, John, Clyde Build, Glasgow 1949. The Shipbuilder's Repository; or, A Treatise on Marine Architecture, London, nd, but assigned to 1788. 'Ships and Shipbuilding', Encyclopaedia Britannica, Edinburgh, 1815 . Smith, Edgar C, A Short History of Naval and Marine Engineering, Cambridge 1937. Smith, John, Rise and Progress of the City Line, Glasgow 1908. Smith, J W, and T S Holden, Where Ships are Born: Sunderland 1346-1946, Sunderland 1947. Smyth, Herbert Warrington, Mast and Sail in Europe and Asia, London 1929. Smyth, Adml W H, The Sailor's Word-Book, London 1867. Sommer, Graeme, 'The London and Edinburgh Shipping Co, Ltd of Leith', Sea Breezes, 1963, vol 36, pp 139-46. Spurling, J, and Basil Lubbock, Sail, London, vol I 1927, vol III 1936. Steel, David, The Elements and Practice of Rigging and Seamanship, 2 vols, London 1794. - Elements and Practice of Naval Architecture, 2 vols (text and plates), London 1822 (ed John Knowles). - The Ship-Master's Assistant and Owner's Manual, London 6th ed 1795 and 21st ed 1834. - The Shipwright's Vade-Mecum, 2 vols (text and plates), London 1805. [Stephen, Sir A Murray], A Shipbuilding History 1750-1932, Glasgow c 1932. Stevens, John R, Old Time Ships, Toronto 1949. Stevens, Robert W, On the Stowage of Ships and their Cargoes, London 1869. Stewart-Brown, R, Liverpool Ships in the Eighteenth Century, Liverpool 1932. Sutherland, William, The Ship Builder's Assistant or Marine Architecture, London 1794. Szymanski, Hans, Deutsche Segelschiffe, Berlin 1934. Tables of Dimensions of Masts, Yards & for Naval Vessels, c 1845. No title page. Teenstra, Anno, De Clippers, Amsterdam 1945. Thearle, Samuel J P, Naval Architecture: Laying off and Building, Wood, Iron and Composite Ships, 2 vols, London text 1876, plates 1874. - Shipbuilding in Iron and Steel, 2 vols (text and plates), London 1886. Tweedie, Francis, 'The Era of Shipbuilding at Annan', MM, 1951, vol 37, pp 128-42. Tryckare, Tre, and Ewert Cagner (editors), The Lore of Ships, London 1964. Underhill, Harold A, Sailing Ship Rigs and Rigging, Glasgow 1938. - Masting and Rigging, the Clipper Ship and Ocean Carrier, Glasgow 1946. - Deep-Water Sail, Glasgow 1952. Underwriters' Registry for Iron Vessels, Liverpool 1865; re-titled as Underwriter's List of Iron Vessels Surveyed by the Liverpool Registry; Liverpool 1872, 1875, 1878. Villiers, Alan J, The Way of a Ship, London 1954. Wallace, Frederick William, Wooden Ships and Iron Men, London 1924. - In the Wake of the Wind-Ships, London 1927. - Record of Canadian Shipping, Toronto 1929. Warner, Oliver, An Introduction to British Marine Painting, London 1948. White, John, 'On an Improved Method of Building Diagonal Ships', Transactions of the Institution of Naval Architects, 1860, vol I, pp 112-120. White, J Samuel, & Co, Ltd, Shipbuilding-From Smack to Frigate, London c 1930. White, Thomas Jnr, Theory and Practice of Shipbuilding, London 1851. White, W H, A Manual of Naval Architecture, London 1882. Williams, Peter J, and Roderick Serle, Ships in Australian Waters, Sydney 1968. Wilson, Theodore D, An Outline of Shipbuilding, New York 1878. Winchester, Clarence (editor), Shipping Wonders of the World, 2 vols, London c 1936. Woodward, Sir Llewellyn, The Age of Reform, 1815-1870, Oxford 289 1967. Young, Arthur, Nautical Dictionary, Dundee 1846, 2nd ed, London 1863. Young, Ch F T, Fouling and Corrosion of Iron Ships, London 1867. 289

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